107,513 research outputs found

    Stability of water-lubricated three-lobe journals mated with plain bearings at zero load

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    Tests were conducted with plain bearings running with three types of three-lobe journals. The bearings, with a nominal 3.8-centimeter (1.5-in.) diameter and L/D of 1, were tested at 300 K (80 F) under stable conditions to 5400 rpm. The lobed configurations tested, in order of diminishing stability, were a tilted-lobe journal with grooves, a tilted-lobe journal without grooves, and a centrally lobed journal without grooves. A previously tested three-tilted-lobe bearing with grooves, running with a plain journal, was somewhat more stable than the tilted-lobe or centrally lobed journals

    A note on the effective slip properties for microchannel flows with ultra-hydrophobic surfaces

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    A type of super-hydrophobic surface consists of a solid plane boundary with an array of grooves which, due to the effect of surface tension, prevent a complete wetting of the wall. The effect is greatest when the grooves are aligned with the flow. The pressure difference between the liquid and the gas in the grooves causes a curvature of the liquid surface resisted by surface tension. The effects of this surface deformation are studied in this paper. The corrections to the effective slip length produced by the curvature are analyzed theoretically and a comparison with available data and related mathematical models is presented.Comment: 19 pages, 5 figure

    Light trapping within the grooves of 1D diffraction gratings under monochromatic and sunlight illumination

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    The Rayleigh-Modal method is used to calculate the electromagnetic field within the grooves of a perfectly conducting, rectangular-shaped 1D diffraction grating. An \emph{enhancement coefficient} (ő∑\eta) is introduced in order to quantify such an energy concentration. Accordingly, ő∑>\eta >1 means that the amount of electromagnetic energy present within the grooves is larger than that one will have, over the same volume, if the diffraction grating is replaced by a perfectly reflecting mirror. The results in this paper show that ő∑\eta can be as large as several decades at certain, often narrow, ranges of wavelengths. However, it reduces to approximately 20% under sunlight illumination. In this latter case, such values are achieved when the \textit{optical spacing} between the grooves dndn is greater than 500 nm, where dd is the groove spacing and nn is the refractive index of the substance within the grooves. For dndn smaller than 500 nm the enhancement coefficient turns negligibly small.Comment: This paper contains 11 pages and 4 figures, and will be published elsewher

    Multi-scale engineering for neuronal cell growth and differentiation

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    In this paper we investigate the role of micropatterning and molecular coating for cell culture and differentiation of neuronal cells (Neuro2a cell line) on a polydimethylsiloxane substrate. We investigate arrays of micrometric grooves (line and space) capable to guide neurite along their axis. We demonstrate that pattern dimensions play a major role due to the deformation of the cell occasioned by grooves narrower than typical cell dimension. A technological compromise for optimizing cell density, differentiation rate and neurite alignment has been obtained for 20 lm wide grooves which is a dimension comparable with the average cell dimension. This topographical engineered pattern combined with double-wall carbon nanotubes coating enabled us to obtain adherent cell densities in the order of 104 cells/cm2 and a differentiation rate close to 100%

    Surface shape resonances in lamellar metallic gratings

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    The specular reflectivity of lamellar gratings of gold with grooves 0.5 microns wide separated by a distance of 3.5 microns was measured on the 2000 cm‚ąí1^{-1} - 7000 cm‚ąí1^{-1} spectral range for p-polarized light. For the first time, experimental evidence of the excitation of electromagnetic surface shape resonances for optical frequencies is given. In these resonances the electric field is highly localized inside the grooves and is almost zero in all other regions. For grooves of depth equal to 0.6 microns, we have analyzed one of these modes whose wavelength (3.3 microns) is much greater than the lateral dimension of the grooves.Comment: 4 pages (LaTex), 5 postscript figures, to be published in Physical Review Letter

    Spiral-grooved shaft seals substantially reduce leakage and wear

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    Rotating shaft seals used in space power systems have spiral grooves in one or both of the opposing seal faces. These grooves induce a pumping action which displaces the intervening fluid radially inward toward the shaft and counters the centrifugal forces which tend to displace the fluid outward

    Design of micromixers using CFD modelling

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    The effect of various geometrical parameters of a grooved staggered herringbone micromixer on the mixing performance has been investigated using Computational Fluid Dynamics. Mixing quality has been quantified with spatial data statistics, maximum striation thickness and residence time analyses. The results show that the number of grooves per mixing cycle does not affect the mixing quality in an important way. On the other hand, a larger groove depth and width allow the maximum striation thickness to be rapidly reduced, without increasing the pressure drop across the mixer. Wide grooves, however, create significant dead zones in the microchannel, whereas deep grooves improve the spatial mixing quality

    Growth and magnetism of self-organized arrays of Fe(110) wires formed by deposition on kinetically grooved W(110)

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    Homoepitaxy of W(110) and Mo(110) is performed in a kinetically-limited regime to yield a nanotemplate in the form of a uniaxial array of hills and grooves aligned along the [001] direction. The topography and organization of the grooves were studied with RHEED and STM. The nanofacets, of type {210}, are tilted 18° away from (110). The lateral period could be varied from 4 to 12nm by tuning the deposition temperature. Magnetic nanowires were formed in the grooves by deposition of Fe at 150°C on such templates. Fe/W wires display an easy axis along [001] and a mean blocking temperature Tb=100KComment: Proceedings of ECOSS 2006 (Paris

    Late stage kinetics for various wicking and spreading problems

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    The kinetics of spreading of a liquid drop in a wedge or V-shaped groove, in a network of such grooves, and on a hydrophilic strip, is re-examined. The length of a droplet of volume Omega spreading in a wedge after a time t is predicted to scale as Omega^(1/5) * t^(2/5), and the height profile is predicted to be a parabola in the distance along the wedge. If the droplet is spreading radially in a sparse network of V-shaped grooves on a surface, the radius is predicted to scale as Omega^(1/6) * t^(1/3), provided the liquid is completely contained within the grooves. A number of other results are also obtained.Comment: 5 pages, 2 figures, RevTeX
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