27,020 research outputs found

    L1CAM binds ErbB receptors through Ig-like domains coupling cell adhesion and neuregulin signalling.

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    During nervous system development different cell-to-cell communication mechanisms operate in parallel guiding migrating neurons and growing axons to generate complex arrays of neural circuits. How such a system works in coordination is not well understood. Cross-regulatory interactions between different signalling pathways and redundancy between them can increase precision and fidelity of guidance systems. Immunoglobulin superfamily proteins of the NCAM and L1 families couple specific substrate recognition and cell adhesion with the activation of receptor tyrosine kinases. Thus it has been shown that L1CAM-mediated cell adhesion promotes the activation of the EGFR (erbB1) from Drosophila to humans. Here we explore the specificity of the molecular interaction between L1CAM and the erbB receptor family. We show that L1CAM binds physically erbB receptors in both heterologous systems and the mammalian developing brain. Different Ig-like domains located in the extracellular part of L1CAM can support this interaction. Interestingly, binding of L1CAM to erbB enhances its response to neuregulins. During development this may synergize with the activation of erbB receptors through L1CAM homophilic interactions, conferring diffusible neuregulins specificity for cells or axons that interact with the substrate through L1CAM

    VAPB/ALS8 interacts with FFAT-like proteins including the p97 cofactor FAF1 and the ASNA1 ATPase

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    BACKGROUND: FAF1 is a ubiquitin-binding adaptor for the p97 ATPase and belongs to the UBA-UBX family of p97 cofactors. p97 converts the energy derived from ATP hydrolysis into conformational changes of the p97 hexamer, which allows the dissociation of its targets from cellular structures or from larger protein complexes to facilitate their ubiquitin-dependent degradation. VAPB and the related protein VAPA form homo- and heterodimers that are anchored in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane and can interact with protein partners carrying a FFAT motif. Mutations in either VAPB or p97 can cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, a neurodegenerative disorder that affects upper and lower motor neurons. RESULTS: We show that FAF1 contains a non-canonical FFAT motif that allows it to interact directly with the MSP domain of VAPB and, thereby, to mediate VAPB interaction with p97. This finding establishes a link between two proteins that can cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis when mutated, VAPB/ALS8 and p97/ALS14. Subsequently, we identified a similar FFAT-like motif in the ASNA1 subunit of the transmembrane-domain recognition complex (TRC), which in turn mediates ASNA1 interaction with the MSP domain of VAPB. Proteasome inhibition leads to the accumulation of ubiquitinated species in VAPB immunoprecipitates and this correlates with an increase in FAF1 and p97 binding. We found that VAPB interaction with ubiquitinated proteins is strongly reduced in cells treated with FAF1 siRNA. Our efforts to determine the identity of the ubiquitinated targets common to VAPB and FAF1 led to the identification of RPN2, a subunit of an oligosaccharyl-transferase located at the endoplasmic reticulum, which may be regulated by ubiquitin-mediated degradation. CONCLUSIONS: The FFAT-like motifs we identified in FAF1 and ASNA1 demonstrate that sequences containing a single phenylalanine residue with the consensus (D/E)(D/E)FEDAx(D/E) are also proficient to mediate interaction with VAPB. Our findings indicate that the repertoire of VAPB interactors is more diverse than previously anticipated and link VAPB to the function of ATPase complexes such as p97/FAF1 and ASNA1/TRC

    Proteomic identification of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein L as a novel component of SLM/Sam68 nuclear bodies

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    Background: Active pre-mRNA splicing occurs co-transcriptionally, and takes place throughout the nucleoplasm of eukaryotic cells. Splicing decisions are controlled by networks of nuclear RNA-binding proteins and their target sequences, sometimes in response to signalling pathways. Sam68 (Src-associated in mitosis 68 kDa) is the prototypic member of the STAR (Signal Transduction and Activation of RNA) family of RNA-binding proteins, which regulate splicing in response to signalling cascades. Nuclear Sam68 protein is concentrated within subnuclear organelles called SLM/Sam68 Nuclear Bodies (SNBs), which also contain some other splicing regulators, signalling components and nucleic acids. Results: We used proteomics to search for the major interacting protein partners of nuclear Sam68. In addition to Sam68 itself and known Sam68-associated proteins (heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins hnRNP A1, A2/B1 and G), we identified hnRNP L as a novel Sam68-interacting protein partner. hnRNP L protein was predominantly present within small nuclear protein complexes approximating to the expected size of monomers and dimers, and was quantitatively associated with nucleic acids. hnRNP L spatially co-localised with Sam68 as a novel component of SNBs and was also observed within the general nucleoplasm. Localisation within SNBs was highly specific to hnRNP L and was not shared by the closely-related hnRNP LL protein, nor any of the other Sam68-interacting proteins we identified by proteomics. The interaction between Sam68 and hnRNP L proteins was observed in a cell line which exhibits low frequency of SNBs suggesting that this association also takes place outside SNBs. Although ectopic expression of hnRNP L and Sam68 proteins independently affected splicing of CD44 variable exon v5 and TJP1 exon 20 minigenes, these proteins did not, however, co-operate with each other in splicing regulation of these target exons. Conclusion: Here we identify hnRNP L as a novel SNB component. We show that, compared with other identified Sam68-associated hnRNP proteins and hnRNP LL, this co-localisation within SNBs is specific to hnRNP L. Our data suggest that the novel Sam68-hnRNP L protein interaction may have a distinct role within SNBs

    Identification of the proteins, including MAGEG1, that make up the human SMC5-6 protein complex

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    The SMC protein complexes play important roles in chromosome dynamics. The function of the SMC5-6 complex remains unclear, though it is involved in resolution of different DNA structures by recombination. We have now identified and characterized the four non-SMC components of the human complex and in particular demonstrated that the MAGEG1 protein is part of this complex. MAGE proteins play important but as yet undefined roles in carcinogenesis, apoptosis, and brain development. We show that, with the exception of the SUMO ligase hMMS21/hNSE2, depletion of any of the components results in degradation of all the other components. Depletion also confers sensitivity to methyl methanesulfonate. Several of the components are modified by sumoylation and ubiquitination

    Identification, Characterization, and Localization of a Novel Kidney Polycystin-1-Polycystin-2 Complex

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    The functions of the two proteins defective in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, polycystin-1 and polycystin-2, have not been fully clarified, but it has been hypothesized that they may heterodimerize to form a "polycystin complex" involved in cell adhesion. In this paper, we demonstrate for the first time the existence of a native polycystin complex in mouse kidney tubular cells transgenic for PKD1, non-transgenic kidney cells, and normal adult human kidney. Polycystin-1 is heavily N-glycosylated, and several glycosylated forms of polycystin-1 differing in their sensitivity to endoglycosidase H (Endo H) were found; in contrast, native polycystin-2 was fully Endo H-sensitive. Using highly specific antibodies to both proteins, we show that polycystin-2 associates selectively with two species of full-length polycystin-1, one Endo H-sensitive and the other Endo H-resistant; importantly, the latter could be further enriched in plasma membrane fractions and co-immunoprecipitated with polycystin-2. Finally, a subpopulation of this complex co-localized to the lateral cell borders of PKD1 transgenic kidney cells. These results demonstrate that polycystin-1 and polycystin-2 interact in vivo to form a stable heterodimeric complex and suggest that disruption of this complex is likely to be of primary relevance to the pathogenesis of cyst formation in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    Kinetic Studies on the Transport of Cytoplasmically Synthesized Proteins into the Mitochondria in Intact Cells of Neurospora crassa

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    The transport of cytoplasmically synthesized mitochondrial proteins was investigated in whole cells of Neurospora crassa, using dual labelling and immunological techniques. In pulse and pulse-chase labelling experiments the mitochondrial proteins accumulate label. The appearance of label in mitochondrial protein shows a lag relative to total cellular protein, ribosomal, microsomal and cytosolic proteins. The delayed appearance of label was also found in immunoprecipitated mitochondrial matrix proteins, mitochondrial ribosomal proteins, mitochondrial carboxyatractyloside-binding protein and cytochrome c. Individual mitochondrial proteins exhibit different labelling kinetics. Cycloheximide inhibition of translation does not prevent import of proteins into the mitochondria. Mitochondrial matrix proteins labelled in pulse and pulse-chase experiments can first be detected in the cytosol fraction and subsequently in the mitochondria. The cytosol matrix proteins and those in the mitochondria show a precursor-product type relationship. The results suggest that newly synthesized mitochondrial proteins exist in an extra-mitochondrial pool from which they are imported into the mitochondria