4,678 research outputs found

    USE OF INHALANT ANESTHETICS IN THREE SNAKE SPECIES

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    Different snake species respond differently to various anesthetic agents. Hence, an anesthetic procedure developed for one species cannot necessarily be safely transferred to another species. The goal of this paper is to summarize our experience using inhalant anesthetics on three snake species, including both procedures that were successful and those we found to be less satisfactory. We found isoflurane delivered with a precision vaporizer to be the best agent to anesthetize black rat snakes (Elaphe o. obsoleta). Sex and mass did not seem to affect induction times in black rat snakes, but larger female rat snakes recovered faster from anesthesia than smaller females. Halothane delivered in the open method provided consistent anesthesia in northern water snakes (Nerodia s. sipedon), although it caused some mortality and should not be used on debilitated patients. Halothane delivered with a precision vaporizer may be used to anesthetize eastern massasauga rattlesnakes (Sistrurus c. catenatus). However, care must be taken to prevent mortality resulting from anesthetic overdose. Sex and mass had no effect on induction and recovery times in the rattlesnakes, but stressed animals require longer induction and recovery times

    Use of Injectable Eugenol for Euthanasia and Anesthesia of American Lobsters (Homarus Americanus) and Similar Species

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    Crustaceans are economically and ecologically significant, but current treatment and diagnostic protocols for crustacean health are limited. According to standards given by the American Veterinary Medical Association there are no current methods of euthanizing lobsters, nor are there effective methods of quick release anesthesia. The objective of this research demonstrated that eugenol by direct injection is a safe, efficient and reliable method for euthanizing or anesthetizing crustaceans. Anesthetic levels were determined by behavior responses, death was determined by a lack of response to stimuli. The results presented here suggest eugenol can be used as a euthanizing agent for American lobsters (Homarus americanus) and green crabs (carcinus maenas) injected into the sinusoidal circulatory system at a dose of 7µl/g dissolved in a solution of 70% ethanol and sterile sea water injected into the pericardial sac

    From micro- to nanostructured implantable device for local anesthetic delivery

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    Local anesthetics block the transmission of painful stimuli to the brain by acting on ion channels of nociceptor fibers, and find application in the management of acute and chronic pain. Despite the key role they play in modern medicine, their cardio and neurotoxicity (together with their short half-life) stress the need for developing implantable devices for tailored local drug release, with the aim of counterbalancing their side effects and prolonging their pharmacological activity. This review discusses the evolution of the physical forms of local anesthetic delivery systems during the past decades. Depending on the use of different biocompatible materials (degradable polyesters, thermosensitive hydrogels, and liposomes and hydrogels from natural polymers) and manufacturing processes, these systems can be classified as films or micro- or nanostructured devices. We analyze and summarize the production techniques according to this classification, focusing on their relative advantages and disadvantages. The most relevant trend reported in this work highlights the effort of moving from microstructured to nanostructured systems, with the aim of reaching a scale comparable to the biological environment. Improved intracellular penetration compared to microstructured systems, indeed, provides specific drug absorption into the targeted tissue and can lead to an enhancement of its bioavailability and retention time. Nanostructured systems are realized by the modification of existing manufacturing processes (interfacial deposition and nanoprecipitation for degradable polyester particles and high- or low-temperature homogenization for liposomes) or development of novel strategies (electrospun matrices and nanogels). The high surface-to-volume ratio that characterizes nanostructured devices often leads to a burst drug release. This drawback needs to be addressed to fully exploit the advantage of the interaction between the target tissues and the drug: possible strategies could involve specific binding between the drug and the material chosen for the device, and a multiscale approach to reach a tailored, prolonged drug release

    Comparison of the arrhythmogenicity of acepromazine, xylazine and their combination in pentobarbital-anesthetized rats

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    Preanesthetic medications are often used in combination with injectable anesthetics in a variety of laboratory animal species. Simultaneous administration of sedative drugs, such as alpha2-adrenergic agonists and phenothiazines, provides muscle relaxation and reduces induction doses of anesthetic agents. However, these drugs may have significant cardiovascular and arrythmogenic effects which may contribute to anesthetic morbidity and mortality (Dyson et al., 1998).Results of previous reports indicate that xylazine, an alpha2-adrenergic agonist, may sensitize the myocardium to epinephrine in dogs anesthetized with halothane (Muir et al., 1975; Tranquilli et al., 1986), isoflurane (Tranquilli et al., 1988) and ketamine (Wright et al., 1987); whereas, acepromazine, a phenothiazine tranquilizer, possessed a protective action against catecholamine-induced arrhythmia in dogs anesthetized with halothane (Muir et al., 1975; Dyson & Pettifer, 1997). The male rat has been used as an animal model to determine the arrhythmic doses of epinephrine during halothane and isoflurane anesthesia (Laster et al., 1990). Rats are commonly used for scientific research and may be anesthetized using injectable or inhalant anesthetic agents for a variety of surgical procedures (Flecknell, 2009); however, injectable anesthetics are commonly preferred in a laboratory setting.Pentobarbital, as a short acting barbiturate anesthetic, is used for short surgical procedures in rats. It is rapidly absorbed following intraperitoneal administration and provide anesthesia for up to 60 min in the rat (Flecknell, 2009).The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of clinical doses of acepromazine, xylazine and their combination on the occurrence of epinephrine induced arrhythmia in rats under pentobarbital anesthesia

    Mouse Anesthesia: The Art and Science

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    There is an art and science to performing mouse anesthesia, which is a significant component to animal research. Frequently, anesthesia is one vital step of many over the course of a research project spanning weeks, months, or beyond. It is critical to perform anesthesia according to the approved research protocol using appropriately handled and administered pharmaceutical-grade compounds whenever possible. Sufficient documentation of the anesthetic event and procedure should also be performed to meet the legal, ethical, and research reproducibility obligations. However, this regulatory and documentation process may lead to the use of a few possibly oversimplified anesthetic protocols used for mouse procedures and anesthesia. Although a frequently used anesthetic protocol may work perfectly for each mouse anesthetized, sometimes unexpected complications will arise, and quick adjustments to the anesthetic depth and support provided will be required. As an old saying goes, anesthesia is 99% boredom and 1% sheer terror. The purpose of this review article is to discuss the science of mouse anesthesia together with the art of applying these anesthetic techniques to provide readers with the knowledge needed for successful anesthetic procedures. The authors include experiences in mouse inhalant and injectable anesthesia, peri-anesthetic monitoring, specific procedures, and treating common complications. This article utilizes key points for easy access of important messages and authors\u27 recommendation based on the authors\u27 clinical experiences

    Inhibition of Firefly Luciferase by General Anesthetics: Effect on In Vitro and In Vivo Bioluminescence Imaging

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    <div><h3></h3><p>Bioluminescence imaging is routinely performed in anesthetized mice. Often isoflurane anesthesia is used because of its ease of use and fast induction/recovery. However, general anesthetics have been described as important inhibitors of the luciferase enzyme reaction.</p> <h3>Aim</h3><p>To investigate frequently used mouse anesthetics for their direct effect on the luciferase reaction, both in vitro and in vivo.</p> <h3>Materials and Methods</h3><p>isoflurane, sevoflurane, desflurane, ketamine, xylazine, medetomidine, pentobarbital and avertin were tested in vitro on luciferase-expressing intact cells, and for non-volatile anesthetics on intact cells and cell lysates. In vivo, isoflurane was compared to unanesthetized animals and different anesthetics. Differences in maximal photon emission and time-to-peak photon emission were analyzed.</p> <h3>Results</h3><p>All volatile anesthetics showed a clear inhibitory effect on the luciferase activity of 50% at physiological concentrations. Avertin had a stronger inhibitory effect of 80%. For ketamine and xylazine, increased photon emission was observed in intact cells, but this was not present in cell lysate assays, and was most likely due to cell toxicity and increased cell membrane permeability. In vivo, the highest signal intensities were measured in unanesthetized mice and pentobarbital anesthetized mice, followed by avertin. Isoflurane and ketamine/medetomidine anesthetized mice showed the lowest photon emission (40% of unanesthetized), with significantly longer time-to-peak than unanesthetized, pentobarbital or avertin-anesthetized mice. We conclude that, although strong inhibitory effects of anesthetics are present in vitro, their effect on in vivo BLI quantification is mainly due to their hemodynamic effects on mice and only to a lesser extent due to the direct inhibitory effect.</p> </div

    Development of an improved anesthesia protocol to increase CF1 mice survival in a portal vein infection with Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato protoscoleces

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    In order to optimize the survival rate of animals, the purpose of this study was to evaluate an injectable anesthesia protocol for the development of a murine model of hepatic cystic echinococcosis in female CF-1 mice. Three protocols of injectable anesthesia were evaluated during the infection of mice with Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato protoscoleces via the portal vein. The use or not of pre-anesthesia [atropine (0.4 mg/kg) and tramadol (2 mg/kg)] and the incorporation or not of yohimbine (0.5 mg/kg) (a reverser of xylazine) in mice anesthetized with ketamine/xylazine 80/8 mg/kg were evaluated. Most mice treated only with ketamine/xylazine 80/8 mg/kg did not achieve a deep surgical anesthetic plane. All mice treated with pre-anesthetic drugs achieved a deep surgical anesthetic plane after the administration of the anesthetic cocktail. Pre-anesthetic drugs application significantly reduced time induction of animals compared with those that received only anesthetic cocktail. Recovery time was significantly faster in the group that received yohimbine. Mice underwent laparotomy that did not receive yohimbine after surgery had a survival rate of 67%, whereas in the group treated with yohimbine the survival was 100 %. We recommend the protocol that applied pre-anesthetic drugs + ketamine/xylazine 80/8 mg/kg + yohimbine, as safe and reliable for the portal vein infection of mice with protoscoleces of E. granulosus sensu lato.Fil: Scioscia, Nathalia Paula. Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata. Instituto de Investigaciones en Producción, Sanidad y Ambiente - Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico Conicet - Mar del Plata. Instituto de Investigaciones en Producción, Sanidad y Ambiente; Argentina. Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Departamento de Biología. Laboratorio de Zoonosis Parasitarias; ArgentinaFil: Pensel, Patricia Eugenia. Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata. Instituto de Investigaciones en Producción, Sanidad y Ambiente - Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico Conicet - Mar del Plata. Instituto de Investigaciones en Producción, Sanidad y Ambiente; Argentina. Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Departamento de Biología. Laboratorio de Zoonosis Parasitarias; ArgentinaFil: Denegri, Guillermo Maria. Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata. Instituto de Investigaciones en Producción, Sanidad y Ambiente - Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico Conicet - Mar del Plata. Instituto de Investigaciones en Producción, Sanidad y Ambiente; Argentina. Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Departamento de Biología. Laboratorio de Zoonosis Parasitarias; ArgentinaFil: Elissondo, María Celina. Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata. Instituto de Investigaciones en Producción, Sanidad y Ambiente - Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico Conicet - Mar del Plata. Instituto de Investigaciones en Producción, Sanidad y Ambiente; Argentina. Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Departamento de Biología. Laboratorio de Zoonosis Parasitarias; Argentin
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