26,953 research outputs found

    Silver selective electrodes based on thioether functionalized calix[4]arenes as ionophores

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    Silver selective electrodes based on thioether functionalized calix[4]arenes 1 and 2 as ionophores were investigated. For both ionophores the selectivity coefficients (log kAg,M) were lower than −2.2 for Hg(II) and lower than −4.6 for other cations tested. The best results were obtained with membranes containing dithioether functionalized calix[4]arene (ionophore 2), potassium tetrakis(4-chlorophenyl) borate (KTpCIPB) and bis(1-butylpentyl)adipate (BBPA) as a plasticizer. The Ag(I)-response functions exhibited almost theoretical Nernstian slopes in the activity range 10−6–10−1M of silver ions.\ud \u

    Blockade of T-cell activation by dithiocarbamates involves novel mechanisms of inhibition of nuclear factor of activated T cells.

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    Dithiocarbamates (DTCs) have recently been reported as powerful inhibitors of NF-kappaB activation in a number of cell types. Given the role of this transcription factor in the regulation of gene expression in the inflammatory response, NF-kappaB inhibitors have been suggested as potential therapeutic drugs for inflammatory diseases. We show here that DTCs inhibited both interleukin 2 (IL-2) synthesis and membrane expression of antigens which are induced during T-cell activation. This inhibition, which occurred with a parallel activation of c-Jun transactivating functions and expression, was reflected by transfection experiments at the IL-2 promoter level, and involved not only the inhibition of NF-kappaB-driven reporter activation but also that of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT). Accordingly, electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) indicated that pyrrolidine DTC (PDTC) prevented NF-kappaB, and NFAT DNA-binding activity in T cells stimulated with either phorbol myristate acetate plus ionophore or antibodies against the CD3-T-cell receptor complex and simultaneously activated the binding of AP-1. Furthermore, PDTC differentially targeted both NFATp and NFATc family members, inhibiting the transactivation functions of NFATp and mRNA induction of NFATc. Strikingly, Western blotting and immunocytochemical experiments indicated that PDTC promoted a transient and rapid shuttling of NFATp and NFATc, leading to their accelerated export from the nucleus of activated T cells. We propose that the activation of an NFAT kinase by PDTC could be responsible for the rapid shuttling of the NFAT, therefore transiently converting the sustained transactivation of this transcription factor that occurs during lymphocyte activation, and show that c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) can act by directly phosphorylating NFATp. In addition, the combined inhibitory effects on NFAT and NF-KB support a potential use of DTCs as immunosuppressants

    Chemically modified field effect transistors: the effect of ion-pair association on the membrane potentials

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    A theoretical model has been developed which relates physically accessible parameters to the formation of a membrane potential. The description is an extension of a theoretical description presented previously by our group, now including divalent cations and ion-pair association. Simulations of the overall membrane potential reveal several factors that may lead to non-Nernstian response curves. For monovalent and divalent cations a reduction in the slope of the response curve (sub-Nernstian response) should virtually always be expected when ion-pair association takes place in the membrane. Ion-pair association of divalent cations and sample anions can lead to a super-Nernstian response. A diffusion potential generally reduces the Nernstian slope of the response curve. In addition, several experimental results are described which illustrate and confirm our theoretical model

    Matrix-free calcium in isolated chromaffin vesicles

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    Isolated secretory vesicles from bovine adrenal medulla contain 80 nmol of Ca2+ and 25 nmol of Mg2+ per milligram of protein. As determined with a Ca2+-selective electrode, a further accumulation of about 160 nmol of Ca2+/mg of protein can be attained upon addition of the Ca2+ ionophore A23187. During this process protons are released from the vesicles, in exchange for Ca2+ ions, as indicated by the decrease of the pH in the incubation medium or the release of 9-aminoacridine previously taken up by the vesicles. Intravesicular Mg2+ is not released from the vesicles by A23 187, as determined by atomic emission spectroscopy. In the presence of N H Q , which causes the collapse of the secretory vesicle transmembrane proton gradient (ApH), Ca2+ uptake decreases. Under these conditions A23 187-mediated influx of Ca2+ and efflux of H+ cease at Ca2+ concentrations of about 4 pM. Below this concentration Ca2+ is even released from the vesicles. At the Ca2+ concentration at which no net flux of ions occurs the intravesicular matrix free Ca2+ equals the extravesicular free Ca2+. In the absence of NH4C1 we determined an intravesicular pH of 6.2. Under these conditions the Ca2+ influx ceases around 0.15 pM. From this value and the known pH across the vesicular membrane an intravesicular matrix free Ca2+ concentration of about 24 pM was calculated. This is within the same order of magnitude as the concentration of free Ca2+ in the vesicles determined in the presence of NH4C1. Calculation of the total Ca2+ present in the secretory vesicles gives an apparent intravesicular Ca2+ concentration of 40 mM, which is a factor of lo4 higher than the free intravesicular concentration of Ca2+. It can be concluded, therefore, that the concentration gradient of free Ca2+ across the secretory vesicle membrane in the intact chromaffin cells is probably small, which implies that less energy is required to accumulate and maintain Ca2+ within the vesicles than was previously anticipated

    Uptake of Ca2+ by isolated secretory vesicles from adrenal medulla

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    Intact secretory vesicles isolated from bovine adrenal medulla contain 94 nmol Na+ per mg of protein, and Ca2+ influx into the vesicles is inhibited by increasing concentrations of extravesicular Na+ (but not of K+, Li+ or choline+) or by addition of the Na+ ionophore monensin. Thus Ca2+ influx is determined by the Na+ gradient across the vesicular membrane. Half maximal inhibition of Ca2+ influx occurs with 34 mM Na+ extravesicularly. The fact that Ca2+ can also be released from the vesicles by inversion of the Na+ gradient provides direct evidence that an Na+-Ca2+ exchange may operate. According to an analysis of the inhibition of Ca2+ uptake by Na+ in a Hill plot 2 Na+ would be exchanged for 1 Ca2+. Ca2+ influx into the vesicles increases with temperature (energy of activation: 16 kcal/mol), can be observed already with 10−7 M free Ca2+ and increases up to 10−4 M Ca2+. Ca2+ influx is not affected by Mg2+ but Sr2+ is inhibitory. Since the process is only slightly influenced by the pH of the incubation medium and is insensitive to Mg2+-ATP or inhibitors of the proton translocating Mg2+-ATPase the electrochemical proton gradient across the vesicular membrane does not affect directly the Ca2+ influx into the secretory vesicles. Ca2+ uptake is insensitive to ruthenium red and oligomycin

    Influence of Ionophore Supplementation on Growth Performance, Dietary Energetics and Carcass Characteristics in Finishing Cattle during Period of Heat Stress.

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    Forty-eight crossbred heifers (378.1±18 kg) were used in a 56-d feeding trial (four pens per treatment in a randomised complete block design) to evaluate the influence of ionophore supplementation on growth performance, dietary energetics and carcass characteristics in finishing cattle during a period of heat stress. Heifers were fed a diet based on steam-flaked corn (2.22 Mcal NEm/kg) with and without an ionophore. Treatments were: i) control, no ionophore; ii) 30 mg/kg monensin sodium (RUM30); iii) 20 mg/kg lasalocid sodium (BOV20), and iv) 30 mg/kg lasalocid sodium (BOV30). Both dry matter intake (DMI) and climatic variables were measured daily and the temperature humidity index (THI) was estimated. The maximum THI during the study averaged 93, while the minimum was 70 (THI average = 79.2±2.3). Compared to controls, monensin supplementation did not influence average daily gain, the estimated NE value of the diet, or observed-to-expected DMI, but tended (p = 0.07) to increase (4.8%) gain to feed. Compared to controls, the group fed BOV30 increased (p≤0.03) daily gain (11.8%), gain to feed (8.3%), net energy of the diet (5%), and observed-to-expected DMI (5.2%). Daily weight gain was greater (7.6%, p = 0.05) for heifers fed BOV30 than for heifers fed MON30. Otherwise, differences between the two treatments in DMI, gain to feed, and dietary NE were not statistically significant (p>0.11). Plotting weekly intakes versus THI, observed intake of controls was greater (p<0.05) at THI values ≤77 than ionophore groups. When THI values were greater than 79, DMI of control and MON30 were not different (p = 0.42), although less than that of groups fed lasalocid (p = 0.04). Variation in energy intake was lower (p>0.05) in the ionophores group (CV = 1.7%) than in the control group (CV = 4.5%). Inclusion of ionophores in the diet resulted in relatively minor changes in carcass characteristics. It is concluded that ionophore supplementation did not exacerbate the decline of DM intake in heat-stressed cattle fed a high-energy finishing diet; on the contrary, it stabilised feed intake and favoured feed efficiency. Ionophore supplementation reduced estimated maintenance coefficients around 10% in finishing cattle during a period of heat stress. This effect was greatest for heifers supplemented with 30 mg lasalocid/kg of diet

    Effects of Monovalent and Divalent Cations on Ca2+ Fluxes Across Chromaffin Secretory Membrane Vesicles

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    Abstract: Bovine chromaffin secretory vesicle ghosts loaded with Na+ were found to take up Ca2+ when incubated in K+ media or in sucrose media containing micromolar concentrations of free Ca2+. Li+- or choline+loaded ghosts did not take up Ca2+. The Ca2+ accumulated by Na+-loaded ghosts could be released by the Ca2+ ionophore A23187, but not by EGTA. Ca2+ uptake was inhibited by external Sr2+, Na +, Li +, or choline +. All the 45Ca2+ accumulated by Na+-dependent Ca2+ uptake could be released by external Na +, indicating that both Ca2+ influx and efflux occur in a Na+-dependent manner. Na + -dependent Ca2+ uptake and release were only slightly inhibited by Mg2+. In the presence of the Na+ ionophore Monensin the Ca2+ uptake by Na +-loaded ghosts was reduced. Ca2+ sequestered by the Na+-dependent mechanism could also be released by external Ca2+ or Sr2+ but not by Mg2+, indicating the presence of a Ca2+/Ca2+ exchange activity in secretory membrane vesicles. This Ca2+/Ca2+ exchange system is inhibited by Mg2+, but not by Sr2+. The Na + -dependent Ca2+ uptake system in the presence of Mg2+ is a saturable process with an apparent Km of 0.28 μM and a Vmax= 14.5 nmol min−1 mg protein−1. Ruthenium red inhibited neither the Na+/Ca2+ nor the Ca2+/Ca2+ exchange, even at high concentrations

    Enzymes as Feed Additive to Aid in Responses Against Eimeria Species in Coccidia-Vaccinated Broilers Fed Corn-Soybean Meal Diets with Different Protein Levels

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    This research aimed to evaluate the effects of adding a combination of exogenous enzymes to starter diets varying in protein content and fed to broilers vaccinated at day of hatch with live oocysts and then challenged with mixed Eimeria spp. Five hundred four 1-d-old male Cobb-500 chickens were distributed in 72 cages. The design consisted of 12 treatments. Three anticoccidial control programs [ionophore (IO), coccidian vaccine (COV), and coccidia-vaccine + enzymes (COV + EC)] were evaluated under 3 CP levels (19, 21, and 23%), and 3 unmedicated-uninfected (UU) negative controls were included for each one of the protein levels. All chickens except those in unmedicated-uninfected negative controls were infected at 17 d of age with a mixed oral inoculum of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria tenella. Live performance, lesion scores, oocyst counts, and samples for gut microflora profiles were evaluated 7 d postinfection. Ileal digestibility of amino acids (IDAA) was determined 8 d postinfection. Microbial communities (MC) were analyzed by G + C%, microbial numbers were counted by flow cytometry, and IgA concentrations were measured by ELISA. The lowest CP diets had poorer (P ≤ 0.001) BW gain and feed conversion ratio in the preinfection period. Coccidia-vaccinated broilers had lower performance than the ones fed ionophore diets during pre- and postchallenge periods. Intestinal lesion scores were affected (P ≤ 0.05) by anticoccidial control programs, but responses changed according to gut section. Feed additives or vaccination had no effect (P ≥ 0.05) on IDAA, and diets with 23% CP had the lowest (P ≤ 0.001) IDAA. Coccidial infection had no effect on MC numbers in the ileum but reduced MC numbers in ceca and suppressed ileal IgA production. The COV + EC treatment modulated MC during mixed coccidiosis infection but did not significantly improve chicken performance. Results indicated that feed enzymes may be used to modulate the gut microflora of cocci-vaccinated broiler chickens
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