6 research outputs found

    Spatial Development Processes of Croatian Islands – the Analysis of Island Settlements in Terms of the Quantity and Quality of their Central Functions

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    U radu se sagledava opremljenost hrvatskih otočnih naselja centralnim funkcijama te se razmatraju prostorno-razvojni procesi u međuovisnosti o stupnju centraliteta. Ukupno su obuhvaćena 303 naselja na 47 otoka, a centralne su funkcije analizirane u sklopu šest temeljnih skupina: uprava, zdravstvo, obrazovanje, pošta i telekomunikacije, opskrba i financijsko poslovanje, unutar kojih su razmatrani hijerarhijski rangirani sadržaji. Naselja su potom prema (ne)zastupljenosti pojedinih sadržaja razvrstana unutar pet skupina: „bez centraliteta“, „nedostatni centralitet“, „centralitet trećeg ranga“, „centralitet drugog ranga“ i „centralitet prvog ranga“ te su analizirana s obzirom na prostorni položaj, indeks promjene broja stanovnika te indeks starosti. Pokazani su prostorno-razvojni procesi hrvatskih otoka koji se očituju kroz polarizaciju naseljenosti i otočnu litoralizaciju, kao i nepovoljniji trendovi u manjim i slabije funkcionalno opremljenim naseljima.The paper analyses Croatian island settlements in terms of the quantity and quality of their central functions. It examines spatial development processes in relation to the centrality degree and includes 303 settlements on 47 islands. Central functions are analysed in six basic groups: administration, healthcare, education, post and telecommunications, supply and financial operations, within which the hierarchically ranked facilities are considered. The settlements are then classified according to the (non)existence of specific facilities in 5 groups: “No centrality“, “Insufficient centrality“, “3rd rank centrality“, “2nd rank centrality“ and “1st rank centrality“ and analysed with regard to their position, population change index and age index. The main spatial development processes of Croatian islands are presented. They are manifested in the population polarisation and island littoralisation, as well as unfavourable trends in smaller and poorly equipped settlements

    La spatialité des réseaux maritimes: Contributions maritimes à l'analyse des réseaux en géographie

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    Maritime transport is one of the oldest forms of interaction across the Earth, and still supports more than 90% of international trade volumes nowadays. Despite its pioneering role in mapping maritime routes and flows since the 1940s, human geography later shifted its central focus towards land-based issues, people mobility, and virtual rather than physical flows. In parallel maritime transport reached optimal fluidity at the expense of its ties with geographical space. Analyzing the spatiality of maritime networks allows us to discussing their true role in the spatial structures and dynamics they connect and therefore reveal. This essay, through the analysis of untapped maritime data in various contexts and multiples scales, from the local to the global, concludes to the permanency of strong network-territory interdependencies, while it underlines the specific character of maritime transport as a looking glass and integral part of the world system. Questioning the volatility of maritime networks also contributes to enriching the spatial network notion itself in geography as well as throughout the transdisciplinary “science of networks”.Le transport maritime est l’un des plus anciens vecteurs d’interaction de la planète et continue de nos jours d’assurer plus de 90% des échanges internationaux en volume. Bien que pionnière dans la cartographie des routes et flux maritimes dès les années 1940, la géographie humaine privilégia ensuite les questions terrestres, la mobilité des personnes et les flux immatériels. De son côté le transport maritime évolua vers la fluidité optimale, au mépris de ses liens avec l’espace et les territoires. Considérer la spatialité des réseaux maritimes revient à questionner leur participation aux structures et dynamiques de l’espace géographique qu’ils permettent de connecter et par-là de révéler. Ce volume, par l’analyse de données inédites de flux maritimes en des contextes variés et à toutes échelles, du local au mondial, conclut au maintien de fortes interdépendances réseau/territoire, tout en soulignant les spécificités du vecteur maritime comme clé de lecture et élément à part entière du système-monde contemporain. En relativisant la volatilité des réseaux maritimes, ce travail contribue également à enrichir la notion même de réseau spatial tant en géographie que sur le terrain transdisciplinaire de la « science des réseaux »

    Albania on the Move : Links between Internal and International Migration

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    Mechanisms of control over compliance with international law for the protection of the Mediterranean Sea against pollution.

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    This study is concerned with the legal mechanisms and institutional arrangements established to control compliance with commitments undertaken in treaty form by Mediterranean States, with a view at protecting the marine environment from various sources of pollution. Part I begins with a brief presentation of the state of the Mediterranean environment, both natural and socio-economic. There follows a consideration and assessment of the nature and extent of, and the relationship between, environmental obligations arising under the relevant instruments adopted at the global, regional and sub-regional level, in order to identify the implications thereof for the design and application of the said mechanisms and arrangements. In Part II, the treatment of the core issue begins with an initial review of the evolution of compliance-control mechanisms under general international, and especially environmental, law, followed by a critical examination of the legal arrangements - actually or potentially - used in the Mediterranean to ensure compliance with the said body of law. In this context, a distinction is made between the traditional models, namely the state responsibility and civil liability approach to compliance control and the comprehensive institutional model, and the emerging approaches, namely provision of financial and technical assistance as compliance incentives, and compliance control and enforcement under national law. Finally, this thesis argues that the most constructive way to encourage observance of international marine pollution standards in the region in the long term is through the intervention of international law towards developing appropriate procedural means for follow up and enforcement within domestic legal systems, while, in the short term, efforts should concentrate at establishing - or refining - comprehensive institutional mechanisms that would necessarily accommodate arrangements for financial and technical assistance dependent on effective compliance