207 research outputs found

    Recording and transcription of speech and gesture in the narration of Polish adults and children

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    In the present paper, the experimental procedure, the details of sound and video recording set-up as well as the system for speech and gesture transciption and coding used in the Polish Cartoon Narration Corpus (PCNC) project are described. The audio-visual data come from a cartoon narration task performed by both children and adults. The recordings are transcribed orthographically and phonemically, and labelled for selected phenomena on a number of levels, including gesture, lexicon, prosody, and dialogue acts.In the present paper, the experimental procedure, the details of sound and video recording set-up as well as the system for speech and gesture transciption and coding used in the Polish Cartoon Narration Corpus (PCNC) project are described. The audio-visual data come from a cartoon narration task performed by both children and adults. The recordings are transcribed orthographically and phonemically, and labelled for selected phenomena on a number of levels, including gesture, lexicon, prosody, and dialogue acts

    The phenomenology of managerial negotiations

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    The question ÔÇťWhat are negotiations?ÔÇŁ is crucial for sciences on negotiations because the object of investigations determines their methods. This paper proposes an answer to this question in a way that combines different approaches in scientific literature. The phenome-non of negotiation is amorphous ÔÇô it has an identity, which can be ÔÇťnatureÔÇŁ or ÔÇťessenceÔÇŁ. The text analyzes the essence of negotiations and its specificity in the field of management. The article indicates some sources of ambiguity on the concepts of negotiation in manage-ment and outlines methods of adapting definitions to particular managerial contexts. The above tasks have been accomplished by analytical and phenomenological methods

    Struktura dystrybucji usług uzdrowiskowych a funkcja uzdrowiskowa gmin uzdrowiskowych województw kujawsko-pomorskiego, pomorskiego i podkarpackiego

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    Celem autora artyku┼éu jest okre┼Ťlenie i wyja┼Ťnienie zwi─ůzku mi─Ödzy struktur─ů dystrybucji us┼éug uzdrowiskowych a funkcj─ů uzdrowiskow─ů gmin wojew├│dztw kujawsko-pomorskiego, pomorskiego i podkarpackiego. Wykorzystano technik─Ö analizy korelacji rang Spearmana oraz analiz─Ö prostej regresji liniowej. Dane statystyczne pochodzi┼éy z Banku Danych Lokalnych oraz niepublikowanych zbior├│w danych GUS. W celu wyja┼Ťnienia zidentyfikowanych zwi─ůzk├│w analizowano szeregi czasowe wska┼║nik├│w struktury dystrybucji us┼éug uzdrowiskowych i funkcji uzdrowiskowej. W przypadku pi─Öciu z dziewi─Öciu analizowanych gmin (Horyniec-Zdr├│j, Solina, Ustka, Ciechocinek i Inowroc┼éaw) wyst─Öpuje zwi─ůzek funkcyjny mi─Ödzy funkcj─ů uzdrowiskow─ů gmin a udzia┼éem kuracjuszy komercyjnych w strukturze dystrybucji us┼éug uzdrowiskowych

    Sarkoidoza ÔÇô choroba wielonarz─ůdowa

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    Sarkoidoza jest wielonarz─ůdow─ů chorob─ů ziarniniakow─ů o nieznanej etiologii, kt├│ra charakteryzuje si─Ö obecno┼Ťci─ů nieserowaciej─ůcej ziarniny w zaj─Ötych procesem chorobowym narz─ůdach. Typowo dotyczy m┼éodych doros┼éych os├│b. Jakkolwiek zaj─Öte mog─ů by─ç wszystkie narz─ůdy, to choroba cz─Östo dotyczy jednego lub wi─Öcej z trzech nast─Öpuj─ůcych nieprawid┼éowo┼Ťci: obustronnej wn─Ökowej limfoadenopatii, naciek├│w w p┼éucach, zmian sk├│rnch i/lub uszkodzenia oka. Choroba mi─Ö┼Ťni, staw├│w i ko┼Ťci jest rzadszym problemem, jednak w ostrej fazie choroby ma istotne znaczenie kliniczne. Wyst─Öpuje w├│wczas ostre zapalenie staw├│w, limfadenopatia wn─Ökowa i/lub rumie┼ä guzowaty. Mo┼╝e r├│wnie┼╝ wyst─Öpowa─ç przewlek┼ée zapalenie staw├│w i inne mi─Ö┼Ťniowo-szkieletowe manifestacje. W pracy om├│wiono najcz─Östsze manifestacje kliniczne sarkoidozy i ich leczenie. Forum Reumatol. 2018, tom 4, nr 4: 225ÔÇô23

    Podwodne, kosmiczne, duchowe. Miasta rosyjskie a sfera publiczna w filmach skandynawskich dokumentalist├│w

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    The article discusses three documentaries made since 2000 by Scandinavian filmmakers: the Finnish director Marja PensalaÔÇÖs The Eclipse of the Soul (2000) and two films by Danish authors: Boris BertramÔÇÖs Tankograd (2010) and Ada Bligaard S├ŞbyÔÇÖs The Naked of Saint Petersburg (2010). All the films are portraits of Russian cities and their residents. In my study, I draw on concepts such as the ÔÇťRussian soulÔÇŁ, private/public and bytie (the spiritual being)/byt (the daily grind), which, as I argue, are important aspects of all three films, and at the same time, useful tools for their analysis. Common to these documentaries is the fact that the authors direct their attention to the asymmetrical relation between the stateÔÇÖs position of power and its largely powerless citizens. The constitutive element of a city as such ÔÇô being a public space, i.e. a space to which all people should have equal access and rights ÔÇô appears largely distorted. As a consequence, the residents escape from their stark reality to create alternative, imaginary spaces ÔÇô be it a lost paradise, like the underwater city of Mologa in PensalaÔÇÖs film, a cosmic heterotopia, like the space of art in BertramÔÇÖs Tankograd, or a spiritual universe, like in S├ŞbyÔÇÖs short documentary. In all these films, the directorsÔÇÖ point of reference ÔÇô their cultural perspective ÔÇô is emphasized as a filter, through which the Russian reality is perceived.Underwater, cosmic, spiritual. Russian cities in Scandinavian documentaries┬áThe article discusses three documentaries made since 2000 by Scandinavian filmmakers: the Finnish director Marja PensalaÔÇÖs The Eclipse of the Soul (2000) and two films by Danish authors: Boris BertramÔÇÖs Tankograd (2010) and Ada Bligaard S├ŞbyÔÇÖs The Naked of Saint Petersburg (2010). All the films are portraits of Russian cities and their residents. In my study, I draw on concepts such as the ÔÇťRussian soulÔÇŁ, private/public and bytie (the spiritual being)/byt (the daily grind), which, as I argue, are important aspects of all three films, and at the same time, useful tools for their analysis. Common to these documentaries is the fact that the authors direct their attention to the asymmetrical relation between the stateÔÇÖs position of power and its largely powerless citizens. The constitutive element of a city as such ÔÇô being a public space, i.e. a space to which all people should have equal access and rights ÔÇô appears largely distorted. As a consequence, the residents escape from their stark reality to create alternative, imaginary spaces ÔÇô be it a lost paradise, like the underwater city of Mologa in PensalaÔÇÖs film, a cosmic heterotopia, like the space of art in BertramÔÇÖs Tankograd, or a spiritual universe, like in S├ŞbyÔÇÖs short documentary. In all these films, the directorsÔÇÖ point of reference ÔÇô their cultural perspective ÔÇô is emphasized as a filter, through which the Russian reality is perceived.┬áArtyku┼é omawia trzy skandynawskie filmy dokumentalne: Za─çmienie duszy (2000) fi┼äskiej re┼╝yserki Marji Pensali, Tankograd (2010) autorstwa Du┼äczyka Borisa Bertrama oraz Nadzy z Petersburga (2010) w re┼╝yserii du┼äskiej tw├│rczyni Ady Bligaard S├Şby. Ka┼╝dy z dokument├│w to portret wybranego miasta w Rosji i jego mieszka┼äc├│w. Odwo┼éuj─ůc si─Ö do koncepcji takich jak ÔÇ×rosyjska duszaÔÇŁ, bytie/byt oraz sfera publiczna/prywatna, istotnych dla samych film├│w i stanowi─ůcych zarazem narz─Ödzie analizy i refleksji, artyku┼é podejmuje przedstawiony przez skandynawskich tw├│rc├│w problem asymetrycznej relacji mi─Ödzy skupion─ů w r─Ökach pa┼ästwa w┼éadz─ů a zwyk┼éymi obywatelami. Sfera publiczna konstytuuj─ůca miasto, do kt├│rej obywatele powinni mie─ç w miar─Ö mo┼╝liwo┼Ťci r├│wny dost─Öp, jawi si─Ö w omawianych dokumentach jako wysoce skr─Öpowana. Bohaterowie film├│w tworz─ů w konsekwencji w┼éasne, wyobra┼╝one przestrzenie: dokument Pensali ukazuje zatopione miasto Mo┼éog─Ö przekszta┼écone poprzez prac─Ö pami─Öci w utracony raj, w filmie Bertrama przestrze┼ä sztuki przetworzona zostaje w kosmiczn─ů heterotopi─Ö, a w portrecie Ady S├Şby w─Ödr├│wki po Petersburgu w towarzystwie jego mieszka┼äca obrazuj─ů metropoli─Ö jako duchowe uniwersum. W ka┼╝dym z dokument├│w tw├│rcy zwracaj─ů uwag─Ö odbiorc├│w na kulturowe filtry, dziel─ůce ich od portretowanej rosyjskiej rzeczywisto┼Ťci

    Negocjacje pomi─Ödzy kopalni─ů w─Ögla brunatnego a elektrowni─ů jako kooperacyjna, dwuetapowa gra dwuosobowa o sumie niezerowej

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    Lignite price negotiation between opencast mine and power plant as a two-stage, two-person, cooperative, non-zero sum game. Based on the simple model of the lignite deposit the methodology of finding the optimal solution for bilateral monopoly (BM) of lignite mine and power plant is shown taking into account nested pits generated by the pit optimisation process. It is proposed to treat lignite price negotiation as a kind of two-stage game. In the first step (cooperative) both sides should select the ultimate pit maximising joint profits of BM and in the second one (competitive) the agreement should be achieved regarding profit division. This can be realised through side payments or by establishing the lignite transfer price. Lack of cooperation and opportunism can lead to the suboptimal solution ÔÇô excavation of the smaller pit. Due to existence of information asymmetry and the mine predominant strategy attainment of the optimal solution is more probably in vertically integrated firms. Dynamic adjustments of LOM BM plan to short-term changes of energy market using optimisation techniques, BM model, game theory and their valuation as real options is the new direction of further research.bilateral monopoly; opencast mine; pit optimisation; price negotiation;

    J─Özyk, reprezentacja i fetysze. G┼é├│d w ÔÇ×The ShawlÔÇŁ Cynthii Ozick

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    The Shawl by Cynthia Ozick is an extremely intriguing attempt at writing hunger, loss and the Holocaust. The novella transforms into a meditation on the possibility of depicting traumatic sensations, which easily defy symbolisation. As she casts suspicion on language and literature, and more broadly representation, Ozick adheres to the tradition of Jewish aniconism. However, she does so in an ostentatiously literary manner, verging on the idolatry of fiction. Ozick discards verisimilitude and hyperrealism in the representations of hunger and the Holocaust. In so doing, she suggests that the illusion of immediacy they produce is merely a fetish rather than the literary celebration of the body. OzickÔÇÖs ambitions may be more moderate, but they are certainly more honest. She explores the irreconcilable differences between the realms of the sensual and the literary. However, she also seems to say ÔÇťliterature in spite of allÔÇŁ (to misquote Georges Didi-HubermanÔÇÖs dictum), thereby articulating her affirmation of the linguistic medium and literature despite all their shortcomings and deficiencies.The Shawl Cynthii Ozick stanowi niezwykle interesuj─ůc─ů pr├│b─Ö zapisu doznania g┼éodu, utraty i Holokaustu. Opowie┼Ť─ç ta przekszta┼éca si─Ö w medytacj─Ö nad mo┼╝liwo┼Ťci─ů przedstawienia dozna┼ä traumatycznych, niepoddaj─ůcych si─Ö ┼éatwej symbolizacji. Umieszczaj─ůc j─Özyk i literatur─Ö, czy te┼╝ szerzej ÔÇô reprezentacj─Ö, w stanie podejrzenia, Ozick pozostaje wierna tradycji ┼╝ydowskiego anikonizmu. Autorka czyni to jednak w spos├│b ostentacyjnie literacki, zatr─ůcaj─ůcy o idolatri─Ö fikcji powie┼Ťciowej. Odrzucaj─ůc przedstawienia werystyczne lub hiperrealistyczne g┼éodu i Holokaustu, Ozick podpowiada, ┼╝e iluzja bezpo┼Ťrednio┼Ťci, kt├│r─ů takie teksty wytwarzaj─ů, jest zaledwie fetyszem, nie za┼Ť ┼Ťladem obecno┼Ťci cia┼éa w literaturze. Ambicje Ozick s─ů by─ç mo┼╝e skromniejsze, ale z pewno┼Ťci─ů uczciwsze. Autorka ods┼éania nieprzystawalno┼Ť─ç porz─ůdku zmys┼é├│w i literatury, jednak ÔÇô trawestuj─ůc tytu┼é ksi─ů┼╝ki Georgesa Didi-Hubermana ÔÇô wydaje si─Ö r├│wnie┼╝ m├│wi─ç ÔÇ×literatura mimo wszystkoÔÇŁ, afirmuj─ůc tym samym medium j─Özyka oraz literatur─Ö pomimo wszystkich jej niedoskona┼éo┼Ťci

    Wprowadzenie do biologii system├│w. Cz─Ö┼Ť─ç I

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    A gigantic amounts of data and information on molecules that constitute the very complex cell machinery havebeen collected, classified and stored in data banks. Although we posses enormous amount of knowledge about theproperties and functions of thousands of molecular entities, we are still far from understanding how they do work ina living cell. It is clear now that these molecules (genes, proteins) are not autonomous, that there is no direct linearrelation between genotype and phenotype, and that the majority of functions are carried and executed by concertedmolecular activity, and that the majority of diseases are multifactorial. A basic property of the matter in a living cell(both normal and pathologic) is an interaction between variety of macromolecules, mainly proteins, genes (DNA)etc. In a process of self-organization they are able to form an active molecular biologic system ÔÇö a complex, labileand dynamic network which integrity is secured by non-covalent bounds. In this essay some basic properties ofnetwork structure and the universal rules that govern them are described. Network or system biology is promisingnew research approach in biology and medicine.A gigantic amounts of data and information on molecules that constitute the very complex cell machinery havebeen collected, classified and stored in data banks. Although we posses enormous amount of knowledge about theproperties and functions of thousands of molecular entities, we are still far from understanding how they do work ina living cell. It is clear now that these molecules (genes, proteins) are not autonomous, that there is no direct linearrelation between genotype and phenotype, and that the majority of functions are carried and executed by concertedmolecular activity, and that the majority of diseases are multifactorial. A basic property of the matter in a living cell(both normal and pathologic) is an interaction between variety of macromolecules, mainly proteins, genes (DNA)etc. In a process of self-organization they are able to form an active molecular biologic system ÔÇö a complex, labileand dynamic network which integrity is secured by non-covalent bounds. In this essay some basic properties ofnetwork structure and the universal rules that govern them are described. Network or system biology is promisingnew research approach in biology and medicine

    INTERGENERATIONAL SOLIDARITY ÔÇô A SEEMINGLY RIGHT SOCIAL POLICY POSTULATE WHICH HAS BECOME INCREASINGLY TROUBLESOME

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    Artyku┼é jest pr├│b─ů przyjrzenia si─Ö polityce spo┼éecznej pa┼ästwa polskiego pod k─ůtem tych jej cech, kt├│re os┼éabiaj─ů solidarno┼Ť─ç mi─Ödzypokoleniow─ů. Drugim celem artyku┼éu jest pr├│ba wskazania niezb─Ödnych korekt w polityce spo┼éecznej, w rezultacie kt├│rych mog┼éaby ona ÔÇô lepiej ni┼╝ dot─ůd ÔÇô wspiera─ç solidarno┼Ť─ç pokole┼ä. Po trzecie, w artykule podj─Öto pr├│b─Ö wskazania na ewentualne ÔÇô mimo wszystko ÔÇô pozytywne konsekwencje promodernizacyjne, jakie mie─ç mo┼╝e s┼éabn─ůca solidarno┼Ť─ç mi─Ödzygeneracyjna. W┼Ťr├│d najwa┼╝niejszych mankament├│w polityki spo┼éecznej, kt├│re skutkuj─ů rwaniem si─Ö solidarno┼Ťci mi─Ödzypokoleniowej, wymieniono mi─Ödzy innymi brak sp├│jnej polityki rodzinnej oraz akcyjny charakter wielu program├│w spo┼éecznych, kt├│ry poci─ůga za sob─ů spadek poczucia socjalnego bezpiecze┼ästwa wielu du┼╝ych grup spo┼éeczno-zawodowych. W opinii autora niesp├│jna polityka spo┼éeczna pa┼ästwa nie poci─ůga za sob─ů jeszcze rozpadu solidarno┼Ťci mi─Ödzypokoleniowej na poziomie mikro (rodziny), skutkuje ju┼╝ jednak wieloma negatywnymi konsekwencjami na poziomie makrostrukturalnym (m.in. brakiem lojalno┼Ťci fiskalnej os├│b w ┼Ťrednim wieku, odwracaniem si─Ö uwagi spo┼éecznej od problem├│w senior├│w). S┼éabn─ůca solidarno┼Ť─ç mi─Ödzypokoleniowa mo┼╝e ÔÇô wbrew pozorom ÔÇô mie─ç tak┼╝e nast─Öpstwa promodernizacyjne. Stanie si─Ö tak, je┼Ťli p├│jdzie ona w parze ze wzrostem aspiracji podmiotowych senior├│w i z wi─Öksz─ů presj─ů na pa┼ästwo, by reformowa┼éo ono szybciej i g┼é─Öbiej w┼éasn─ů polityk─Ö spo┼éeczn─ů.In the paper the author analyses the Polish stateÔÇÖs social policy by examining the features that weaken solidarity between generations. The other aim of the paper is to propose the necessary adjustments to the stateÔÇÖs social policy to make it respond better to the current challenges of intergenerational solidarity. Certain positive consequences that the weakening intergenerational solidarity may have on the modernisation of the society have also been identified. Among the main shortcomings of the existing social policy whose adverse effects manifest themselves in the breaking down of intergenerational solidarity is the absence of a coherent pro-family policy and an ÔÇśactionÔÇÖ type character of many social programmes, which inevitably leads to a decrease in the perception of social security among large social and professional groups. In the authorÔÇÖs opinion, although at the micro (family) level the symptoms of the breaking down of intergenerational solidarity as a result of the stateÔÇÖs incoherent social policy are not yet showing, its negative effects are already observable at the macrostructural level, and include, inter alia, the absence of fiscal loyalty on the part of middle-aged citizens, or the turning of a blind eye on the needs of senior citizens. On the other hand, despite what it may seem, declining intergenerational solidarity may be conducive to the modernisation of the society. For this to happen, though, it must be accompanied by increasing aspirations of senior citizens demanding to be treated as subjects of the social policy, and further combined with a greater pressure and demands on the state to reform its own social policy faster and more thoroughly
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