105 research outputs found

    Semiotics and dialectics: Notes on the paper “Literary criticism must be scientific” by Juri Lotman

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    The present paper is an introduction to and analysis of the article “Literary criticism must be scientific”, presented here for the first time in English translation. The original was published by Lotman in 1967 in the journal Voprosy Literatury. The article by Lotman is a part of a wider debate, started in 1963, that saw structuralists and their opponents dispute the validity and heuristic value of structuralist methodology in literary criticism. The aim of the introduction is to explore Lotman’s engagements with his intellectual context as they emerge in his 1967 article. The first part of the paper discusses the wider context of the debate, and explores the positions of the opponents of structuralism and the ways in which Lotman relates to them. The second part of the paper analyses how Lotman and his structuralist colleagues related to the official Soviet ideology, the diamat. In both cases, it will be seen how Lotman engaged certain aspects of his opponents’ ideas, as well as the official ideology, in order to further his goal of reconciling structuralism and historicism

    Muudatusi ja arenguid Tartu Ülikooli raamatukogu kogude arenduse valdkonnas aastatel 2010–2021

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    Changes and Movements in the Development of the University of Tartu Library Collections in 2010–2021Regarding collections development, the years 2010–2021 were characterised by constantly shrinking sums for the acquisition of library materials, leading to the reduction in the number of copies acquired and causing the cancellation of subscriptions, as well as bringing about the reduction in the volume of publications exchange with research libraries in abroad. All in all, the collections development activities were seriously restricted by the scarcity of the acquisitions budget. Due to the completion of new university buildings and moving of university faculties and institutes to new locations, large amounts of older historical publications, periodicals and students’ research papers were handed over to the library. Processing of these materials has been extremely time and labour-consuming, since all the materials need checking against the catalogues and the library’s capacity in cleaning these materials and making necessary repairs is lacking. As several major library renovations fell into this period, excessive amounts of time and energy were spent in making all kinds of renovation-related preparations,reorganisations and tidying up

    Töid romaani-germaani filoloogia alalt. VII, Kirjandusteadus = Труды по романо-германской филологии. Литературоведение

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    • Toimetajailt • От рвдакций • Editorial Note • N. Diakonoava. Graham Greene and the art of short story • Н. Я. Дьяконова. Грэм Грин новеллист. Резюме • N. Diakonova. Graham Green novellistina. Resümee • G. Geniushiene. Some traits in the development of W. B. Yeats's poetic diction • И. Г. Генюшенею Некоторые черты в развитии поетического языка В. Б. Йeйтса. Резюме • I.G. Geniušiene. Mõningaid jooni W. B. Yeats'i luulekeele arengus. Resümee • T. Zalite. Early outlines of Greeneland • Т. Sалите. Очерки раннего художественного мира грема грина. Резюме • T. Salite. Graham Greene'I varase kunstimaailma põhijooni. Resümee o Luigas. George Eliot's philosophical novel • Луигас. Философский роман Джордж Элиот. Резюме • Luigas. George Elioti filosoofiline romaan. resümee • Luiges. Saul Bellow and his novels • А. Л. Луйгас. Сол Беллоу и его романы. резюме • Luigas. Saul Bellow ja tema romaanid. resümee • V. Jürisalu. Erich Maria Remarque'i looming vene nõukogude kirjanduskriitikas. • В. Юрисалу. Творчество Э.М. Ремарка в русской советской литературной критике. резюме. • V. Yurisalu. The literatary heritage of E.M. Remarque in soviet literatary criticism. summary. • U. Lehtsalu. Autorisuhtumine ilukirjanduslikus proosas. • У. Лехтсалу. Образ автора в художественней прозе. Резюме • U. Lehtsalu. The Author' s Point of View in Prose Fiction. Resumee • E. Sau. An innovatory trait in Ernest Hemingway's hero ("To have and have not") • Э. Э. Sау. Новаторская черта в образе героя Эрнеста Хемингуэя (Роман "Иметь и не иметь"). Резюме • Novaatorlik joon Ernest Hemingway kangelase kujus (Romaan "Kellel on jа kellel pole"). Resümeehttp://tartu.ester.ee/record=b1167276~S1*es

    Maskuliinsustest 19. ja 20. sajandi vahetuse eesti realistlikus kirjanduses Juhan Liivi, Eduard Vilde ja Ernst Peterson-Särgava loomingu näitel

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    Magistritöö eesmärgiks 19. ja 20. sajandivahetuse realistlike kirjandusteoste näitel välja tuua selle suhteliselt heterogeense ajaperioodi mõju sajandilõpu maskuliinsuspildi representatsioonidele. Käesolev magistritöö koosneb kolmest peatükist, mis on omakorda jagunenud erineva teemaasetusega alapeatükkideks. Esimene teoreetiline peatükk käsitleb meesuuringuid laiemalt, teine peatükk „Maskuliinsused 19. sajandil“ kirjeldab sel perioodil aset leidnud ühiskondlikke ja kultuurilisi protsesse ja ning üldisi arusaamu ja kolmas peatükk analüüsib võrdlevalt Juhan Liivi teost „Vari“, Eduard Vilde teost „Külmale maale“ ja Ernst Peterson-Särgava teost „Paised“

    Literary mindscapes [Umwelten] and their autobiographical roots

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    Väitekirja elektrooniline versioon ei sisalda publikatsioone.Väitekiri keskendub kirjandusliku omailma kui eripärase nähtuse analüüsile ja biosemiootikast laenatud ning kirjandusteadusele kohandatud termini ’omailm’ selgitamisele, milles vilksamisi on tuginetud ka kultuuri- ja kirjandusgeograafilistele arusaamadele. Kirjanduslikku omailma võib defineerida tegelikust geograafilisest maastikust tõukuva, kuid dokumentaalset ümbruskonnakujutust subjektiivsete tõlgenduste ja väljamõeldisega põimiva mudelmaailmana, mille keskmeks on autobiograafiline (mina)tegelane. Väitekiri ei uuri niisiis mitte igasuguseid fiktiivseid maailmu, vaid kirjanduslik omailm kätkeb spetsiifilist reaalse ja väljamõeldud geograafia vaheala, mida esitatatakse küll ilukirjanduslikes teostes, ent milles ei kao side päris maastike ja kohalooliste faktidega – ning olulisim on see, et selle keskmeks olevat (mina)tegelast kujutatakse autoriga varjamatult samu biograafilisi üksikasju jagava subjektina. Nii nagu biosemiootiline omailm tähendab sihipärast ja valikuliselt moodustatud isendikeskset keskkonnakuvandit, mis ei kattu üksüheselt füüsilise tegelikkusega, kujutab ka kirjanduslik omailm kirjaniku meelte, tahete ja valikute alusel reaalsest paikkonnast loodud subjektiivset kuvandit, füüsilise ruumi ümbervermimist puhtisiklikuks mentaalseks sopikeseks, millele on sageli antud ka fiktiivne toponüüm. Kirjandusliku omailma ulatuse, tunnused ja elemendidki määrab autor oma eelistuste alusel, enamasti on selle olulisimateks komponentideks reaalselt olemasolevad ning autorile tähenduslikud kohad, millegi poolest eripärased inimesed, erinevad looduslikud elemendid, hooned, dokumentaalsed (ajaloo)sündmused, ent teoseks saanud keskkonnatõlgendustesse lülituvad ka unelused, kujutlused, faktidest võõritavad paisutused/tihendused, sihipäraselt maastikega seostatud emotsioonid, mälestused jne. Töö põhiosas on analüüsitud peamiselt nelja kirjandusliku omailma juhtumit: Karl Ristikivi Arkaadiat, Andrus Kasemaa Poeedirahu, Tõnu Õnnepalu Paradiisi ja Lauri Pilteri Airootsit.This doctoral dissertation studies literary mindscapes in Estonian literature, using the frameworks of semiotic Umwelt theory, cultural and literary geography, as well as autobiographical landscape or environment representations (the term Umwelt (’omailm’) is in dissertation translated as ’mindscape’). Books that are considered as literary mindscapes/Umwelt representations include a description of the topography of the writer’s home environment or other significant area, which is brought forward through memories, emotions, dreams, everyday life, perceptions of nature, as well as the mentality of the writer. So can literary mindscape be understood first and foremost as a vision of the real environment formed in the author’s mind: it refers to actual geography and is based on autobiographical experiences of real places, but the description of the environment is always modified by imaginations, subjective choices, and other features reinforcing fictionality. It is the writer’s own mental world oscillating between real and the imaginary geography that has been created intentionally based on the writer’s sensory experiences, selections and aspirations – one literary mindscape is a limited, completely subjective and selective representation of the real surrounding environment. What is most important – the centre of this literary mindscape is the autobiographical (self-)narrator (or lyric self) whose biographical details overlap with the writer’s. This is what has called for a method of analysis using the semiotic Umwelt theory in literature. In literary analysis I will point out the most prominent examples of subjective, autobiographically nuanced place or landscape imagery and literary mindscapes in Estonian literature, which refer to actual geography but are denoted by clearly fictional toponyms: Arcadia, Poet’s Peace, Paradise and Airootsi

    Kirjandus kui vastupanu Nõukogude Eestis Teise maailmasõja järgsel perioodil

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    Abstract: Literature as resistance in Soviet Estonia in the post-World War II period The theme of this article is the resistance that took place in Soviet Estonian literature, literary criticism and literary studies in the post-Second World War period. The article accentuates that different modes and objectives of resistance were central in different periods. Literary resistance is divided into four groups according to the nature of the pressure and the aims of resistance: first, ideological resistance to Soviet ideology in the name of literature that is free of ideology, or in the name of some other ideology; second, national resistance in the name of the unity of the people and preservation of identity; third, aesthetic resistance to the official literary doctrine; and fourth, resistance in the name of general or personal freedom and authenticity. Writers and literary scholars used different modes of resistance. These were so-called writing for the desk drawer, silence within a text, the use of ‘secret codes’, self-publication, the selection of themes or modes of writing that were not favoured by the regime and were apolitical and nonideological, and the use of neutral words and concepts instead of concepts and words bearing Soviet ideology. Totalitarian control of literature by way of decisions and direct instructions from the Communist Party characterised the Stalinist period (until 1956). All literature had to adhere to the doctrine of socialist realism. Practically the only form of resistance in this period was to keep silent. Some authors remained completely silent, some worked on translations, some wrote for their desk drawer for themselves and presented texts for publication that adhered to the officially sanctioned model. Keeping silent can also be interpreted as resistance in the name of aesthetic authenticity. The subsequent period that lasted until the 1970s is characterised by an increase in liberty in society, including literature. The body of norms of socialist realism was relaxed. Literary activities were controlled by writers’ organisations according to the guidelines provided by the Communist Party. Different aesthetic and ideological camps of writers emerged and competed with one another. The era of keeping silent and writing for one’s desk drawer ended. Public resistance, which was united by the question of relating to literature that preceded the Soviet era, was at the centre of this period. The fight for aesthetic freedom and literature that was free of ideology carried on throughout this period and was finally won by 1968–69. By that time, socialist realism had essentially ended in Estonian literature. In place of it, avant-gardism, modernism and broader realism prevailed. In place of Marxism-Leninism, non-Marxist ways of thinking had become important: first and foremost existentialism, but also Buddhism, Zen Buddhism, Taoism and classical psychoanalysis. Secondly, resistance was put up in the name of Estonian national unity and national memory. This was resistance in the name of authors who had been banished from the history of literature and of bringing back the pre-war metalanguage. This was concerned with modern writers (symbolists, decadents, impressionists, expressionists) in Estonian literature from the early 20th century. Generally speaking, this struggle was successful. The third struggle was waged in the name of creative freedom and the writer’s inner authenticity. Here political freedom and independence in general intertwined as ideals, with the Soviet system and any kind of system as the enemy that oppresses human freedom and independence: institutions and the state, machines and rationality, conformism and the middle-class way of life. The third period of resistance began at the start of the 1970s and continued until perestroika. The so-called tightening of the screws took place throughout the state during this period and Russification was adopted as a new orientation starting in the mid-1970s. On the other hand, a socialist consumer society took shape in Estonia, characterised by Communist Party membership for the sake of one’s career and openly double morality. Ideological censorship in literature was intensified, along with the partial steering of literature by way of Party documents. Such new conditions brought new variants of resistance to the fore. Nationalist resistance and resistance to Russification came to the fore in the 1970s and 1980s. Open struggle receded into the background. Covert resistance, primarily within individual texts, which had previously been insignificant, became central. This resistance used joint secret codes common to writers and readers (allusions, irony, parodies, and other such devices). The struggle continued in the name of a neutral metalanguage that is not ideologised. Resistance criticism, so to speak, took shape: keeping silent about negative assessments that could potentially have provided the basis for political accusations, and keeping silent about secret codes in texts that the authorities did not have to know about. The struggle for words and concepts without ideological connotations at the level of phenomena that were ideologically important for the Soviet regime was a continuing theme: the Republic of Estonia, the blue, black and white colour combination, expatriates, deportation, and other such concepts
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