175,861 research outputs found

    TIV vaccination modulates host responses to influenza virus infection that correlate with protection against bacterial superinfection

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    Background: Influenza virus infection predisposes to secondary bacterial pneumonia. Currently licensed influenza vaccines aim at the induction of neutralizing antibodies and are less effective if the induction of neutralizing antibodies is low and/or the influenza virus changes its antigenic surface. We investigated the effect of suboptimal vaccination on the outcome of post-influenza bacterial superinfection. Methods: We established a mouse vaccination model that allows control of disease severity after influenza virus infection despite inefficient induction of virus-neutralizing antibody titers by vaccination. We investigated the effect of vaccination on virus-induced host immune responses and on the outcome of superinfection with Staphylococcus aureus. Results: Vaccination with trivalent inactivated virus vaccine (TIV) reduced morbidity after influenza A virus infection but did not prevent virus replication completely. Despite the poor induction of influenza-specific antibodies, TIV protected from mortality after bacterial superinfection. Vaccination limited loss of alveolar macrophages and reduced levels of infiltrating pulmonary monocytes after influenza virus infection. Interestingly, TIV vaccination resulted in enhanced levels of eosinophils after influenza virus infection and recruitment of neutrophils in both lungs and mediastinal lymph nodes after bacterial superinfection. Conclusion: These observations highlight the importance of disease modulation by influenza vaccination, even when suboptimal, and suggest that influenza vaccination is still beneficial to protect during bacterial superinfection in the absence of complete virus neutralization

    Influenza surveillance among children with pneumonia admitted to a district hospital in coastal Kenya, 2007-2010

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    Background: Influenza data gaps in sub-Saharan Africa include incidence, case fatality, seasonal patterns, and associations with prevalent disorders. Methods: Nasopharyngeal samples from children aged <12 years who were admitted to Kilifi District Hospital during 2007–2010 with severe or very severe pneumonia and resided in the local demographic surveillance system were screened for influenza A, B, and C viruses by molecular methods. Outpatient children provided comparative data. Results: Of 2002 admissions, influenza A virus infection was diagnosed in 3.5% (71), influenza B virus infection, in 0.9% (19); and influenza C virus infection, in 0.8% (11 of 1404 tested). Four patients with influenza died. Among outpatients, 13 of 331 (3.9%) with acute respiratory infection and 1 of 196 without acute respiratory infection were influenza positive. The annual incidence of severe or very severe pneumonia, of influenza (any type), and of influenza A, was 1321, 60, and 43 cases per 100 000 <5 years of age, respectively. Peak occurrence was in quarters 3–4 each year, and approximately 50% of cases involved infants: temporal association with bacteremia was absent. Hypoxia was more frequent among pneumonia cases involving influenza (odds ratio, 1.78; 95% confidence interval, 1.04–1.96). Influenza A virus subtypes were seasonal H3N2 (57%), seasonal H1N1 (12%), and 2009 pandemic H1N1 (7%). Conclusions: The burden of influenza was small during 2007–2010 in this pediatric hospital in Kenya. Influenza A virus subtype H3N2 predominated, and 2009 pandemic influenza A virus subtype H1N1 had little impact

    Memory B cells and CD8⁺ lymphocytes do not control seasonal influenza A virus replication after homologous re-challenge of rhesus macaques.

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    This study sought to define the role of memory lymphocytes in the protection from homologous influenza A virus re-challenge in rhesus macaques. Depleting monoclonal antibodies (mAb) were administered to the animals prior to their second experimental inoculation with a human seasonal influenza A virus strain. Treatment with either anti-CD8α or anti-CD20 mAbs prior to re-challenge had minimal effect on influenza A virus replication. Thus, in non-human primates with pre-existing anti-influenza A antibodies, memory B cells and CD8α⁺ T cells do not contribute to the control of virus replication after re-challenge with a homologous strain of influenza A virus

    Influenza virus differentially activates mTORC1 and mTORC2 signaling to maximize late stage replication

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    <div><p>Influenza A virus usurps host signaling factors to regulate its replication. One example is mTOR, a cellular regulator of protein synthesis, growth and motility. While the role of mTORC1 in viral infection has been studied, the mechanisms that induce mTORC1 activation and the substrates regulated by mTORC1 during influenza virus infection have not been established. In addition, the role of mTORC2 during influenza virus infection remains unknown. Here we show that mTORC2 and PDPK1 differentially phosphorylate AKT upon influenza virus infection. PDPK1-mediated phoshorylation of AKT at a distinct site is required for mTORC1 activation by influenza virus. On the other hand, the viral NS1 protein promotes phosphorylation of AKT at a different site via mTORC2, which is an activity dispensable for mTORC1 stimulation but known to regulate apoptosis. Influenza virus HA protein and down-regulation of the mTORC1 inhibitor REDD1 by the virus M2 protein promote mTORC1 activity. Systematic phosphoproteomics analysis performed in cells lacking the mTORC2 component Rictor in the absence or presence of Torin, an inhibitor of both mTORC1 and mTORC2, revealed mTORC1-dependent substrates regulated during infection. Members of pathways that regulate mTORC1 or are regulated by mTORC1 were identified, including constituents of the translation machinery that once activated can promote translation. mTORC1 activation supports viral protein expression and replication. As mTORC1 activation is optimal midway through the virus life cycle, the observed effects on viral protein expression likely support the late stages of influenza virus replication when infected cells undergo significant stress.</p></div

    Your Best Shot at Surviving the Flu Season

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    Millions of individuals become ill from the influenza virus every year. As an existing public health issue, it is important for patients to understand that the best way to combat the influenza virus is through prevention. This article explores key aspects of the influenza vaccine and highlights its importance in the healthcare community

    Low dose influenza virus challenge in the ferret leads to increased virus shedding and greater sensitivity to oseltamivir

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    Ferrets are widely used to study human influenza virus infection. Their airway physiology and cell receptor distribution makes them ideal for the analysis of pathogenesis and virus transmission, and for testing the efficacy of anti-influenza interventions and vaccines. The 2009 pandemic influenza virus (H1N1pdm09) induces mild to moderate respiratory disease in infected ferrets, following inoculation with 106 plaque-forming units (pfu) of virus. We have demonstrated that reducing the challenge dose to 102 pfu delays the onset of clinical signs by 1 day, and results in a modest reduction in clinical signs, and a less rapid nasal cavity innate immune response. There was also a delay in virus production in the upper respiratory tract, this was up to 9-fold greater and virus shedding was prolonged. Progression of infection to the lower respiratory tract was not noticeably delayed by the reduction in virus challenge. A dose of 104 pfu gave an infection that was intermediate between those of the 106 pfu and 102 pfu doses. To address the hypothesis that using a more authentic low challenge dose would facilitate a more sensitive model for antiviral efficacy, we used the well-known neuraminidase inhibitor, oseltamivir. Oseltamivir-treated and untreated ferrets were challenged with high (106 pfu) and low (102 pfu) doses of influenza H1N1pdm09 virus. The low dose treated ferrets showed significant delays in innate immune response and virus shedding, delayed onset of pathological changes in the nasal cavity, and reduced pathological changes and viral RNA load in the lung, relative to untreated ferrets. Importantly, these observations were not seen in treated animals when the high dose challenge was used. In summary, low dose challenge gives a disease that more closely parallels the disease parameters of human influenza infection, and provides an improved pre-clinical model for the assessment of influenza therapeutics, and potentially, influenza vaccines

    Transmission of H7N9 influenza virus in mice by different infective routes.

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    BackgroundOn 19 February 2013, the first patient infected with a novel influenza A H7N9 virus from an avian source showed symptoms of sickness. More than 349 laboratory-confirmed cases and 109 deaths have been reported in mainland China since then. Laboratory-confirmed, human-to-human H7N9 virus transmission has not been documented between individuals having close contact; however, this transmission route could not be excluded for three families. To control the spread of the avian influenza H7N9 virus, we must better understand its pathogenesis, transmissibility, and transmission routes in mammals. Studies have shown that this particular virus is transmitted by aerosols among ferrets.MethodsTo study potential transmission routes in animals with direct or close contact to other animals, we investigated these factors in a murine model.ResultsViable H7N9 avian influenza virus was detected in the upper and lower respiratory tracts, intestine, and brain of model mice. The virus was transmissible between mice in close contact, with a higher concentration of virus found in pharyngeal and ocular secretions, and feces. All these biological materials were contagious for naïve mice.ConclusionsOur results suggest that the possible transmission routes for the H7N9 influenza virus were through mucosal secretions and feces
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