149,070 research outputs found

    Classification of colon biopsy samples by spatial analysis of a single spectral band from its hyperspectral cube

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    The histopathological analysis of colon biopsy samples is a very important part of screening for colorectal cancer. There is, however, significant inter-observer and even intra-observer variability in the results of such analysis due to its very subjective nature. Therefore, quantitative methods are required for the analysis of histopathological images to aid the histopatholgists in their diagnosis. In this paper, we exploit the shape and structure of the gland nuclei cells for the classification of colon biopsy samples using two-dimensional principal component analysis (2DPCA) and Support Vector Machine (SVM). We conclude that the use of textural features extracted from non-overlapping blocks of the histopathological images results in a non-linear decision boundary which can be efficiently exploited using a SVM with appropriate choice of parameters for its Gaussian kernel. The SVM classifier outperforms all the remaining methods by a clear margin

    Serum Bile Acid Concentrations, Histopathological Features, and Short-, and Long-term Survival in Horses with Hepatic Disease

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    BACKGROUND: Serum bile acid concentrations (SBA) and a histopathological biopsy score [Equine Vet J 35 (2003) 534] are used prognostically in equine hepatic disease. HYPOTHESIS: Histopathologic features and scores, but not SBA, differ between survivors and nonsurvivors and correlate with histopathologic evidence of hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. ANIMALS: Retrospective study. Records (1999–2011) of horses with hepatic disease diagnosed by biopsy and with concurrent measurements of SBA. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study. Biopsies were examined for inflammatory cell infiltration including type and distribution, fibrosis, irreversible cytopathology affecting hepatocytes, hemosiderin, or other pigment deposition and bile duct proliferation. SBA, histopathological findings and a histological score [Equine Vet J 35 (2003) 534] were compared between short‐ (survival to discharge) and long‐term (>6 months) survivors and correlations between SBA and histopathological findings investigated. RESULTS: Of 81 cases 90% survived short‐term and 83% long‐term. Short‐term and long‐term nonsurvival were associated with SBA (P = .009; P = .006), overall (P = .001; P = .002) and parenchymal (short‐term only; P = .01) inflammation, portal and bridging fibrosis (all P < .001), apoptosis or single cell necrosis (P < .001; P = .008), hemosiderin deposition in hepatocytes (P = .011; P = .028), biliary (both P < .001), vascular (P = .003; P = .045) and endothelial (P < .001; P = .02) hyperplasia, nucleic changes (P = .004; P < .001) and the histopathological score (both P < .001). SBA were significantly and positively correlated with overall (P = .001), parenchymal (P < .001) and portal (P = .004) inflammation and portal (P = .036) and bridging (P = .002) fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: SBA, histopathological findings and scores differ between survivors and nonsurvivors. SBA concentrations are associated with inflammation and fibrosis suggesting interference with hepatic function. A histopathological score >2 and, less so, SBA >20 μmol/L are specific but not sensitive indicators of nonsurvival

    The histopathological spectrum of acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) and its differentiation from generalized pustular psoriasis

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    Background: Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) represents a severe, acute, pustular skin reaction that is most often induced by drugs. AGEP can be difficult to differentiate from generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP) both clinically and histopathologically. We present a systematic description of the histopathological spectrum of AGEP and GPP with a focus on discriminating features. Materials and methods: A retrospective, descriptive, comparative histopathological study was completed utilizing step sections of 43 biopsies of 29 cases with a validated diagnosis of probable or definite AGEP and 24 biopsies of 19 cases with an established diagnosis of GPP. Results: In AGEP, biopsies from erythema and pustules showed minor differences, whereas histopathology of the acute stage of GPP showed major differences compared to the chronic stage. Comparing AGEP and GPP, the presence of eosinophils, necrotic keratinocytes, a mixed interstitial and mid-dermal perivascular infiltrate and absence of tortuous or dilated blood vessels were in favor of AGEP. Moreover, chronic GPP was characterized by prominent epidermal psoriatic changes. The frequency of a psoriatic background of AGEP patients in our study was higher than that of psoriasis in the general population. However, histopathology of a subgroup of AGEP patients with a personal history of psoriasis revealed no significant differences from the other AGEP patients. Conclusions: The spectrum of histopathological features of both AGEP and GPP is presented. Despite considerable overlap, subtle consistent histopathological differences and the grade of severity of specific features can help in differentiation. We could neither substantiate earlier reports that follicular pustules exclude AGEP nor did we see vasculitis as a specific feature in AGEP. Our study also supports the concept that AGEP is a separate entity that is distinct from GPP. Kardaun SH, Kuiper H, Fidler V, Jonkman MF. The histopathological spectrum of acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) and its differentiation from generalized pustular psoriasis

    Multimodality Treatment for Early-Stage Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Bridging Therapy for Liver Transplantation

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    Purpose: To evaluate the efficiency of a multimodality approach consisting of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) as bridging therapy for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) awaiting orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) and to evaluate the histopathological response in explant specimens. Materials and Methods: Between April 2001 and November 2011, 36 patients with 50 HCC nodules (1.4-5.0 cm, median 2.8 cm) on the waiting list for liver transplantation were treated by TACE and RFA. The drop-out rate during the follow-up period was recorded. The local efficacy was evaluated by histopathological examination of the explanted livers. Results: During a median follow-up time of 29 (4.0-95.3) months the cumulative drop-out rate for the patients on the waiting list was 0, 2.8, 5.5, 11.0, 13.9 and 16.7% at 3, 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48 months, respectively. 16 patients (with 26 HCC lesions) out of 36(44.4%) were transplanted by the end of study with a median waiting list time of 13.7 (2.5-37.8) months. The histopathological examination of the explanted specimens revealed a complete necrosis in 20 of 26 HCCs (76.9%), whereas 6 (23.1%) nodules showed viable residual tumor tissue. All transplanted patients are alive at a median time of 29.9 months. Imaging correlation showed 100% specificity and 66.7% sensitivity for the depiction of residual or recurrent tumor. Conclusion: We conclude that TACE.combined with RFA could provide an effective treatment to decrease the drop-out rate from the OLT waiting list for HCC patients. Furthermore, this combination therapy results in high rates of complete tumor necrosis as evaluated in the histopathological analysis of the explanted livers. Further randomized trials are needed to demonstrate if there is a benefit in comparison with a single-treatment approach. copyright (C) 2012 S. Karger AG, Base

    DFDL: Discriminative Feature-oriented Dictionary Learning for Histopathological Image Classification

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    In histopathological image analysis, feature extraction for classification is a challenging task due to the diversity of histology features suitable for each problem as well as presence of rich geometrical structure. In this paper, we propose an automatic feature discovery framework for extracting discriminative class-specific features and present a low-complexity method for classification and disease grading in histopathology. Essentially, our Discriminative Feature-oriented Dictionary Learning (DFDL) method learns class-specific features which are suitable for representing samples from the same class while are poorly capable of representing samples from other classes. Experiments on three challenging real-world image databases: 1) histopathological images of intraductal breast lesions, 2) mammalian lung images provided by the Animal Diagnostics Lab (ADL) at Pennsylvania State University, and 3) brain tumor images from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database, show the significance of DFDL model in a variety problems over state-of-the-art methodsComment: Accepted to IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI), 201

    The accurate staging of ovarian cancer using 3T magnetic resonance imaging - a realistic option

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    Objectives: The aim of the study was to determine whether staging primary ovarian cancer using 3.0 Tesla (3T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is comparable to surgical staging of the disease. Design: A retrospective study consisting of a search of the pathology database to identify women with ovarian pathology from May 2004 to January 2007. Setting: All women treated for suspected ovarian cancer in our cancer centre region. Sample: All women suspected of ovarian pathology who underwent 3T MRI prior to primary surgical intervention between May 2004 and January 2007. Methods: All women found to have ovarian pathology, both benign and malignant, were then cross checked with the magnetic resonance (MR) database to identify those who had undergone 3T MRI prior to surgery. The resulting group of women underwent comparison of the MR, surgical and histopathological findings for each individual including diagnosis of benign or malignant disease and International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) staging where appropriate. Main outcome measures: Comparisons were made between the staging accuracy of 3T MRI and surgical staging compared with histopathological findings and FIGO stage using weighted kappa. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were calculated for diagnosing malignant ovarian disease with 3T MRI. Results: A total of 191 women identified as having ovarian pathology underwent imaging with 3T MR and primary surgical intervention. In 19 of these women, the ovarian disease was an incidental finding. The group for which staging methods were compared consisted of 77 women of primary ovarian malignancy (20 of whom had borderline tumours). 3T MRI was able to detect ovarian malignancy with a sensitivity of 92% and a specificity of 76%. The overall accuracy in detecting malignancy with 3T MRI was 84%, with a positive predictive value of 80% and negative predictive value of 90%. Statistical analysis of the two methods of staging using weighted kappa, gave a K value of 0.926 (SE ±0.121) for surgical staging and 0.866 (SE ±0.119) for MR staging. A further analysis of the staging data for ovarian cancers alone, excluding borderline tumours resulted in a K value of 0.931 (SE ±0.136) for histopathological staging versus MR staging and 0.958 (±0.140) for histopathological stage versus surgical staging. Conclusion: Our study has shown that MRI can achieve staging of ovarian cancer comparable with the accuracy seen with surgical staging. No previous studies comparing different modalities have used the higher field strength 3T MRI. In addition, all other studies comparing radiological assessment of ovarian cancer have grouped the stages into I, II, III and IV rather than the more clinically appropriate a, b and c subgroups. © 2008 The Authors

    Role of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology in Salivary Gland Pathology and its Histopathological Correlation: A Two Year Prospective Study in Western India.

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    Background and objectives: Salivary gland lesions account for 2-6.5% of all the neoplasms of the head and neck. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is being increasingly used in the diagnosis of salivary gland lesions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and the sensitivity and specificity of FNAC in various salivary gland lesions in correlation with their histopathology, which helps in the appropriate therapeutic management. Methods: A total of 120 FNACs were done on salivary gland tumours from July 2010 to June 2012 in the Department of Pathology, P.D.U. Government Medical College, Rajkot (Gujarat, India). Formalin fixed (10%), surgically resected specimens were received, they were processed and slides were prepared for histopathological diagnosis. The stained cytological and histopathological slides were studied, analyzed and correlated. Results: The cytomorphological features were studied and analyzed and the following lesions were observed: Pleomorphic adenoma (88), Warthin’s tumour (2), Cystic lesion (4), Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (6), Acinic cell carcinoma (2), Primary lymphoma (2), Carcinoma EX pleomorphic adenoma(4), metastatic malignancy deposits (2), benign parotid tumour (8) and malignant tumour (unspecified)(2). A histopathological correlation was available in 78 cases. Out of these, 71 cases were true positive, 1 was false positive, 2 were false negative and 4 were true negative. Interpretation and conclusion: The overall sensitivity, specificity and the diagnostic accuracy were 97%, 80% and 92% respectively. Hence, the appropriate therapeutic management could be planned earlier. This study documents that FNAC of the salivary gland tumours is accurate, simple, rapid, inexpensive, well tolerated and harmless for the patient