58,914 research outputs found

    HDAC4 regulates skeletal muscle regeneration via soluble factors

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    Skeletal muscle possesses a high ability to regenerate after an insult or in pathological conditions, relying on satellite cells, the skeletal muscle stem cells. Satellite cell behavior is tightly regulated by the surrounding microenvironment, which provides multiple signals derived from local cells and systemic factors. Among epigenetic mechanisms, histone deacetylation has been proved to affect muscle regeneration. Indeed, pan-histone deacetylase inhibitors were found to improve muscle regeneration, while deletion of histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) in satellite cells inhibits their proliferation and differentiation, leading to compromised muscle regeneration. In this study, we delineated the HDAC4 function in adult skeletal muscle, following injury, by using a tissue-specific null mouse line. HDAC4 resulted crucial for skeletal muscle regeneration by mediating soluble factors that influence muscle-derived cell proliferation and differentiation. These findings add new biological functions to HDAC4 in skeletal muscle that need considering when administering histone deacetylase inhibitors

    Effect of high mobility group nonhistone proteins HMG-20 (ubiquitin) and HMG-17 on histone deacetylase activity assayed in vitro

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    We have used a method previously described by Reeves and Candido (1) to partially release histone deacetylase from cell nuclei together with putative regulators of the enzyme. Histone deacetylase released from testis cell nuclei and its putative regulators were separated by gel filtration in Sepharose 6B. A peak of low molecular weight contains a heat-stable factor that stimulate histone deacetylase in vitro. Many of the properties of the activator coincide with those of the protein HMG-20 (ubiquitin). Ubiquitin isolated from testis cell nuclei stimulated histone deacetylase in vitro. It has been suggested that HMG-17 partially inhibits histone deacetylase in Fried cell nuclei (2). In our system, HMG-17 shows no inhibitory effect on histone deacetylase activity

    Addition of a histone deacetylase inhibitor increases recombinant protein expression in Medicago truncatula cell cultures

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    Plant cell cultures are an attractive platform for the production of recombinant proteins. A major drawback, hindering the establishment of plant cell suspensions as an industrial platform, is the low product yield obtained thus far. Histone acetylation is associated with increased transcription levels, therefore it is expected that the use of histone deacetylase inhibitors would result in an increase in mRNA and protein levels. Here, this hypothesis was tested by adding a histone deacetylase inhibitor, suberanilohydroxamic acid (SAHA), to a cell line of the model legume Medicago truncatula expressing a recombinant human protein. Histone deacetylase inhibition by SAHA and histone acetylation levels were studied, and the effect of SAHA on gene expression and recombinant protein levels was assessed by digital PCR. SAHA addition effectively inhibited histone deacetylase activity resulting in increased histone acetylation. Higher levels of transgene expression and accumulation of the associated protein were observed. This is the first report describing histone deacetylase inhibitors as inducers of recombinant protein expression in plant cell suspensions as well as the use of digital PCR in these biological systems. This study paves the way for employing epigenetic strategies to improve the final yields of recombinant proteins produced by plant cell cultures.publishersversionpublishe

    Histone deacetylase 2-mediated deacetylation of the Ribonuclease 1 promoter in inflamed human endothelial cells

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    Endothelial cells (ECs) function as protective barrier to separate the blood from the surrounding tissue by conducting crucial roles in regulation and maintenance of vascular homeostasis, such as control of vessel permeability or coagulation. Therefore, dysfunction of the EC barrier due to inflammation, infection or injury can cause a variety of vascular pathologies, such as thrombosis or atherosclerosis. In this context, the circulating extracellular endonuclease Ribonuclease 1 (RNase1) was identified as a vessel- and tissue-protective enzyme and a potent regulator of vascular homeostasis. Upon acute inflammation, RNase1 functions as a natural counterpart to extracellular RNA (eRNA), a damage-associated molecular pattern, via degradation to protect the EC cell layer from excessive inflammation. However, long-term inflammation disrupts the RNase1-eRNA system. Thereby, eRNA accumulates in the extracellular space to induce massive proinflammatory cytokine release from circulating inflammatory cells, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) or interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β). These cytokines negatively affect the EC layer by downregulation of RNase1 presumably through activation of histone deacetylases (HDACs). In this regard, this study investigated whether inflammation-mediated deacetylase function of HDACs suppresses RNase1 expression in human ECs through modulation of chromatin modifications. Proinflammatory stimulation with TNF-α or IL-1β of human umbilical vein endothelial cells significantly reduced RNase1 expression. Thus, identification of the RNASE1 promoter region and analysis of its chromatin state revealed the association of RNASE1 repression with deacetylation of histone 3 at lysine 27 and histone 4. The important role of HDACs in this process was further confirmed by administration of the specific class I HDAC1-3 inhibitor MS275 that successfully restored RNASE1 promoter acetylation and mRNA abundance upon TNF-α or IL-1β treatment. These results indicate an essential impact of HDAC1-3 in RNase1 regulation. Additionally, identification of specific HDACs involved in RNase1 regulation was obtained by chromatin immunoprecipitation kinetics confirming significant accumulation of HDAC2 at the RNASE1 promoter upon TNF-α stimulation. These findings were further validated by siRNA double knockdown of HDAC2 and its redundant enzyme HDAC1, which also recovered RNase1 mRNA abundance upon proinflammatory stimulation. In conclusion, our data identified HDAC2 as a crucial factor in RNase1 regulation in human ECs. HDAC2 is recruited to the RNASE1 promoter site to attenuate histone acetylation and suppress subsequent gene repression. This effect can be blocked by the specific HDAC inhibitor MS275 implicating the potential of HDAC inhibitors as novel therapeutic strategy to promote vascular integrity by preventing RNase1 downregulation in EC inflammation

    Hepcidin is regulated by promoter-associated histone acetylation and HDAC3.

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    Hepcidin regulates systemic iron homeostasis. Suppression of hepcidin expression occurs physiologically in iron deficiency and increased erythropoiesis but is pathologic in thalassemia and hemochromatosis. Here we show that epigenetic events govern hepcidin expression. Erythropoiesis and iron deficiency suppress hepcidin via erythroferrone-dependent and -independent mechanisms, respectively, in vivo, but both involve reversible loss of H3K9ac and H3K4me3 at the hepcidin locus. In vitro, pan-histone deacetylase inhibition elevates hepcidin expression, and in vivo maintains H3K9ac at hepcidin-associated chromatin and abrogates hepcidin suppression by erythropoietin, iron deficiency, thalassemia, and hemochromatosis. Histone deacetylase 3 and its cofactor NCOR1 regulate hepcidin; histone deacetylase 3 binds chromatin at the hepcidin locus, and histone deacetylase 3 knockdown counteracts hepcidin suppression induced either by erythroferrone or by inhibiting bone morphogenetic protein signaling. In iron deficient mice, the histone deacetylase 3 inhibitor RGFP966 increases hepcidin, and RNA sequencing confirms hepcidin is one of the genes most differentially regulated by this drug in vivo. We conclude that suppression of hepcidin expression involves epigenetic regulation by histone deacetylase 3.Hepcidin controls systemic iron levels by inhibiting intestinal iron absorption and iron recycling. Here, Pasricha et al. demonstrate that the hepcidin-chromatin locus displays HDAC3-mediated reversible epigenetic modifications during both erythropoiesis and iron deficiency

    Epigenetics and chromatin remodeling play a role in lung disease

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    Epigenetics is defined as heritable changes that affect gene expression without altering the DNA sequence. Epigenetic regulation of gene expression is facilitated through different mechanisms such as DNA methylation, histone modifications and RNA-associated silencing by small non-coding RNAs. All these mechanisms are crucial for normal development, differentiation and tissue-specific gene expression. These three systems interact and stabilize one another and can initiate and sustain epigenetic silencing, thus determining heritable changes in gene expression. Histone acetylation regulates diverse cellular functions including inflammatory gene expression, DNA repair and cell proliferation. Transcriptional coactivators possess intrinsic histone acetyltransferase activity and this activity drives inflammatory gene expression. Eleven classical histone deacetylases (HDACs) act to regulate the expression of distinct subsets of inflammatory/immune genes. Thus, loss of HDAC activity or the presence of HDAC inhibitors can further enhance inflammatory gene expression by producing a gene-specific change in HAT activity. For example, HDAC2 expression and activity are reduced in lung macrophages, biopsy specimens, and blood cells from patients with severe asthma and smoking asthmatics, as well as in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This may account, at least in part, for the enhanced inflammation and reduced steroid responsiveness seen in these patients. Other proteins, particularly transcription factors, are also acetylated and are targets for deacetylation by HDACs and sirtuins, a related family of 7 predominantly protein deacetylases. Thus the acetylation/deacetylation status of NF-ÎşB and the glucocorticoid receptor can also affect the overall expression pattern of inflammatory genes and regulate the inflammatory response. Understanding and targeting specific enzymes involved in this process might lead to new therapeutic agents, particularly in situations in which current anti-inflammatory therapies are suboptimal

    The nature of the GRE influences the screening for GR-activity enhancing modulators

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    Glucocorticoid resistance (GCR), i.e. unresponsiveness to the beneficial anti-inflammatory activities of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), poses a serious problem in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. One possible solution to try and overcome GCR, is to identify molecules that prevent or revert GCR by hyper-stimulating the biological activity of the GR. To this purpose, we screened for compounds that potentiate the dexamethasone (Dex)induced transcriptional activity of GR. To monitor GR transcriptional activity, the screen was performed using the lung epithelial cell line A549 in which a glucocorticoid responsive element (GRE) coupled to a luciferase reporter gene construct was stably integrated. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) such as Vorinostat and Belinostat are two broad-spectrum HDACi that strongly increased the Dex-induced luciferase expression in our screening system. In sharp contrast herewith, results from a genome-wide transcriptome analysis of Dexinduced transcripts using RNAseq, revealed that Belinostat impairs the ability of GR to transactivate target genes. The stimulatory effect of Belinostat in the luciferase screen further depends on the nature of the reporter construct. In conclusion, a profound discrepancy was observed between HDACi effects on two different synthetic promoter-luciferase reporter systems. The favorable effect of HDACi on gene expression should be evaluated with care, when considering them as potential therapeutic agents. GEO accession number GSE96649

    Interaction between cellular retinoic acid-binding protein II and histone hypoacetylation in renal cell carcinoma

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    Renal cell carcinoma is a rare but serious malignancy. Since a reduction in the level of retinoic acid receptor beta 2 (RARbeta2) expression in cancer cells due in part to histone hypoacetylation which is controlled by histone deacetylase (HD), the study on the interaction between cellular retinoic acid-binding proteins II (CRABP II), which is proposed to have its potential influence on retinoic acid (RA) response, and HD can be useful. Comparing to CARBP II and HD, the CARBP II-HD poses the same function and biological process as HD. This can confirm that HD has a significant suppressive effect on the expression of CARBP II. Therefore, reduction in the level of RARbeta2 expression in cancer cells can be expected and this can lead to failure in treatment of renal cell carcinoma with RA. The author hereby purpose that additional HD inhibitor should be added into the regiment of RA to increase the effectiveness of treatment

    Comparative genomics of the class 4 histone deacetylase family indicates a complex evolutionary history

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    BACKGROUND: Histone deacetylases are enzymes that modify core histones and play key roles in transcriptional regulation, chromatin assembly, DNA repair, and recombination in eukaryotes. Three types of related histone deacetylases (classes 1, 2, and 4) are widely found in eukaryotes, and structurally related proteins have also been found in some prokaryotes. Here we focus on the evolutionary history of the class 4 histone deacetylase family. RESULTS: Through sequence similarity searches against sequenced genomes and expressed sequence tag data, we identified members of the class 4 histone deacetylase family in 45 eukaryotic and 37 eubacterial species representative of very distant evolutionary lineages. Multiple phylogenetic analyses indicate that the phylogeny of these proteins is, in many respects, at odds with the phylogeny of the species in which they are found. In addition, the eukaryotic members of the class 4 histone deacetylase family clearly display an anomalous phyletic distribution. CONCLUSION: The unexpected phylogenetic relationships within the class 4 histone deacetylase family and the anomalous phyletic distribution of these proteins within eukaryotes might be explained by two mechanisms: ancient gene duplication followed by differential gene losses and/or horizontal gene transfer. We discuss both possibilities in this report, and suggest that the evolutionary history of the class 4 histone deacetylase family may have been shaped by horizontal gene transfers
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