12,463 research outputs found

    Letter identity and visual similarity in the processing of diacritic letters

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    Are letters with a diacritic (e.g., a) recognized as a variant of the base letter (e.g., a), or as a separate letter identity? Two recent masked priming studies, one in French and one in Spanish, investigated this question, concluding that this depends on the language-specific linguistic function served by the diacritic. Experiment 1 tested this linguistic function hypothesis using Japanese kana, in which diacritics signal consonant voicing, and like French and unlike Spanish, provide lexical contrast. Contrary to the hypothesis, Japanese kana yielded the pattern of diacritic priming like Spanish. Specifically, for a target kana with a diacritic (e.g., (sic), /ga/), the kana prime without the diacritic (e.g., (sic), /ka/) facilitated recognition almost as much as the identity prime (e.g., (sic) = (sic)), whereas for a target kana without a diacritic, the kana prime with the diacritic produced less facilitation than the identity prime (e.g., (sic) < (sic)). We suggest that the pattern of diacritic priming has little to do with linguistic function, and instead it stems from a general property of visual object recognition. Experiment 2 tested this hypothesis using visually similar letters of the Latin alphabet that differ in the presence/absence of a visual feature (e.g., O and Q). The same asymmetry in priming was observed. These findings are consistent with the noisy channel model of letter/word recognition (Norris & Kinoshita, Psychological Review, 119, 517-545, 2012a)

    EFEKTIVITAS MEDIA VIDEO LAGU JEPANG DALAM MENINGKATKAN KEMAMPUAN MEMBACA HURUF KANA DALAM BENTUK KOSAKATA : Studi Eksperimen Semu Pada Siswa Kelas X SMAN 5 Cimahi Tahun Ajaran 2013/2014

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    Pada pembelajaran bahasa Jepang tingkat dasar, pengenalan cara membaca huruf kana merupakan tahap yang penting, karena kemampuan membaca berhubungan dengan kemampuan bahasa Jepang lainnya: kemampuan berbicara, menulis dan menyimak. Akan tetapi kenyataannya masih ditemukan pembelajar bahasa Jepang yang mengalami kesulitan dalam belajar huruf kana, maupun pengajar yang kurang mampu mengajarkan huruf kana pada siswa. Oleh sebab itu, dibutuhkan sebuah media yang diharapkan dapat membantu memudahkan pembelajar dan pengajar dalam pembelajaran huruf kana. Media tersebut yaitu media video lagu Jepang yang menjadi objek penelitian ini. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menyusun perencanaan pembelajaran membaca huruf kana dalam bentuk kosakata dengan memanfaatkan media video lagu Jepang. Tujuan lainnya yaitu untuk mengetahui bagaimana kemampuan siswa membaca huruf kana dalam bentuk kosakata sebelum dan sesudah penggunaan media video lagu Jepang, dan untuk mengetahui apakah ada perbedaan yang signifikan pada kemampuan siswa sebelum dan sesudah penggunaan media video lagu Jepang. Selain itu, penelitian ini juga bertujuan untuk mengetahui bagaimana tanggapan siswa terhadap penggunaan media video lagu Jepang dalam pembelajaran membaca huruf kana dalam bentuk kosakata. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode Quasi Experiment dengan desain penelitian One Group Pretest – Posttest Design. Sampel penelitian ini yaitu 14 orang siswa kelas X dari SMA Negeri 5 Cimahi. Instrumen yang digunakan yaitu berupa tes dan angket. Dari hasil analisis data, diketahui nilai yaitu sebesar 6,76. Nilai untuk db = 13 adalah 2,16 untuk taraf signifikasi 5% dan 3,01 untuk taraf signifikasi 1%. Karena lebih besar dari maka dapat disimpulkan terdapat perbedaan yang signifikan pada kemampuan siswa sebelum dan setelah penggunaan media video lagu Jepang dalam pembelajaran membaca huruf kana dalam bentuk kosakata. Selain itu, dari hasil angket dapat diketahui pada umumnya siswa berpendapat positif terhadap penggunaan media video lagu Jepang dalam pembelajaran membaca huruf kana dalam bentuk kosakata In basic level of Japanese learning, the introducing of how to read kana letters is one of important phase, since reading skill will be related with another skills in Japanese learning like : speaking, writing and listening skills. However in fact, the students who can not learn kana letters easily and also the teachers who can not teach kana letters easily are still exist. Therefore, a media which is good in order to make kana letters learning easier in attractive way is needed. For example, Japanese song video media which is tested in this research. The goals of this research are : 1. To find out how to arrange learning plan design using the Japanese song video media for reading kana letters in words form. 2. To find out the student’s score test of reading the kana letters in words form before and after using Japanese song video media. 3. To find out if there is a significant difference between student’s score test of reading the kana letters in words form before and after using Japanese song video media. 4. To find out how is student’s response of using Japanese song video media for reading kana letters in words form learning. The method which is used for this experiment is quasi experiment method, with the ‘one group pretest – posttest design’. Respondents whom chosen are 14 1st grade students of SMAN 5 Cimahi. Instrument that is used in order to collect data are test and enquette. From the analysis of the data, 6.76 t-test value obtained. T-table for db = N-1=13 is 2,16 for significance 5% and 3.01 for significance 1%. Because the value of the t-test is more higher than t-table, it means that there are a significant difference between students’s test score before and after using Japanese song video media for kana letters in words form learning. Moreover, from the enquette results we know that generally students respond positively for using Japanese song video media for kana letters in words form learning. Keywords : words, kana letters, Japanese song video medi

    PENERAPAN MODEL ARCS-V (Attention, Relevance, Confidence, Satisfaction, dan Volition) DALAM PEMBELAJARAN HURUF KANA

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    Permasalahan yang diangkat dalam penelitian ini bermula dari kesulitan pembelajar bahasa Jepang dalam mempelajari huruf kana (hiragana dan katakana). Pembelajar bahasa Jepang mengalami kesulitan yang berkaitan dengan sulitnya dalam mengingat huruf, kesulitan dalam membaca, kesulitan dalam menulis, dan kesulitan dalam membedakan huruf. Untuk mengatasi permasalahan tersebut, penulis mencoba model ARCS-V dalam pembelajaran huruf Kana. Penelitian ini memilih sampelnya adalah pembelajar bahasa Jepang kelas X SMA Negeri 1 Jonggol. Hasil analisis data diketahui bahwa, hasil analisis perbandingan nilai pretest dan posttest melalui perhitungan t-tes menunjukkan bahwa metode ini sangat signifikan. Selain itu, penerapan metode ini mendapat tanggapan positif, karena dianggap lebih menarik, mudah dipahami, dan dapat meningkatkan motivasi belajar bahasa Jepang. ;---Issues raised in this study stems from the difficulty in studying the Japanese language learners kana (hiragana and katakana). Japanese language learners experiencing difficulties related to the difficulty in remembering letters, difficulty in reading, difficulty in writing, and the difficulty in distinguishing letter. To overcome these problems, the author try to model ARCS-V in learning Kana letters. This study chose the sample Japanese language learners class X SMA Negeri 1 Jonggol. The results of data analysis known that, the results of a comparative analysis of the value pretest and posttest through t-test calculations show that this method is very significant. In addition, the application of these methods get a positive response, because it is considered more attractive, easier to understand, and to increase the motivation to learn Japanese

    On recognizing Japanese katakana words: Explaining the reduced priming with hiragana and mixed-kana identity primes

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    The Japanese kana syllabary has 2 allographic forms, hiragana and katakana. As with other allographic variants like the uppercase and lowercase letters of the Roman alphabet, they show robust formindependent priming effects in the allograph match task (e.g., Kinoshita. Schubert. & Verdonschot, 2019). suggesting that they share abstract character-level representations. In direct contradiction, Perea. Nakayama, and Lupker (2017) argued that hiragana and katakana do not share character-level representations. based on their finding of reduced priming with identity prime containing a mix of hiragana and katakana (the mixed-kana prime) relative to the all-katakana identity prime in a lexical-decision task with loanword targets written in katakana. Here we sought to reconcile these seemingly contradictory claims, using mixed-kana. hiragana, and katakana primes in lexical decision. The mixed-kana prime and hiragana prime produced priming effects that are indistinguishable, and both were reduced in size relative to the priming effect produced by the katakana identity prime. Furthermore, this pattern was unchanged when the target was presented in hiragana. The findings are interpreted in terms of the assumption that the katakana format is specified in the orthographic representation of loanwords in Japanese readers. Implications of the account for the universality across writing systems is discussed

    青蓮院蔵表制集及び灌頂阿闍梨宣旨官牒の紙背文書について

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    The Hyōsei-shū written in four horizontal scrolls and the Kanjō Ajari Senji Kanchō in one scroll, recently discovered in the Shōren-in Monastery in Kyoto by Prof. AKAMATSU Toshihide of the Kyoto University and Mr. ŌTA Kizō of the Kyoto Municipality, attract out attention as they have valuable writings inscribed on the back sides of their paper base. The Hyōsei-shū in Chinese : Piao-chih-chi) is a record concerning the T\u27ang priest Pu-K\u27ung San-tsang, its original being in six scrolls; the latter is a collection of Imperial documents investing kanjō ajari (ācārya or masterpriests qualified to baptize others) in the Enryaku-ji Monastery, and documents from the Prime Minister investing ajari (ācārya) in the Gangyō-ji and Hosshō-ji Monasteries, its original probably consisting of two scrolls. Both are manuscripts associated with the Esoteric Buddhism, and are imagined to have been possessed by Ryōyū, the head priest of the Shōren-in in its second generation from the eleventh to twelfth centuries. Both the documents were inscribed on the blank reverse sides of used sheets of paper. The obverse sides are chiefly manuscripts and letters addressed to a priest, presumably the above-mentioned Ryōyū, and some other letters and discarded documents. (Translator\u27s note: In early times when paper was precious, back sides of already used paper sheets were frequently utilized for writing. Very often the second writings are more important historically, so that the original obverse sides with the first writings are treated as if they were the reverse sides. In these cases the original writings are called “paper-back writings”.) The Hyōsei-shū was inscribed by priest Shunchō in 1087. The Kanjō Ajar i Senji Kanchō was inscribed about the same time by an unknown calligraphist, probably on the model of the same documents originally owned by the priest Jikaku Daishi. The present study is devoted to researches on the contents, characteristics and the significance in the history of Japanese calligraphy, of the manuscripts and letters on the original obverse sides of the scrolls. They comprise sixty--five items altogether, consisting of eight documents, seven letters in Chinese characters, and fifty letters in kana (Japanese syllabaries). Most of the letters are by members of the family of the courtier FUJIWARA Tamefusa (1049-1115): eleven Chinese-character letters by Tamefusa, forty-two kana letters by Tamefusa\u27s wife, and two Chinese-character letters supposedly by Tamefusa\u27s son. Their dates are mostly in the Ōtoku era (1084-1086). Other items include documents with dates of Eiho 3 to 4 (1082-1084) and Ōtoku 2 (1085), and kana letters whose writers and dates are unknown. It is interesting to find in one of them a statement about smallpox, for it is recorded in history that the Crown Prince Sanehito died of smallpox on the eighth day of the eleventh month of Ōtoku 2 (1085). The kana letters by Tamefusa\u27s wife are the only examples of the sort known to date. They are very important materials in the history of calligraphy, for they enable us to date the surviving portions of the anthology Reika shu (known as “Kōshi-gire”, calligraphed by Ko-ōgimi) and of the Collected Poems by Lady Saigū (known as “Kōjima-gire”, calligraphed by Ono-no-Tōfū) showing marked resemblance in style to them, in approximately the same period as these letters. Furthermore, some of the kana letters by unknown writers contain early specimens of calligraphic style akin to those of the “Indigo Paper Version” of the anthology Man-yo-shu ascribed by some scholars to the hand of FUJIWARA Koremochi, and of the record of a poetry contest known as “Jūgo-ban Uta-awase”; the kana letters by Tamefusa written to his children also are unique examples. To summarize, the discovery of the writings on the back of these scrolls supplies us valuable materials of kana writing which help us in chronological editing of other specimens in the second half of the eleventh century. It is significant also that they include kana letters with dates and the names of writers

    A case of Agraphia for Kanji and Kana with Mild Impairment of Writing Arabic Numerals

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    We report a case of agraphia relatively preserving the writing ability of Arabic numerals. A 76-year-old right-handed woman exhibited difficulty in Kana and Kanji writing. She was even unable to write her name on admission. Her neuropsychological examinations revealed finger agnosia, right-left disorientation, acalculia, agraphia, mild idiomotor apraxia, constructional impairment. She showed no aphasia and alexia. MRI disclosed subcortical hematoma in left parietal lobe including the angular gyrus. SPECT displayed widespread hypoperfusion area over the left parietal lobe. On the day 15, she could not write both Kanji and Kana letters but was found to write Arabic numerals. On the day 22, her writing ability improved to write most of Kana but difficulty in Kanji writing remained. These findings suggest that neural mechanisms of writing both Arabic numerals and Kanji letters are close but different process

    EFEKTIVITAS MEDIA PERMAINAN SUDOKU DALAM MENGHAFAL HURUF KANA

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    Ketika mempelajari bahasa Jepang di sekolah, aspek dasar yang harus dipelajari siswa adalah huruf Jepang. Dalam sistem penulisan, bahasa Jepang memiliki empat huruf, yaitu huruf kanji, hiragana, katakana, dan roomaji. Tetapi sebelum tahap belajar huruf kanji, terlebih dahulu siswa mempelajari huruf hiragana dan katakana yang biasa disebut huruf kana. Huruf kana terdiri atas 96 huruf dimana huruf hiragana dan huruf katakana tersebut bentuknya mirip. Hal ini menyebabkan siswa kesulitan untuk mempelajari huruf kana. Oleh karena itu, diperlukan suatu media untuk mempermudah pembelajar mempelajari huruf kana. Salah satu media yang dapat digunakan adalah media permainan. Dalam penelitian ini, media permainan yang digunakan adalah media permainan sudoku yang sudah di modifikasi. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui kemampuan siswa dalam pembelajaran huruf kana, sebelum dan sesudah menggunakan media permainan sudoku. Selain itu, penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis pengaruh penggunaan media permainan sudoku terhadap pembelajaran huruf kana, dan untuk mengetahui respon siswa terhadap penggunaan media permainan sudoku. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode experimen quasi dengan desain eksperimen yaitu one group pre-test - post-test. Sampel penelitian adalah anggota Japanese Club sebanyak 20 orang yang diambil dari populasi SMP Laboratorium Percontohan UPI Bandung. Instrumen yang digunakan adalah tes, angket dan obsevasi. Berdasarkan hasil analisis data, nilai t hitung sebesar 6.53. Nilai t tabel sebesar 2.09 pada taraf signifikansi 5% dan 2.86 pada taraf signifikansi 1%. Dengan demikian, diperoleh hasil t hitung lebih besar dibandingkan nilai t tabel pada taraf signifikansi 5% (6.53 > 2.09). Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa pengguanaan media permainan sudoku dalam pembelajaran huruf kana sangat efektif. Selain itu, berdasarkan hasil analisis data angket, responden memberikan tanggapan yang positif terhadap penggunaan media permainan sudoku yaitu menarik, dan mudah diikuti.;---When studying Japanese at school, basic aspects must study is the Japanese letter. In its writing system, Japanese has four letters, namely kanji, hiragana, katakana, and roomaji. Before the stage of kanji learning, firstly, students have to learn hiragana and katakana which are commonly called kana. Kana, composed of 96 letters where the letter of the hiragana and katakana are barely different. This causes difficulties for students to learn kana. Therefore, we need a media to facilitate learners to learn kana. One medium that can be used are game as the learning media. This study, the media used is a sudoku game that has been modified. The purpose of this study is to acknowledge students’ ability in learning kana, before and after using the sudoku game as a media. In addition, this study also aims to analyze the influence of sudoku game usage as the media in learning kana Letters, and to find out the students' response to the use of sudoku game as a media. This study uses a quasi experiment method with the one group pre-test - post-test as experiment design. Samples were 20 students from Japanese Club members who were taken from a population of SMP Laboratorum Percontohan UPI Bandung. The instrument used was test, questionnaire and observation. Based on the data analysis, the t value at 6.53. T table at 2.09 on a significance level of 5% and 2.86 at 1% significance level. Thus, the results obtained that t value is greater than t table at a significance level of 5% (6.53> 2.09). This shows that the usage of sudoku game as media is a very effective in learning kana. In addition, based on data analysis of the questionnaire, the respondents gave a positive response to the use of media sudoku game that are attractive, and easy to follow

    研究資料 黒田清輝宛養母黒田貞子書簡の解題と翻刻

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    The Kuroda Seiki-related materials housed at the Tokyo National Research Institute for Cultural Properties include important letters recording his interactions with his family, such as letters from his adoptive father Kuroda Kiyotsuna (1830-1917), his adoptive mother Sadako (1842-1904) and his birth father Kuroda Kiyokane (1837-1915). During his first study period in France, from 1884 through 1893, Seiki wrote regularly to his adoptive parents in Japan, as they had requested. The majority of his mother’s replies received by Seiki while in France were included in envelopes that his adoptive father sent to him. Seiki’s letters to Sadako were written in kana so that she could easily read them. Sadako would convey the content of Seiki’s letters to Kiyotsuna, and then in response to their contents, Sadako would write long letters in kana to Seiki, conveying Kiyotsuna’s thoughts and news about the family. The letters exchanged between adoptive mother Sadako and Seiki thus served as conduit between father and son, who directly exchanged only a few letters. This article introduces more than 70 letters from Sadako to Seiki that wished him well on his path to learning more about painting and becoming a painter, speak of the warm encouragement he received from Kiyotsuna and Sadako, and provide information about his family
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