700,627 research outputs found

    Ion transport through confined ion channels in the presence of immobile charges

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    We study charge transport in an ionic solution in a confined nanoscale geometry in the presence of an externally applied electric field and immobile background charges. For a range of parameters, the ion current shows non-monotonic behavior as a function of the external ion concentration. For small applied electric field, the ion transport can be understood from simple analytic arguments, which are supported by Monte Carlo simulation. The results qualitatively explain measurements of ion current seen in a recent experiment on ion transport through a DNA-threaded nanopore (D. J. Bonthuis et. al., Phys. Rev. Lett, vol. 97, 128104 (2006)).Comment: 5 pages, 3 figure

    Quantitative description of ion transport via plasma membrane of yeast and small cells

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    Modeling of ion transport via plasma membrane needs identification and quantitative understanding of the involved processes. Brief characterization of main ion transport systems of a yeast cell (Pma1, Ena1, TOK1, Nha1, Trk1, Trk2, non-selective cation conductance) and determining the exact number of molecules of each transporter per a typical cell allow us to predict the corresponding ion flows. In this review a comparison of ion transport in small yeast cell and several animal cell types is provided. The importance of cell volume to surface ratio is emphasized. The role of cell wall and lipid rafts is discussed in respect to required increase in spatial and temporal resolution of measurements. Conclusions are formulated to describe specific features of ion transport in a yeast cell. Potential directions of future research are outlined based on the assumptions.Comment: 22 pages, 6 figures, 1 tabl

    Global effects on neoclassical transport in the pedestal with impurities

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    We present a numerical study of collisional transport in a tokamak pedestal in the presence of non-trace impurities, using the radially global δf\delta f neoclassical solver PERFECT [M. Landreman et al. 2014 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 56 045005]. It is known that in a tokamak core with non-trace impurities present the radial impurity flux opposes the bulk ion flux to provide an ambipolar particle transport, with the electron transport being negligibly small. However, in a sharp density pedestal with sub-sonic ion flows the electron transport can be comparable to the ion and impurity flows. Furthermore, the neoclassical particle transport is not intrinsically ambipolar, and the non-ambipolarity of the fluxes extends outside the pedestal region by the radial coupling of the perturbations. The neoclassical momentum transport, which is finite in the presence of ion orbit-width scale profile variations, is significantly enhanced when impurities are present in non-trace quantities, even if the total parallel mass flow is dominated by the bulk ions

    How the asymmetry of internal potential influences the shape of I-V characteristic of nanochannels

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    Ion transport in biological and synthetic nanochannels is characterized by such phenomena as ion current fluctuations, rectification, and pumping. Recently, it has been shown that the nanofabricated synthetic pores could be considered as analogous to biological channels with respect to their transport characteristics \cite{Apel, Siwy}. The ion current rectification is analyzed. Ion transport through cylindrical nanopores is described by the Smoluchowski equation. The model is considering the symmetric nanopore with asymmetric charge distribution. In this model, the current rectification in asymmetrically charged nanochannels shows a diode-like shape of I−VI-V characteristic. It is shown that this feature may be induced by the coupling between the degree of asymmetry and the depth of internal electric potential well. The role of concentration gradient is discussed

    Mechanism of NaCl transport-stimulated prostaglandin formation in MDCK cells

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    Recently we have found that stimulation of NaCl transport in high-resistance MDCK cells enhances their prostaglandin formation. In the present study, we investigated the mechanisms by which prostaglandin formation could be linked to the ion transport in these cells. We found that stimulation of transport caused a transient stimulation of prostaglandin formation lasting 5-10 min. The rise in prostaglandin formation was paralleled by a rise of free intracellular arachidonic acid. Analysis of membrane lipids revealed that the rise of free arachidonic acid was paralleled by a loss of arachidonic acid from polyphosphoinositides. We failed to obtain indications for the stimulation of calcium-dependent phospholipase A2. However, we did obtain evidence that the incorporation of arachidonic acid into phospholipids was diminished during stimulation of ion transport, indicating a decreased rate of reesterification. Despite the fact that there was no significant fall in total cellular ATP on stimulation of ion transport, we found a high and transient rise of lactate production of the cells on stimulation of the ion transport indicating an alteration of the ADP/ATP ratio. Moreover, prostaglandin formation and lactate formation were linearly correlated in this situation. When glucose utilization was inhibited by mannoheptulose, the rise in lactate formation was abolished, whereas that of PG formation was unaltered, indicating that lactate formation and prostaglandin formation were not causally linked on stimulation of ion transport. Our results suggest that an increase in the rate of sodium chloride transport by MDCK cells stimulates formation by an inhibition of reesterification of free arachidonic acid.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS
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