909,273 research outputs found

    Demographic differences and annual trends in childhood and adolescent cancer incidence and mortality in Michigan during the period 1999-2012

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    Background. Michigan has declining economic conditions and factories that release pollutants. During the period 1999-2012, only 10 out of 50 states had an overall cancer incidence rate that was higher than that in Michigan. It is not known how children’s cancer rates in Michigan vary by age, gender, race/ethnicity, and year as well as how these rates compare to those in the U.S. Method: The Center for Disease Control and Prevention WONDER database obtained cancer incidence and mortality data from cancer registries and death certificates. We compared age-adjusted incidence and mortality cancer rates by gender, race/ethnicity, and year for children and adolescents aged 0 to 19 years in Michigan and the U.S. for the period 1999-2012. Results. Males in Michigan had higher incidence rates of cancer than females in both Michigan and the U.S. Non-Hispanic Whites had higher cancer incidence rates than people of all other races/ethnicities in Michigan. The childhood cancer incidence rates increased for all racial/ethnic groups except for Hispanic Whites in Michigan during the period 1999-2012. Incidence rates increased more so in Michigan compared to the U.S. for some racial/ethnic groups such as non-Hispanic Whites during the period 1999-2012. Hispanic Whites in all age categories had higher cancer mortality rates than people of all other races/ethnicities in Michigan. Mortality rates for both males and females exhibited a downward trend from 1999 to 2002 in both Michigan and the U.S. Conclusions. Males, non-Hispanic Whites, and Hispanic Whites tended to be disproportionately affected by cancer in Michigan. Future research should investigate the relationship of genetic determinants, socio-economic factors, prenatal behaviors, and air pollution with cancer rates among racial/ethnic groups in Michigan

    Tuberculosis in Malta : thirty-five years of epidemiological trends in the native population

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    Malta, the smallest island state in Europe, with an approximate population of 400,000, has one of the lowest reported incidence rates for tuberculosis (TB) in its native-born population.1 Long- term trends for TB among this population were investigated. A period of 35 years (1979-2013) for the Malta-born population was investigated using single-age population numbers for each year, retrospective, and partly prospective analysis of notified TB cases. Mean five-yearly populations were then used to calculate 5- yearly incidence rates for birth-cohorts, age-groups, major site and gender. Annual reported TB incidence rates were also calculated. In the Malta-born population, over the 35- year period, reported yearly TB incidence shows a downward, albeit decelerating trend. Consecutive follow-up of 5-year age-cohorts and 5-year age-groups confirms that incidence has fallen, with the highest rates being observed in progressively older age-groups. A falling trend in TB incidence according major site and gender was also observed. TB is being successfully controlled among the Malta-born population, and confirmed to be slowly approaching the elimination phase.peer-reviewe

    Heterogeneity of diabetes outcomes among asians and pacific islanders in the US: the diabetes study of northern california (DISTANCE).

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    ObjectiveEthnic minorities with diabetes typically have lower rates of cardiovascular outcomes and higher rates of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) compared with whites. Diabetes outcomes among Asian and Pacific Islander subgroups have not been disaggregated.Research design and methodsWe performed a prospective cohort study (1996-2006) of patients enrolled in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California Diabetes Registry. There were 64,211 diabetic patients, including whites (n = 40,286), blacks (n = 8,668), Latinos (n = 7,763), Filipinos (n = 3,572), Chinese (n = 1,823), Japanese (n = 951), Pacific Islanders (n = 593), and South Asians (n = 555), enrolled in the registry. We calculated incidence rates (means ± SD; 7.2 ± 3.3 years follow-up) and created Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for age, educational attainment, English proficiency, neighborhood deprivation, BMI, smoking, alcohol use, exercise, medication adherence, type and duration of diabetes, HbA(1c), hypertension, estimated glomerular filtration rate, albuminuria, and LDL cholesterol. Incidence of myocardial infarction (MI), congestive heart failure, stroke, ESRD, and lower-extremity amputation (LEA) were age and sex adjusted.ResultsPacific Islander women had the highest incidence of MI, whereas other ethnicities had significantly lower rates of MI than whites. Most nonwhite groups had higher rates of ESRD than whites. Asians had ~60% lower incidence of LEA compared with whites, African Americans, or Pacific Islanders. Incidence rates in Chinese, Japanese, and Filipinos were similar for most complications. For the three macrovascular complications, Pacific Islanders and South Asians had rates similar to whites.ConclusionsIncidence of complications varied dramatically among the Asian subgroups and highlights the value of a more nuanced ethnic stratification for public health surveillance and etiologic research

    Lung cancer epidemiology in North Sardinia, Italy

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    Background The aim of this study was to analyze and describe the epidemiological characteristics and trends of lung cancer in North Sardinia, Italy, in the period 1992–2010. Methods Data were obtained from the tumor registry of Sassari province which is a part of a wider registry web, coordinated today by the Italian Association for Tumor Registries. Results The overall number of lung cancer cases registered was 4,325. The male-to-female ratio was 4.6:1 and the mean age 68.1 years for males and 67 years for females. The standardized incidence rates were 73.1/100,000 and 13.5/100,000 and the standardized mortality rates 55.7/100,000 and 9.9/100,000 for males and females, respectively. An increasing trend in incidence of lung cancer in women was evidenced. Conversely, incidence was found to decrease in males. Relative survival at 5 years from diagnosis was low (8.8% for males and 14.9% for females). Furthermore, an increase in mortality rates was observed in both sexes in the period under investigation. Conclusions Our data show an increasing trend of lung cancer incidence in women in North Sardinia in the last decades. Conversely, a reduction of incidence rates was observed in males. Furthermore, a slightly increasing trend in mortality rates was observed in both sexes, suggesting the need to enhance smoking control strategies, consider adoption of effective surveillance policies, and improve diagnosis and treatment methods

    Joint Disease Mapping of Two Digestive Cancers in Golestan Province, Iran Using a Shared Component Model

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    Objectives: Recent studies have suggested the occurrence patterns and related diet factor of esophagus cancer (EC) and gastric cancer (GC). Incidence of these cancers was mapped either in general and stratified by sex. The aim of this study was to model the geographical variation in incidence of these two related cancers jointly to explore the relative importance of an intended risk factor, diet low in fruit and vegetable intake, in Golestan, Iran. Methods: Data on the incidence of EC and GC between 2004 and 2008 were extracted from Golestan Research Center of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Hamadan, Iran. These data were registered as new observations in 11 counties of the province yearly. The Bayesian shared component model was used to analyze the spatial variation of incidence rates jointly and in this study we analyzed the data using this model. Joint modeling improved the precision of estimations of underlying diseases pattern, and thus strengthened the relevant results. Results: From 2004 to 2008, the joint incidence rates of the two cancers studied were relatively high (0.8-1.2) in the Golestan area. The general map showed that the northern part of the province was at higher risk than the other parts. Thus the component representing diet low in fruit and vegetable intake had larger effect of EC and GC incidence rates in this part. This incidence risk pattern was retained for female but for male was a little different. Conclusion: Using a shared component model for joint modeling of incidence rates leads to more precise estimates, so the common risk factor, a diet low in fruit and vegetables, is important in this area and needs more attention in the allocation and delivery of public health policies. © 2015

    Epidemiology of female reproductive cancers in Iran: Results of the gholestan population-based cancer registry

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    Background: Malignancies of the female reproductive tract are estimated to be the third most common group of cancers in women. Objectives: We here aimed to present their epidemiological features in Golestan provincelocated in Northeast of Iran. Materials and Methods: Data on primary female reproductive cancers diagnosed between 2004-2010 were obtained from Golestan Population-based Cancer Registry (GPCR). CanReg-4 and SPSS software were used for data entry and analysis. Age standardized incidence rates (ASR) (per 100,000 person-years) were calculated using the world standard population. Poisson regression analysis was used to compare incidence rates. P-values of less than 0.05 were considered as significant. Results: A total of 6,064 cancer cases were registered in Golestan females in the GPCR during 2004-2010, of which 652 cases (11%) were female reproductive cancers. Cancers of the ovary (ASR=6.03) and cervix (ASR=4.97) were the most common. We found significant higher rates in females living in cities than in villages. Our results showed a rapid increase in age specific incidence rates of female reproductive cancers at the age of 30 years. Conclusions: We found significant higher rates of female reproductive cancers among residents of cities than villages. Differences in the prevalence of risk factors including reproductive behavior between the two populations may partly explain such diversity. Our results also showed a rapid increase in incidence rates of these cancers in young age females. Further studies are warranted to determine risk factors of female reproductive cancers in our population

    Risk of Cancer among Commercially Insured HIV-Infected Adults on Antiretroviral Therapy.

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    The objective of this study was to explore the cancer incidence rates among HIV-infected persons with commercial insurance who were on antiretroviral therapy and compare them with those rates in the general population. Paid health insurance claims for 63,221 individuals 18 years or older, with at least one claim with a diagnostic code for HIV and at least one filled prescription for an antiretroviral medication between January 1, 2006, and September 30, 2012, were obtained from the LifeLink® Health Plan Claims Database. The expected number of cancer cases in the general population for each gender-age group (<30, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, and >60 years) was estimated using incidence rates from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were estimated using their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Compared to the general population, incidence rates for HIV-infected adults were elevated (SIR, 95% CI) for Kaposi sarcoma (46.08; 38.74-48.94), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (4.22; 3.63-4.45), Hodgkin lymphoma (9.83; 7.45-10.84), and anal cancer (30.54; 25.62-32.46) and lower for colorectal cancer (0.69; 0.52-0.76), lung cancer (0.70; 0.54, 0.77), and prostate cancer (0.54; 0.45-0.58). Commercially insured, treated HIV-infected adults had elevated rates for infection-related cancers, but not for common non-AIDS defining cancers

    Recent trends in the epidemiology of inflammatory bowel diseases: up or down?

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    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is traditionally considered to be common in the Western world, and its incidence has sharply increased since the early 1950s. In contrast, until the last decade, low prevalence and incidence rates have been reported from other parts of the world including Eastern Europe, South America, Asia and the Pacific region. Recent trends indicate a change in the epidemiology of IBD with previously low incidence areas now reporting a progressive rise in the incidence, while in West European and North American countries the figures have stabilized or slightly increased, with decreasing incidence rates for ulcerative colitis. Some of these changes may represent differences in diagnostic practices and increasing awareness of the disease. The quality of studies is also variable. Additional epidemiologic studies are needed to better define the burden of illness, explore the mechanism of association with environmental factors, and identify new risk factors

    Labour market assimilation of immigrants in Spain: employment at the expense of bad job-matches?

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    Spain has traditionally been known as a country of emigrants. However, in the last decade, Spain has experienced an unprecedented boom of immigration from three localized areas: Latin America, Africa and East Europe. In this paper, we study the behaviour of recent immigrants in the Spanish labour market identifying the major differences with the native population and tracking whether these differences fade away as their years of residence in Spain increase. With this objective, we focus on four labour market outcomes: labour supply, unemployment, incidence of overeducation and incidence of temporary contracts. Results show that, compared to natives, immigrants face initially higher participation rates, higher unemployment rates, higher incidence of overeducation and higher incidence of temporary contracts. However, five years after their arrival we could broadly say that participation rates start to converge to native rates, unemployment rates decrease to levels even lower than those of natives, and the incidence of temporary contracts and overeducation remains constant: no reduction of the gap with Spanish workers is observed. Therefore, we conclude that the Spanish labour market is managing to absorb the so called, 'immigration boom ', but at the expense of allocating immigrants in bad job-matches.immigration; assimilation; labor force participation; unemployment; overeducation; temporary contracts;

    Exploring Sexual Transmitted Infections Rates within the High School Populations and Sexual Health Behaviors within a Community College Population: The Need to Provide Effective Sexual Education Programs

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    Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) is an umbrella term for bacterial, viral and parasitic infections that are transmitted through sexual contact. California Department of Public Health data ranks Kern County second worst in the state for congenital syphilis and chlamydia, third worst in the state for primary and secondary syphilis, and seventh worst in the state for gonorrhea. The incidence rates continue to increase in Kern County and especially within teenage and young adult populations. This study explored the patterns and characteristics of STI incidence rates in Kern High School District (KHSD) and sexual health behaviors in a local community college. After reviewing five-year incidence rates of 18 high schools representing both urban and rural areas, there appeared to be no clear pattern among demographics, poverty and rural area between the schools and corresponding STI incidence rates. Key informant interviews were conducted to further investigate underlying contributors to the varying STI rates within Kern County. The second part of the study explored young adult sexual health behaviors. Serving as a strong pipeline from high school to community college, approximately one-third of the Kern High School District attend the Kern Community College District. Bakersfield College completed an American College Health Association Health Assessment (ACHA) to assess health center needs. The study reviewed ACHA survey data (n=1483) to identify sexual health behaviors. Results from the study will be presented to local public health professionals and school educators to examine the need for more comprehensive and effective sexual health programs
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