113,151 research outputs found

    The Influence of Entrepreneurial Education on Individual Entrepreneurial Orientation of University Students: A Systematic Review

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    The level of entrepreneurship in a country is an important determinant of economic growth and success. However, it is essential to ensure that individuals are gaining the necessary knowledge and skills to choose an entrepreneurial career upon completion of their studies. A qualitative research approach was employed by systematically reviewing approaches to entrepreneurial education and their effect on an individual’s entrepreneurial orientation. Data were analysed by means of thematic content analysis. Articles were identified in prominent databases according to a set of inclusion and exclusion criteria. The findings were grouped into six themes: The importance of the practical nature of entrepreneurial education; the impact of entrepreneurial education on the economy; entrepreneurial education approaches; the importance of individual entrepreneurial orientation; common individual entrepreneurial orientation factors and the interchangeability of individual entrepreneurial orientation, intrapreneurial orientation, and entrepreneurial attitude orientation. The findings of the systematic review indicate that there is a gap in the current body of knowledge, and the value of the study lies in the fact that many studies have explored the influence of entrepreneurial education on the intention of students, but very few have analysed this influence based on a student’s individual entrepreneurial orientation. Furthermore, findings also reveal that current entrepreneurial education approaches employ theory-based teaching but do not place enough emphasis on practice-based teaching. The findings of this study contribute to the existing body of knowledge by investigating the influence that entrepreneurial education has on the individual entrepreneurial education of university students

    DO UNIVERSITIES AND STUDENTS NEED TO BE ENTREPRENEURIALLY ORIENTED? A LITERATURE REVIEW*

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    Entrepreneurial orientation is a theoretical concept defined by three dimensions: innovativeness, proactivity and risk-taking. Entrepreneurial orientation researchers suggest that entrepreneurial orientation is a concept that pervades through all organizational levels of the company (Wiklund and Shepherd, 2005; Wales, Monsen and McKelvie, 2011). Although focus of early research on the concept has been oriented on the company level and its influence on profitability, cotemporary research has put much accent both on research of individual entrepreneurial orientation, as well as on research of entrepreneurial orientation of non-profit companies. Having on mind the fact that contemporary university should be an incubator of practical and applicable knowledge, but also being aware of many practical dimensions related to university management, in this paper we will focus on investigating whether there is a rationale for incentives for universities and students to be more entrepreneurially oriented by systematizing the findings of research papers whose focus has been on measuring individual entrepreneurial orientation of students and on researching different dimensions of entrepreneurial orientation of universities

    Work experience and evidence of entrepreneurial orientation of South Africa professionals

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    A research report submitted to the Faculty of Commerce, Law and Management, University of the Witwatersrand, in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Management specialising in Entrepreneurship and New Venture Creation Johannesburg, 2018This research explores how work experience influences entrepreneurial behaviour in professionals. The study is mainly focused on engineering and commerce professionals who are employed in various sectors in South Africa. The research is inspired by the observable low total early-stage entrepreneurial activity and employee entrepreneurial activity rates in South Africa, despite empirical research showing that entrepreneurship increases economic growth and company performance in both financial and non-financial terms. This research conceptualises entrepreneurial behaviour in terms of an entrepreneurial orientation which is a combination of three sub-dimensions: innovativeness, proactiveness and a risk-taking propensity. An index is used to measure the individual’s entrepreneurial orientation. Work experience is characterised by a specialist career path (depth of experience), a generalist career path (breadth of experience), and job design. The specialist path refers to accumulated work experience within a domain where individuals become experts. The generalist path relates to accrued work experience across different fields where individuals become generalists. Job design is the structure and configuration of jobs in the workplace. The research is exploratory. The data was collected using a survey questionnaire. Eighteen professional disciplines across thirteen industries were sampled. The study achieved 202 valid responses, 61% being male and 39% female. All racial groups in South Africa were sampled. The findings reveal that the entrepreneurial orientation index is highest and lowest in the 18-24 and 55-64 age groups respectively. The male and female indices were comparable, with females showing a slightly higher index than males. Legal practitioners had the highest entrepreneurial orientation index compared to other professions. General managers showed the lowest index compared to other professional functions. Concerning hypotheses, the results find a negative correlation between the depth of experience in industry and individual entrepreneurial orientation. There was also a negative correlation iii between the depth of experience in a function and individual entrepreneurial orientation. There was no statistically significant relationship between broad experience in industry or function and individual entrepreneurial orientation. Concerning work experience, the variance of individual entrepreneurial orientation is largely explained by job design. The job functions that offer strategic and structural autonomy and those which allow employees to engage in a variety of tasks using a variety of skills are positively correlated to individual entrepreneurial orientation. The research has theoretical and practical implications. Theoretically, it reveals that work experience has an influence on the individual’s entrepreneurial orientation. The individual’s entrepreneurial orientation is studied in a developing country context using the measures that are derived from the original EO scale. This provides further academic insights in individual EO research. Practically, the research provides insight on the aspects of work experience that foster an entrepreneurial posture on the organisation’s human resource.GR201

    Individual entrepreneurial orientation in higher education and unsettling emerging market conditions: The cases of Malaysia and Thailand

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    The triggers that guide university students individual entrepreneurial orientation towards new venture creation are an emerging theme. The novel settings of entrepreneurship education the developing country context of South East Asia Malaysia and Thailand are used, while comparing them to key assumptions on general business in Asia and the west. A total of 332 participants were recruited. The items were reduced to five components using principal component analysis, and, using binomial logistic regression, shown to predict some of the variance in perceptions on individual entrepreneurial orientation in Malaysia and Thailand. The study shows that individual entrepreneurial orientation motivators can be separated into the distinct dimensions of which innovation, proactiveness, risk taking, and culture correlate with the the decision to become an entrepreneur in Southeast Asia. In addition, assumptions on business and education in the west and in Asia hold partially in Southeast Asia and entrepreneurial new venture creation particularly regarding risk and autonomy

    Entrepreneurial orientation and entrepreneurial competency of SME’s

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    Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) proved able to contribute to the economy that is the ability to absorb labor and contribution to Gross Domestic Procuct (GDP). But the growth of SMEs still faces problems, including market access, market information, market expansion, diversification, and innovation. To overcome the problems of SMEs, need to be studied the role of individual factors as business actors include the competence and entrepreneurship orientation. The purpose of this research is to analyze the role of individual factors, namely entrepreneurship competence and entrepreneurship orientation toward SMEs performance. This advanced research is developed with a focus on entrepreneurial competence as an antecedent of the entrepreneurial orientation and its effect on the performance of SMEs. Using explanatory research approach, the study was conducted on 80 SMEs in Malang City, Indonesia. The analysis is done with Path Analysis to test the direct and indirect influence between the variables on the performance of SMEs. The results showed entrepreneurial competence as a mediating variable of influence of entrepreneurial orientation on the performance of SMEs. The results of this study indicate that the entrepreneurial orientation can be achieved if the entrepreneur has entrepreneurial competenc

    Autonomous Orientation Behaviors Influence Towards Ex-Juvenile Entrepreneurs Delinquent Behavioral Change in Katsina State, Nigeria: A Conceptual Paper

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    Recent Entrepreneurship orientation autonomous dimension discussion revealed the important and the positive influence of autonomous orientation as one of the Entrepreneurial orientations (EO) towards organizational performance and profitability. However, discussion of autonomous orientation in the context of individual such as entrepreneurs behavioral change impact still silent, especially in the context of ex-juvenile entrepreneur that can give an insight to the Entrepreneurship body of knowledge. Therefore, the objective of this conceptual paper is to understand the influence of autonomous orientation behaviors as one of the individual entrepreneurial orientation (IEO) towards delinquent behavioral change of ex-juvenile entrepreneurs. The conceptual paper proposed the framework that ex- juvenile entrepreneurs could be autonomous and more importantly autonomous orientation might have a positive influence towards ex-juvenile entrepreneurs’ delinquent behavioral change. Subsequently relating development of this concept, the conceptual review demonstrates the importance of the autonomous orientation as an effective deliberate orientation for ex-juvenile entrepreneurs once they reconsider their delinquent behavior with entrepreneurial autonomous activities. Assuming autonomous orientation looks to replicate a desired reconciliation amongst delinquent behaviors and entrepreneurial autonomous orientation as an alternative to delinquency. Lastly, the conceptual paper concludes with suggesting some inferences for future research to dig out the study theoretically, conceptually and empirically of the individual EO autonomous orientation behaviors among delinquent populace (ex- juvenile entrepreneurs) context. This conceptual paper provides a fresh knowledge about the IEO autonomous orientation potentiality in the entrepreneurs’ self-development and an insight to the entrepreneurship framework

    Entrepreneurial Orientation, Market Orientation and Performance of Teachers and Researchers in Public Higher Education Institutions.

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    In this study we intend to analyse the relationships between entrepreneurial orientation, market orientation and performance at the individual level. We propose the concept of individual entrepreneurial orientation (IEO) and a measurement scale, and we use the individual market orientation concept (IMO), measured with i-MARKOR. The main objective is to analyse the relationship between IEO, IMO and performance of teachers and researchers of the public higher education institutions (PHEI). A conceptual model is proposed representing the relationship between these variables. The results of this research can be highly useful in understanding the interaction between the analysed variables and their impact on the PHEI.PEst-OE/EGE/UI4056/201

    Behavioral and Environmental Influences on Entrepreneurial Orientation

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    Traditionally, theories of innovation and entrepreneurship have concentrated on either environmental or dispositional variables to explain different rates and levels in entrepreneurial activity. However, these theories have unsuccessfully represented the complexity of human behavior actions involve the interaction of various environmental, cognitive, and behavioral variables. Recognizing this shortcoming and considering that contextual influences on entrepreneurial behavior in an emerging market context are rarely accounted for, this study empirically examined the degree to which individual-level variables of entrepreneurial alertness and self-efficacy interact with environmental dynamism and hostility to influence a firm’s entrepreneurial orientation. Appreciating the multiplicity of elements facing an entrepreneur who is trying to make sense of the external environment, the study surveyed 310 owner-mangers in South Africa and relied on SEM to determine the best model fit. The study findings reveal that as a result of mediating and interaction effects, an individual with higher levels of alertness and self-efficacy is more likely to be innovative, engage in risk-taking behavior and show pro-activeness, in other words, have higher levels of entrepreneurial orientation. It is recommended that policymakers encourage entrepreneurial orientation by fostering a high-support route in which the effects of the hostile environments are minimized to encourage higher levels of innovation. Moreover, scholars can build on these findings by investigating the interconnectedness of exogenous environmental and individual factors in terms of explaining entrepreneurial orientation

    EXAMINING ENTREPRENEURIAL ORIENTATION – PERFORMANCE RELATIONSHIP AMONG CROATIAN SERVICE SMES

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    The relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and business performance has been widely researched. However, in scientific literature there is still a need for further clarification when observing the before mentioned concepts, especially within the service SME context. Likewise, when observing this relationship it is necessary to look into the impact of entrepreneurial orientation on individual segments of business performance, i.e. on financial and non-financial constructs. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to explore the association of entrepreneurial orientation and small and medium business performance, while observing performance both as unidimensional and multidimensional concept. Furthermore, the paper tests whether moderation effect of external environment exists between entrepreneurial orientation and business performance among Croatian service SMEs

    Moderating effect of culture on the relationship between entrepreneurial competencies, entrepreneurial orientation and women entrepreneurs’ business success in North-Western Nigeria

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    The operation of women-owned businesses in Nigeria have been characterised by high rates of failure, despite the supports received from the successive governments. This study draws upon the twin theories of Microfoundations of the Resource-Based View (RBV) and Contingency Theory, to empirically examine the moderating effect of culture on the relationship between entrepreneurial competencies and individual entrepreneurial orientation on the women entrepreneurs’ business success. Using a quantitative approach, data were obtained from a sample of 361 women micro-entrepreneurs through questionnaire survey. Partial Least Squares (PLS-SEM) technique of data analysis was employed to test the hypothesized relationships and findings showed that entrepreneurial competencies have a significant and positive relationship on the women entrepreneurs’ business success, whereas its relationship with culture was found to be negative and significant. However, the relationship between individual entrepreneurial orientation and women entrepreneurs’ success was also not significant. Similarly, culture was found to moderate the relationship between entrepreneurial competencies and women entrepreneur’s success, whereas its interaction with individual entrepreneurial orientation was not supported. The study further illustrates on how the reflective-formative model of higher order construct (HOC) is tested, which is an uncommon practice in the current literature of entrepreneurship. On the whole, the findings reveal the importance of entrepreneurial competencies in achieving women entrepreneurs’ success and suggest on the need to develop the individual entrepreneurial orientation of the women entrepreneurs. Additionally, it stressed on the need to develop the culture of entrepreneurship among the women entrepreneurs through national education policy, training, apprenticeships, and active participation in economic ventures. These findings have no doubt contribute to the mainstream of women entrepreneurship literature by expounding the female conception of success in business, highlighting the importance of human capabilities, and the influence wield by culture on the women entrepreneurs
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