43,617 research outputs found

    Angiogenesis and Breast Cancer

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    RESUMEN: El cĂĄncer de mama es la neoplasia que mĂĄs comĂșnmente afecta a las mujeres de todo el mundo, pudiendo verse influido por diferentes factores riesgo y teniendo grados de agresividad variables en funciĂłn del tipo de receptores que expresen sus cĂ©lulas. Uno de los mecanismos mĂĄs estudiados y que tiene un papel relevante en la patogĂ©nesis y desarrollo de dicha enfermedad es la angiogĂ©nesis. Mediante este proceso, los tejidos tumorales mamarios son capaces de proliferar, creciendo y adquiriendo propiedades invasivas y migratorias, facilitando la diseminaciĂłn neoplĂĄsica hacia otras localizaciones. El factor de crecimiento del endotelio vascular (VEGF) interactuando con su receptor VEGFR, se trata del agente angiogĂ©nico fundamental para el desarrollo de los procesos de neovascularizaciĂłn, pudiendo verse estimulado por diferentes factores como pueden ser determinadas citoquinas o las situaciones de hipoxia. MolĂ©culas tales como la melatonina o los miARN actĂșan contrarrestando las acciones angiogĂ©nicas de VEGF necesarias para la correcta carcinogĂ©nesis, por lo que inhibirĂ­an los procesos multiplicativos, la diseminaciĂłn, el crecimiento y la migraciĂłn celular maligna en los tumores mamarios. Debido a ello, diferentes lĂ­neas de trabajo estĂĄn fijando sus objetivos en el empleo de molĂ©culas anti-angiogĂ©nicas para asociarlas a las terapias convencionales con fines terapĂ©uticos.ABSTRACT: Breast cancer is the neoplasm that most commonly affects women worldwide, being able to be influenced by different risk factors and having several degrees of aggressiveness depending on the type of hormone receptors that are expressed by their cells. One of the most studied mechanisms that has a relevant role in the pathogenesis and development of this disease is angiogenesis. Through this process, mammary tumor tissues are able to proliferate, growing and acquiring invasive and migratory properties, facilitating neoplastic dissemination to other locations. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) interacting with its receptor VEGFR, is the fundamental angiogenic agent necessary for the development of neovascularization processes, which can be stimulated by different factors such as certain cytokines or hypoxia situations. Molecules such as melatonin or miRNAs act by counteracting the angiogenic actions of VEGF necessary for correct carcinogenesis, thus inhibiting multiplicative processes, spread, growth and malignant cell migration in mammary tumors. Due to this, different lines of work are setting their objectives in the use of anti-angiogenic molecules to associate them with conventional therapies in order to achieve therapeutic purposes.Grado en Medicin

    Building body identities - exploring the world of female bodybuilders

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    This thesis explores how female bodybuilders seek to develop and maintain a viable sense of self despite being stigmatized by the gendered foundations of what Erving Goffman (1983) refers to as the 'interaction order'; the unavoidable presentational context in which identities are forged during the course of social life. Placed in the context of an overview of the historical treatment of women's bodies, and a concern with the development of bodybuilding as a specific form of body modification, the research draws upon a unique two year ethnographic study based in the South of England, complemented by interviews with twenty-six female bodybuilders, all of whom live in the U.K. By mapping these extraordinary women's lives, the research illuminates the pivotal spaces and essential lived experiences that make up the female bodybuilder. Whilst the women appear to be embarking on an 'empowering' radical body project for themselves, the consequences of their activity remains culturally ambivalent. This research exposes the 'Janus-faced' nature of female bodybuilding, exploring the ways in which the women negotiate, accommodate and resist pressures to engage in more orthodox and feminine activities and appearances

    Epigenetics : a catalyst of plant immunity against pathogens

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    The plant immune system protects against pests and diseases. The recognition of stress-related molecular patterns triggers localised immune responses, which are often followed by longer-lasting systemic priming and/or up-regulation of defences. In some cases, this induced resistance (IR) can be transmitted to following generations. Such transgenerational IR is gradually reversed in the absence of stress at a rate that is proportional to the severity of disease experienced in previous generations. This review outlines the mechanisms by which epigenetic responses to pathogen infection shape the plant immune system across expanding time scales. We review the cis- and trans-acting mechanisms by which stress-inducible epigenetic changes at transposable elements (TEs) regulate genome-wide defence gene expression and draw particular attention to one regulatory model that is supported by recent evidence about the function of AGO1 and H2A.Z in transcriptional control of defence genes. Additionally, we explore how stress-induced mobilisation of epigenetically controlled TEs acts as a catalyst of Darwinian evolution by generating (epi)genetic diversity at environmentally responsive genes. This raises questions about the long-term evolutionary consequences of stress-induced diversification of the plant immune system in relation to the long-held dichotomy between Darwinian and Lamarckian evolution

    Understanding interactions between Ramularia collo-cygni and barley leaf physiology to target improvements in host resistance and disease control strategy

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    Ramularia Leaf Spot (RLS) is an increasingly problematic disease of barley. Control options are limited as the causal fungus, Ramularia collo-cygni, has developed resistance to several of the major fungicide groups. Developing new methods for controlling this disease is therefore a priority. R. collo-cygni can grow systemically in barley plants from infected seed, without inducing visible symptoms. In the field, visible symptoms normally only appear after flowering. The relative contribution of the latent and symptomatic stages of the fungal lifecycle to reduction in barley yield is not currently known with any certainty. Two possibilities are that the effect of asymptomatic infection on pre-flowering photosynthetic activity, and the development of grain sink capacity, plays an important role; or that reduction in photosynthetic activity during grain filling, resulting from lesion development and loss of green leaf area, is the predominant factor. This research aimed to increase our understanding of the impact of different phases of the fungal lifecycle on barley photosynthesis and yield formation, to better target host resistance and disease control strategies. Controlled environment and field experiments were used to determine the relative effects of asymptomatic and symptom-expressing phases of R. collo-cygni infection on photosynthesis and yield formation in spring barley. In controlled environment experiments leaf photosynthetic activity was measured in seedlings inoculated with suspensions of R. collo-cygni mycelia. Measurements were made before and after visible symptom development using Infra-Red Gas Analysis (IRGA), chlorophyll fluorescence analysis and chlorophyll fluorescence imaging. No reduction in photosynthetic activity was observed in leaves infected with R. collo-cygni, compared to those of non- infected leaves, during the latent phase of infection. After the appearance of visible symptoms, photosynthetic activity within lesions reduced as the lesions developed. However, this did not lead to reductions in photosynthetic activity when measured across the whole leaf area, suggesting that for there to be a significant effect of disease on whole leaf photosynthetic activity, visible symptoms must develop into mature lesions and coalesce to cover larger areas of the leaf surface. In field experiments plots were treated with a full fungicide regime, left untreated, or inoculated with R. collo-cygni and treated with fungicide to which R. collo-cygni is resistant (the latter as a precaution against lack of natural RLS disease that year and/or other diseases developing on untreated plots). RLS was the only disease of significance that developed in untreated or inoculated plots. Symptoms first appeared after flowering, around Zadoks Growth Stage 72. Fungicide-treated plots remained free of disease. Chlorophyll fluorescence analysis of field plants showed no effect of infection on the maximum quantum efficiency of Photosystem II (Fv/Fm) before visible symptom development, consistent with results from controlled environment experiments. Grain yield of untreated and fungicide-treated plots was predicted from fixed common values of radiation use efficiency (RUE) and utilisation of soluble sugar reserves, and measured values of post-flowering healthy (green) leaf area light interception. Grain yields predicted from the difference in post-flowering light interception between fungicide-treated plants and untreated or inoculated plants displaying symptoms of RLS were comparable with the measured yield response to fungicide. This suggests that yield loss to RLS is primarily associated with a reduction in light capture during grain filling, resulting from lesion development and loss of green leaf area. Results from controlled environment and field experiments suggested that symptom expression was associated with leaf senescence. Further controlled environment experiments tested this relationship by using treatments to vary the onset and rate of leaf senescence. Seedlings that were treated with cytokinin to delay senescence after inoculation with suspensions of R. collo-cygni mycelia developed fewer lesions than control plants. Fungal growth, as measured by quantification of R. collo-cygni DNA in leaves, was also restricted in plants treated with cytokinin. Collectively these results suggest that prevention of visible symptom development, rather than prevention of asymptomatic growth, is the most important target for management of this disease. Control methods targeted at delaying senescence could be a useful avenue for further investigation

    Women’s Experiences of Accessing Breastfeeding and Perinatal Health Support in the Context of Intimate Partner Violence: An Interpretive Description Study

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    Background: Women experiencing intimate partner violence are at a heightened risk of negative perinatal and breastfeeding outcomes. This study explored the experiences of accessing breastfeeding support for women who endorse a history of intimate partner violence. A study of five in-depth semi-structured interviews were completed at 12-weeks postpartum with breastfeeding mothers with a history of intimate partner violence. Findings: Women expressed difficulties in accessing a healthcare provider who had specialized skill in breastfeeding support. Trust in their healthcare provider, built through displays of compassion and competence, was important to mitigate obstacles experienced during care access for this population. Trauma-and-violence-informed care principles were beneficial to the development of the therapeutic relationship in perinatal care. Women placed value on breastfeeding support received from both healthcare providers and social supports, which impacted mothers’ perceived breastfeeding support and self-efficacy. Further, mothers described increased levels of breastfeeding self-efficacy after engaging in a trauma-and-violence-informed care program aimed at supporting breastfeeding. Conclusions: Trauma-informed care may aid in the development of trust in the therapeutic relationship, which in turn impacts access to breastfeeding support and breastfeeding self-efficacy. The inclusion of trauma-and-violence informed principles in perinatal care may be effective at mitigating barriers to access for women who endorse a history of intimate partner violence. health care on how to employ trauma-informed breastfeeding care to may lead to better support for this population

    Exploring the Versatility of Benzimidazole Scaffolds as Medicinal Agents: A Brief Update

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    Benzimidazole, one of the finest classes of heterocyclic aromatic compounds have the characteristic structure of benzene fused with a five-membered imidazole ring. Despite being made their first appearance in the late 1870s, they are considered as a ‘privileged molecule’. The applications of this wonder molecule range from medicinal chemistry to material science. Benzimidazole being a potent inhibitor for various enzymes has got therapeutic effects like anticancer, antimicrobial, anthelmintic, antioxidant, anticonvulsant, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antihistaminic, antipsychotic, etc. It has also made its existence in various branches of medical science viz ophthalmology, neurology, cardiology and more. The applications of benzimidazole are not only limited to the biological field but also expanded to the field of material chemistry as well. This chapter summarizes the pharmacological properties of benzimidazole, illustrated on numerous derivatives since 2016

    Hepatic and Endocrine Aspects of Heart Transplantation

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    End-organ dysfunction is a progression that can often develop in patients with end-stage heart failure. Hepatic abnormalities in advanced systolic heart failure may affect several aspects of the liver function. Hepatic function is dependent on age, nutrition, previous hepatic diseases, and drugs. The hepatic dysfunction can have metabolic, synthetic, and vascular consequences, which strongly influence the short- and long-term results of the transplantation. In this chapter, the diagnostic and treatment modalities of the transplanted patient will be discussed. On the other hand, endocrine abnormalities, particularly thyroid dysfunction, are also frequently detected in patients on the waiting list. Endocrine supplementation during donor management after brain death is crucial. Inappropriate management of central diabetes insipidus, hyperglycemia, or adrenal insufficiency can lead to circulatory failure and graft dysfunction during procurement. Thyroid dysfunction in donors and recipients is conversely discussed

    Thermal Manipulation: Embryonic Development, Hatchability, and Hatching Quality of Broiler Chicks

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    Here, PRISMA guidelines were utilized to systematically evaluate the publications reporting the effect of thermal manipulation during embryogenesis on incubation performance, hatchability, and hatching quality of broiler chicks. The search and selection of eligible publications was through databases web of science, PubMed, and Scopus. Publications written in English between 2015 and September 2021 were considered. It is evidenced that during TM, key considerations include duration and strength of TM besides stage of embryonic development. The moderate elevation in incubation temperature (38.5–39.5°C) intermittently (3–18 h/d) between E07 and E18 improves the chick’s thermoregulation capacity and reduces any adverse effect of TM on hatchability, and chick quality (e.g., hatch weight and chick length) compared with continuous TM. In addition, high temperature TM (38.5–39.5°C) between E7 and E18 has no significant effect on embryo mortality, hatchability, and chick quality compared to standard incubation temperature (37.8°C). TM above 39.5°C significantly increases and decreases embryo mortality and hatchability, respectively compared with standard incubation temperature. In conclusion, the results of TM studies on embryogenesis, hatchability and hatching quality of broiler chicks are still contradicting, which is a possible limitation for its commercial use

    Adipocytokines: Are They the Theory of Cancer Progression?

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    Adipocytokines have gained significant attention in the scientific community over the past few decades. They are a family of enzymes, hormones, growth factors, proteins, and other bioactive molecules that are important regulators of many processes. Adipocytokines are predominantly produced by preadipocytes and mature adipocytes to act through a network of autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine pathways. Leptin (LEP) is the first adipocytokine discovered that has a role in modulating adiposity and has been shown to exert pleiotropic effects on many metabolic pathways through the leptin receptors (LEPRs). LEP has pro-tumoral roles; it promotes angiogenesis, proliferation, survival of tumor cells, and inhibits apoptosis. To exercise its role in tumorigenesis, LEP-LEPR signaling and epithelial-mesenchymal transitions (EMTs) play a significant role. LEP is an oncogenic factor mainly due to its proinflammatory and proangiogenic effects. In angiogenesis, LEP acts directly as an endothelial growth factor or indirectly through cellular pathways, such as STAT3/ERK1/2, JAK2/STAT3, MAPK/ERK, PI3K/AKT, p38, p53, MAPK, and Wnt/ÎČ-catenin
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