43,800 research outputs found

    Transmission of Human Capital across Four Generations: Intergenerational Correlations and a Test of the Becker-Tomes Model

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    Most previous studies on intergenerational transmission of human capital are restricted to two generations - between the parent and the child generation. In this paper we investigate if there is an independent effect of the grandparent and the great grandparent generations in this process. We use a dataset where we are able to link individual measures of life time earnings for three generation and data on educational attainments of four generations. We first do conventional regressions and transition matrices for life time earnings measures and educational attainments adding variables for the grandparent and great grandparent generations, respectively. We find that grandparents and even great grandparents significantly influence earnings and education. We then estimate the so called Becker-Tomes model using the educational attainment of the great grandparent generation as an instrumental variable. We fail to find support for the model’s predictions.Intergenerational income mobility; earnings distribution; income inequality

    Since the Start of the Great Recession, More Children Raised by Grandparents

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    Examines 2000-08 trends in the share of children living with and/or being raised by grandparents by race/ethnicity and poverty level. Analyzes the recession's impact, grandparent caregivers' characteristics, and their own and parents' views of their care

    FP-21-07 Grandchildren Living in Grandparent -Headed Households, 2019

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    The share of children living in grandparent-headed households has increased since the 1970s, adding to the growing diversity in children’s living arrangements (FP-18-01). Using the American Community Survey, this family profile charts grandchildren residing in grandparent-headed households from the child’s perspective, focusing on both multigenerational grandparent-headed households (parent present) and skipped-generation grandparent-headed households (no parent present). The profile further examines variation in types of grandparent-headed households by minor children’s age, household economic disadvantage, and race/ethnicity. This profile is an update of FP-18-01

    Factors Associated with Future Offending: Comparing Youth in Grandparent-Headed Homes with those in Parent-Headed Homes

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    This study examined risk factors for reoffending by youth in grandparent-headed homes and those in parent-headed homes. Using data ed from the juvenile justice records of youth in a variety of living arrangements, we compared the records of 29 youth living in grandparent-headed homes with those of 37 youth living in parent-headed homes. Youth in grandparent-headed homes were significantly more likely to have risk factors and needs associated with reoffending. The findings suggest that youth in grandparent-headed homes are at greater risk for reoffending and that factors predisposing youth in grandparent-headed homes to reoffend may differ from those that predispose youth in non-grandparent-headed homes

    “Growing Pains and Challenges”: GrandFamilies House Four-Year Follow-Up Evaluation

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    During the past decade, there has been increased awareness of issues facing grandparent caregiver families on the part of policymakers and service providers. This awareness has prompted efforts to document the numbers of children being raised by grandparents, to identify challenges faced by grandparents raising grandchildren, and to provide services to meet the needs of these families. National estimates suggest that the numbers of grandparent caregiver families are increasing. Recent estimates suggest that 1.4 million (2%) of all children under 18 live in “skipped generation” families in the United States; similarly, 29,000 (nearly 2%) of all children in Massachusetts live in grandparent care. A large majority of grandparent caregivers are responsible for grandchildren three years or more, suggesting that this is a sustained commitment. Grandparent caregiving is a social phenomenon that cuts across all socioeconomic, racial, and ethnic groups. However, a substantial number of grandparent caregiver families face economic hardship; in Massachusetts, a third of grandparent caregiving families and half the grandchildren in grandparent care families have incomes below 133% the federal poverty index. These nontraditional families face many challenges, including healthcare, income security, education, social support, and housing. Public and private partnerships are beginning to respond to some of these challenges. An initiative to provide affordable, supportive housing for grandparent caregiver families was undertaken in 1998. The current report, based on the first four years of the initiative, builds on an earlier study based on the initial six months. It presents the experiences and views of families and front-line staff, as well as reflections from those responsible for its development. Recommendations are presented for future efforts to address supportive housing for grandparent caregiver families

    Kinship Voices: Listening to Grandparent Caregivers Raising School-Age Children

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    This dissertation focused on the phenomenon of grandparent caregiving within a small town in Pennsylvania. The following descriptor was used to define grandparent caregivers: Grandparent caregivers are grandparents who have gained full or part-time guardianship of one or more school-age grandchildren and co-reside with their grandchildren. Increasingly, grandparents in the United States have been thrust into the role of primary caregiver of their grandchildren (Harnett, Dawe, & Russell, 2014). The wellness of grandchildren raised by their grandparents dominates the scholarship regarding grandparent caregiving. This study aimed to uncover the ways in which grandparent caregivers of school-age children, describe how they navigate various support systems. This study was phenomenological in nature and consisted of a series of two in-depth and face-to-face phenomenological interviews with each of the seven study participants. A modified version of Bronfenbrenner’s (1977) ecological systems theory was used to illuminate the intricate support pathways that exist within the lives of those who took part in this study. Findings reflect a positive correlation between the relative happiness of grandparent caregivers with the depth of their interpersonal support systems. Further, all of the grandparent caregivers who took part in this study relied upon relationships found within the microsystem e.g. school district personnel, friends, biological parents, and other kin. Grandparent caregivers from five of the seven grandfamilies utilized relationships found within each system of the modified version of Bronfenbrenner’s (1977) ecological systems theory, i.e., the microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, and macrosystem. The implications of this study cast a light on the successful journeys undertaken by a group of rural Pennsylvania grandparent caregivers. School district administrators and faculty will benefit from studying the quality of the interactions throughout the modified version of Bronfenbrenner’s (1977) ecological systems theory. Moreover, school district stakeholders who read this study may feel compelled to include grandparent caregivers in the creation of enhanced professional development opportunities and more inclusive district policies

    Roles Changes and Life Strategies of Chinese Rural Migrant Grandparent Caregivers

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    The phenomenon of rural migrant grandparent caregivers has increased dramatically over the past several decades. Grandparent caregivers often face multiple challenges in their caregiving roles. This study attempts to understand the Chinese rural migrant grandparenthood and their roles changes and life strategies. Using a qualitative approach, thirty-two grandparents participated in five focus group interviews. The findings reveal that main activities of Chinese rural migrant grandparent caregivers are raising grandchildren and doing housework, their roles in urban life are characterized by one-dimensional. Meanwhile, their role cluster in rural life including caring roles, social roles and productive roles dissolve gradually. To cope with changing roles in their new lives, grandparent caregivers used strategies such as maintaining independence, acquiring new knowledge and developing new interests, making new friends and building new circles. Most caregiving grandparents are vulnerable to a host of problems, including physical disability; psychological stress; insufficient knowledge; decreased income; social isolation. As society looks more to grandparent caregivers to assume parental responsibilities as a preference to babysitter or institutional care, systems including government, non-profit organizations, communities, universities and families should develop innovative, comprehensive, and evidence-based methods to enhance grandparent caregivers’ well-being

    Family Connections: The Impact of Self-disclosure, Solidarity, and Stereotyping on Relational Satisfaction in Grandparent-adult Grandchild Dyads

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    As life expectancy increases, the length of time in both the grandparent and adult grandchild role increase. The grandparent-adult grandchild relationship is integral to the health and preservation of the family system. The sample for this quantitative study included 62 grandparent-adult grandchild dyads, 124 individuals. Findings indicate that both the grandparents and the adult grandchildren experienced meaning and burden in the grandparent-adult grandchild relationship. The six different types of solidarity (affectual, consensual, structural, associational, functional, and normative) had varying associations with relational satisfaction for the grandparents and adult grandchildren. Although there are several self-disclosures in a close grandparent-adult grandchild relationship, there are still some conversational topics avoided, such as finances and sexual relations. Both the grandparent and adult grandchild reported that the lower amount of negative stereotypes experienced in the relationship, the more relational satisfaction experienced

    Grandparent Visitation Rights in Ohio after Grandchild Adoption: Is It Time to Move in a New Direction

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    This note will explain why the Ohio legislature should change the current law regarding grandparent visitation following the adoption of their grandchildren. This note will first explore the way that Ohio looked at the issue of grandparent visitation following the adoption of their grandchildren prior to the Ohio Supreme Court decisions in Ridenour and Martin. Then this note will examine the decisions in Ridenour and Martin. Next this note will discuss other states\u27 laws which allow grandparent visitation following a stepparent adoption. Finally, this note will examine some of the studies and commentaries which suggest that grandparent visitation following stepparent adoption may be in the best interests of the children

    Grandparent Health & Functioning after a Grandchild’s Death

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    Approximately 160,000 grandparents experience the death of a grandchild each year; this represents a permanent, irrevocable loss for the grandparent resulting in physical and emotional responses. Grandparents who lose a grandchild experience increased alcohol and drug use, thoughts of suicide, and pain for their adult child who is also grieving. Supportive resources available to grieving grandparents, the effects of the grandchild’s death on the grandparent-parent relationship and the influence of race/ethnicity on grandparent grieving are discussed. Despite about 40,000 child and infant deaths each year, knowledge about grandparent health and functioning following the death of a grandchild is limited
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