932 research outputs found

    Borders Rules

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    International political borders have historically performed one overriding function: the delimitation of a state’s territorial jurisdiction, but today they are sites of intense security scrutiny and law enforcement. Traditionally they were created to secure peace through territorial independence of political units. Today borders face new pressures from heightened human mobility, economic interdependence (legal and illicit), and perceived challenges from a host of nonstate threats. Research has only begun to reveal what some of these changes mean for the governance of interstate borders. The problems surrounding international borders today go well-beyond traditional delineation and delimitation. These problems call for active forms of governance to manage human mobility and interdependence. However, human rights norms sometimes rest uneasily alongside unilateral border governance. A research agenda which documents and explains new border developments, and critically assesses emerging rules and practices in light of international human rights, is an essential direction for international studies research

    Non-Refoulement in a World of Cooperative Deterrence

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    Developed states have what might charitably be called a schizophrenic attitude towards international refugee law. Determined to remain formally engaged with refugee law and yet unwavering in their commitment to avoid assuming their fair share of practical responsibilities under that regime, wealthier countries have embraced the politics of non-entrée, comprising efforts to keep refugees away from their territories but without formally resiling from treaty obligations. As the early generation of non-entrée practices — visa controls and carrier sanctions, the establishment of “international zones,” and high seas deterrence — have proved increasingly vulnerable to practical and legal challenges, new forms of non-entrée predicated on interstate cooperation have emerged in which deterrence is carried out by the authorities of the home or a transit state, or at least in their territory. The critical question we address here is whether such cooperation-based mechanisms of non-entrée are — as developed states seem to believe — capable of insulating them from legal liability in ways that the first generation of non-entrée strategies were not. We show that three evolving areas of international law — jurisdiction, shared responsibility, and liability for aiding or assisting — are likely to stymie many if not all of the new forms of non-entrée. Powerful states are thus faced with a trade-off between the efficiency of non-entrée mechanisms and the ability to avoid responsibility under international refugee law. If, as we believe probable, the preference for more rather than less control persists, legal challenges are likely to prove successful. Law will thus be in a position to serve a critical role in provoking a frank conversation about how to replace the duplicitous politics of nonentrée with a system predicated on the meaningful sharing of the burdens and responsibilities of refugee protection around the world

    Australia’s Maritime Security Challenges: Juggling International Law and Informal Agreements in an International Rules-Based Order

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    Australia has voiced its commitment to the “rules-based order” since 2008 and the rules-based order has become a touchpoint of both Australian defense and foreign policy. Australia has also voiced its commitment to international law, particularly the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, to meet challenges to the maritime rules-based order, including in the South and East China Seas. References to international law have often been bundled in or left adjacent to the rules-based order and the two terms are not synonymous. This article discusses the role of international law in the rules-based order as it relates to Australia’s maritime security interests

    The blurry line between smuggling and rescuing migrants according to the international law of the Sea

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    Este artículo tiene como objetivo analizar los límites del ejercicio de los poderes de los Estados fuera de su territorio, especialmente para combatir la delincuencia organizada transnacional, que debe equilibrarse con la obligación de proteger la vida humana en el mar. Con este fin, presentará el marco legal del derecho del mar con el fin de arrojar luz sobre dos medidas cuyo propósito es claramente distinto pero que a menudo se confunden en la práctica de los Estados: intercepciones y operaciones de rescate, destinadas a combatir dos delitos diferentes que también están confundidos, pero son claramente diferentes: trata de personas y tráfico de migrantes.Aquest article té l'objectiu d'analitzar els límits de l'exercici de les potències dels Estats fora del seu territori, especialment per combatre el crim organitzat transnacional, que s'ha d'equilibrar amb l'obligació de protegir la vida humana al mar. Amb aquesta finalitat, presentarà el marc legal de la llei del mar amb el propòsit de donar llum a dues mesures que tenen com a finalitat clarament diferents però que sovint es confonen en la pràctica dels Estats (intercepcions i operacions de rescat) destinades a combatre dos delictes diferents, que també es confonen, però són clarament diferents: el tratra de persones i el tràfic de migrants.This article is aimed at analysing the limits of exercise of States powers outside their territory, especially to tackle transnational organised crime, that should be balanced with the obligation to protect human life at sea. To this end, it will present the legal framework of the Law of the Sea with the purpose of shedding light on two measures whose purpose is clearly distinct but that are often confused in States practice - interceptions and rescue operations - aimed at combating two different crimes that are also confused but are clearly different - trafficking in person and smuggling of migrants

    Undocumented Migrant Workers in a Fragmented International Order

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    This Paper tries to show the effects of a central challenge of contemporary global governance: the interaction between normative orders that are fundamentally different in their underlying conceptual structure. The argument is that the dynamics of globalization create and accentuate particular social phenomena as well as efforts towards coordinated regulation of these phenomena, but that the latter are far from sufficient to meet the former. A further assertion is that global relations and distributions of power determine the operation of this fragmented framework. Social vulnerability is reflected in and reinforced by it. As such, the undocumented migrant worker challenges, in many senses of the term, the margins of global governance and international law: the boundaries reflected in sovereign territoriality which continue to undergird international law, and to represent the limits of its permissible jurisdiction, and yet which are challenged by the aspiration towards globalization embodied physically in the person of the undocumented migrant worker. In this sense, the undocumented migrant both fulfills and transgresses the global order. This Paper represents a series of meditations on this theme. Parts I and II indicate the broader reaches of this analysis, discussing illegal markets in the global order more generally and clarifying theoretical and methodological commitments. Parts III and IV examine in more detail the figure of the undocumented migrant worker at both the international and national plane. Parts V and VI cash out both the material and discursive effects of the current approaches to irregular migration

    International Law Aspects of Interstate Cooperation in Combating Migrant Smuggling by Sea

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    Svrha je rada upozoriti na osobitu važnost suradnje država u borbi protiv krijumčarenja migranata morem, napose u prostoru izvan područja suverenosti obalnih država. U radu se stoga objašnjava međunarodnopravni okvir za aktivnosti država u borbi protiv krijumčarenja migranata morem. Pritom je naglasak stavljen na jurisdikciju država za provođenje prisilnih mjera protiv brodova kojima se krijumčare migranti. Izlaganje polazi od općih pravila koja uređuju jurisdikciju država na otvorenom moru, a danas su kodificirana u Konvenciji Ujedinjenih naroda o pravu mora iz 1982. Potom je fokus usmjeren na posebna pravila u vezi s krijumčarenjem migranata na moru sadržanima u Protokolu protiv krijumčarenja migranata kopnom, morem i zrakom, prihvaćenu uz Konvenciju UN-a protiv transnacionalnog organiziranog kriminaliteta iz 2000., gdje je u čl. 7. Protokola podcrtana upravo dužnost suradnje država stranaka „na sprječavanju i suzbijanju krijumčarenja migranata morem, u skladu s međunarodnim pravom mora“. Protokol protiv krijumčarenja migranata u svome članku 17., štoviše, potiče države ugovornice na „sklapanje dvostranih ili regionalnih sporazuma ili operativnih dogovora ili suglasnosti“ radi njegove bolje implementacije. U tom su smislu prikazani i evaluirani oblici bilateralne i multilateralne regionalne suradnje država s naglaskom na Mediteran, uzimajući napose u obzir suradnju država članica Europske unije preko Agencije za europsku graničnu i obalnu stražu (Frontex). K tomu, dan je osvrt na Rezoluciju Vijeća sigurnosti UN-a br. 2240 (2015) koja državama članicama UN-a daje izvanredne jurisdikcijske ovlasti na otvorenom moru pred obalama Libije, a služi kao pravni temelj za djelovanje mornaričke operacije EU-a EUNAVFOR Med „Sophia“ u okviru Zajedničke sigurnosne i obrambene politike.The aim of the paper is to highlight the particular importance of interstate cooperation in combating migrant smuggling by sea, notably in waters beyond the sovereignty of coastal states. In explaining the international legal framework for the activities of states in combating migrant smuggling by sea, emphasis is put on the jurisdiction of states to take enforcement measures against vessels that are engaged in migrant smuggling. First, the general rules concerning the jurisdiction of states on the high seas are discussed, which are codified today in the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 1982. Thereafter, the focus is on the special rules regarding migrant smuggling by sea, as comprised in the Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air of 2000, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime. Article 7 of the Protocol indeed emphasizes the duty of states parties to “cooperate to the fullest extent possible to prevent and suppress the smuggling of migrants by sea, in accordance with the international law of the sea.” Article 17 of the Migrant Smuggling Protocol furthermore encourages states parties to “consider the conclusion of bilateral or regional agreements or operational arrangements or understandings” with a view to enhancing the Protocol’s implementation. In that respect the paper examines and evaluates forms of bilateral and regional cooperation between states with an emphasis on the Mediterranean, and especially considers the cooperation between the member states of the European Union via the European Border and Coast Guard Agency (Frontex). In addition, the UN Security Council Resolution 2240 (2015) is analyzed, since it grants the UN member states exceptional jurisdictional powers on the high seas off the Libyan coast and serves as the legal basis for the activities of EUNAVOR Med Sophia, an EU naval operation in the framework of the Common Security and Defence Policy

    Victimisation through migration

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    Denying Refuge, Creating an Industry: Migrant Smuggling and the Human Cost of the Turkey-European Union Asylum Framework

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    This thesis examines how state responses to irregular migration impact human smuggling activity and the experiences of asylum seekers in Turkey and the European Union within the context of the current refugee crisis. To do so, I first discuss relevant global and regional policy frameworks regarding border security, human smuggling, and the rights of displaced people. I then embark on a case study of the Eastern Mediterranean Migration Corridor from Middle Eastern and North African states through Turkey to the Schengen Zone, a primary irregular pathway for migrants seeking asylum in the EU. Turkey hosts more internationally displaced people than any other country in the world, but most do not wish to stay. While the many limitations of Turkey’s migration and asylum framework push transit migration, restrictive border policies incentivize migrants to seek out human smugglers. Smuggling has immense human costs: over fifteen thousand irregular migrants have died on the Mediterranean since 2014 and this trend shows no signs of stopping. I investigate the broader implications of this phenomenon and provide policy suggestions to better prepare states to receive and protect displaced people. I conclude by arguing that if states wish to stop irregular migration and human smuggling, demand must be eliminated by adopting less militarized responses and providing access to timely, regular channels to claim asylum
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