5,758 research outputs found

    Recent Progress on Degradation of Mycotoxins by Cold Plasma

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    Mycotoxins are toxic, which can endanger health of animals and humans, causing a lot of economic losses to the food industry. Cold plasma is an emerging non-thermal technology featuring green and high efficiency, which can degrade mycotoxin in an effective way. To provide a theoretical reference for the application of cold plasma in the degradation of food mycotoxins, this paper first summarized the mycotoxins degradation mechanisms after cold plasma treatment. The key point is the structure of degradation products and possible degradation pathways of aflatoxin, deoxynivalenol, and zearalenone after cold plasma treatment under different discharge modes and treatment conditions. WhatÔÇÖs more, the degradation effect of cold plasma on pure mycotoxins and mycotoxins on food matrix were reviewed. Finally, the safety and feasibility of cold plasma treatment was talked about from the perspective of toxicity, which was separated into structural, cellular and animal toxicity of the mycotoxin degradation products

    The role of mycotoxins in hyalohyphomycosis

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    Hijalohifomikoze su bolesti uzrokovane plijesnima s hijalinim (prozirnim) hifama te mogu biti lokalizirane, naj─Źe┼í─çe kod imunokompetentnih, ili diseminirane infekcije, naj─Źe┼í─çe kod imunokompromitiranih osoba. Naj─Źe┼í─çe lokalizirane infekcije su onihomikoza, keratitis i infekcija ko┼że, dok su diseminirane infekcije u─Źestale kod hematolo┼íkih bolesnika. Oportunisti─Źke hijalohifomicete koje uzrokuju hijalohifomikoze su vrste rodova Fusarium, Scedosporium, Acremonium, Scopulariopsis, Paecilomyces i Purpureocillium. Mikotoksini su sekundarni metaboliti plijesni, nisu va┼żni za njihov rast i razvoj te je njihova uloga nedovoljno istra┼żena. Klini─Źki su najzna─Źajnije vrste roda Fusarium koje proizvode mikotoksine trihotecene (T-2, HT-2, DON, NIV), zearalenon i njegove derivate (╬▒-ZOL, ╬▓-ZOL), fumonizine (FB1), fuzarinsku kiselinu i emergentne mikotoksine (ENN, BEA, MON, FUS). Me─Ĺu njima, fuzarinska kiselina ima ulogu ─Źimbenika virulencije jer poja─Źava virulenciju F. oxysporum tijekom infekcije. DON, T-2, FB1 i MON pove─çavaju osjetljivost intestinalnog sustava na enteri─Źke bakterije (Salmonella Typhimurium i E. coli), pove─çavaju invazivnost tih bakterija i produljuju vrijeme izlje─Źenja ┼íto pokazuje njihovo ÔÇ×posredni─ŹkoÔÇť virulentno djelovanje. Ve─çina fuzarijskih mikotoksina ima proupalni u─Źinak, posebice u intestinalnom sustavu ┼íto mo┼że doprinijeti virulenciji pravih i oportunisti─Źkih patogenih mikroba. Vrsta Scedosporium apiospermum tijekom infekcije proizvodi mikotoksin gliotoksin i niz peptida koji imaju citotoksi─Źno i imunosupresivno djelovanje ┼íto doprinosi njihovoj virulenciji. Vrste roda Acremonium visoki potencijal tvorbe sekundarnih metabolita od kojih bi neki mogli imati i ulogu u virulenciji. Tehnika LC-MS/MS omogu─çila je otkrivanje velikog broja sekundarnih metabolita plijesni ─Źiju ulogu u virulenciji tek treba istra┼żiti, ┼íto ─çe doprinijeti unaprje─Ĺenju dijagnostike i razvoju terapijskih sustava za lije─Źenje hijalohifomikoza.Hyalohyphomycoses are diseases caused by molds with hyaline (transparent) hyphae and can be localized, most often in immunocompetent people, or disseminated infections, most often in immunocompromised people. The most common localized infections are onychomycosis, keratitis and skin infection, while disseminated infections are common in hematological patients. Opportunistic hyalohyphomycetes that cause hyalohyphomycosis are species of the genera Fusarium, Scedosporium, Acremonium, Scopulariopsis, Paecilomyces and Purpureocillium. Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of mold, not important for their growth and development, and their role is insufficiently studied. The most clinically significant species is Fusarium spp. whose mycotoxins are trichothecenes (T-2, HT-2, DON, NIV), zearalenone and its metabolites (╬▒-ZOL, ╬▓-ZOL), fumonisins (FB1), fusaric acid and emergent mycotoxins (ENN, BEA, MON, FUS). Among them, fusaric acid plays the role of virulence factor because it enhances the virulence of F. oxysporum during infection. DON, T-2, FB1 and MON increase the sensitivity of the intestinal system to enteric bacteria (Salmonella Typhimurium and E. coli), increase the invasiveness of these bacteria and prolong the healing time, which shows their "intermediate" virulence effect. Most fusarium mycotoxins have a pro-inflammatory effect, especially in the intestinal system, which can contribute to the virulence of true and opportunistic pathogenic microbes. The species Scedosporium apiospermum produces mycotoxin gliotoxin during infection and a number of peptides that have cytotoxic and immunosuppressive effects, which contributes to their virulence. Species of the Acremonium genus have a high potential for the formation of secondary metabolites, some of which could also play a role in virulence. The LC-MS/MS technique enabled the detection of a large number of secondary metabolites of mold whose role in virulence has yet to be investigated, which will contribute to the improvement of diagnostics and the development of therapeutic systems for the treatment of hyalohyphomycosis

    Raw data for article.

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    Previous research has demonstrated human exposure to mycotoxins among Guatemalans, with high levels of mycotoxins being found in blood and urine samples as well as in maize for human consumption. Mishandling of crops such as maize during pre- and post-harvest has been associated with mycotoxin contamination. The overarching goal of this study was to identify risk factors for aflatoxin and fumonisin exposure in Guatemala. A cross-sectional survey of 141 women tortilla makers was conducted in the departments of Guatemala, Solol├í, Suchitep├ęquez, Izabal, and Zacapa in February 2022. Maize and tortilla samples were collected and analyzed for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and fumonisin B1, B2, and B3 contamination (FB1, FB2, FB3). Urine samples were collected and analyzed for urinary FB1 (uFB1) contamination. A questionnaire was administered to collect data on sociodemographic characteristics, dietary intake of maize-based foods the week prior to the study, and maize handling practices. Descriptive statistics were used to describe common maize handling practices. A univariable analysis was conducted to identify predictors of low/high AFB1, total fumonisins, and uFB1. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). During tortilla processing, a reduction in the AFB1 and total fumonisin levels was observed. The presence of AFB1 in maize was associated with department and mean total fumonisin level in maize (OR: 1.705, 95% CI: 1.113ÔÇô2.613). The department where the tortilleria was located was significantly associated with the presence of fumonisins in tortillas. Increased consumption of Tortrix was significantly associated with the presence of FB1 in urine (OR: 1.652, 95% CI: 1.072ÔÇô2.546). Results of this study can be used in the development and implementation of supply chain management practices that mitigate mycotoxin production, reduce food waste and economic loss, and promote food security.</div

    Fusaric acid-evoked oxidative stress affects plant defence system by inducing biochemical changes at subcellular level

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    Fusaric acid (FA) is one of the most harmful phytotoxins produced in various plantÔÇôpathogen interactions. Fusarium species produce FA as a secondary metabolite, which can infect many agronomic crops at all stages of development from seed to fruit, and FA production can further compromise plant survival because of its phytotoxic effects. FA exposure in plant species adversely affects plant growth, development and crop yield. FA exposure in plants leads to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which cause cellular damage and ultimately cell death. Therefore, FA-induced ROS accumulation in plants has been a topic of interest for many researchers to understand the plantÔÇôpathogen interactions and plant defence responses. In this study, we reviewed the FA-mediated oxidative stress and ROS-induced defence responses of antioxidants, as well as hormonal signalling in plants. The effects of FA phytotoxicity on lipid peroxidation, physiological changes and ultrastructural changes at cellular and subcellular levels were reported. Additionally, DNA damage, cell death and adverse effects on photosynthesis have been explained. Some possible approaches to overcome the harmful effects of FA in plants were also discussed. It is concluded that FA-induced ROS affect the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant system regulated by phytohormones. The effects of FA are also associated with other photosynthetic, ultrastructural and genotoxic modifications in plants

    Sociodemographic characteristics of participants.

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    Previous research has demonstrated human exposure to mycotoxins among Guatemalans, with high levels of mycotoxins being found in blood and urine samples as well as in maize for human consumption. Mishandling of crops such as maize during pre- and post-harvest has been associated with mycotoxin contamination. The overarching goal of this study was to identify risk factors for aflatoxin and fumonisin exposure in Guatemala. A cross-sectional survey of 141 women tortilla makers was conducted in the departments of Guatemala, Solol├í, Suchitep├ęquez, Izabal, and Zacapa in February 2022. Maize and tortilla samples were collected and analyzed for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and fumonisin B1, B2, and B3 contamination (FB1, FB2, FB3). Urine samples were collected and analyzed for urinary FB1 (uFB1) contamination. A questionnaire was administered to collect data on sociodemographic characteristics, dietary intake of maize-based foods the week prior to the study, and maize handling practices. Descriptive statistics were used to describe common maize handling practices. A univariable analysis was conducted to identify predictors of low/high AFB1, total fumonisins, and uFB1. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). During tortilla processing, a reduction in the AFB1 and total fumonisin levels was observed. The presence of AFB1 in maize was associated with department and mean total fumonisin level in maize (OR: 1.705, 95% CI: 1.113ÔÇô2.613). The department where the tortilleria was located was significantly associated with the presence of fumonisins in tortillas. Increased consumption of Tortrix was significantly associated with the presence of FB1 in urine (OR: 1.652, 95% CI: 1.072ÔÇô2.546). Results of this study can be used in the development and implementation of supply chain management practices that mitigate mycotoxin production, reduce food waste and economic loss, and promote food security.</div

    Occurrence of fumonisin in processed and low processed corn-based products in Turkey

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    A total of 92 corn-based food products consisting of 53 low-processed and 39 processed samples were collected at random from retail markets and bazaars in various provinces of Turkey and analysed for total fumonisin levels. Twenty oneTwenty-one (40%) low-processed and nine (23%) processed samples were found to contain fumonisin. Total fumonisin contamination in the low-processed products ranged from 0.8 to 273 273 mg. mg kg-1, and in the processed products from 0.3 to 76.8 mg kg-. Considering all 92 samples, the highest frequency of detection and also the highest concentrations (in flour samples up to 273 mg kg-1) were detected in low-processed products. These results indicated the natural contamination of fumonisins corn-based low-processed and processed food products for human consumption in Turkey by fumonisins

    The role of mycotoxins in hyalohyphomycosis

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    Hijalohifomikoze su bolesti uzrokovane plijesnima s hijalinim (prozirnim) hifama te mogu biti lokalizirane, naj─Źe┼í─çe kod imunokompetentnih, ili diseminirane infekcije, naj─Źe┼í─çe kod imunokompromitiranih osoba. Naj─Źe┼í─çe lokalizirane infekcije su onihomikoza, keratitis i infekcija ko┼że, dok su diseminirane infekcije u─Źestale kod hematolo┼íkih bolesnika. Oportunisti─Źke hijalohifomicete koje uzrokuju hijalohifomikoze su vrste rodova Fusarium, Scedosporium, Acremonium, Scopulariopsis, Paecilomyces i Purpureocillium. Mikotoksini su sekundarni metaboliti plijesni, nisu va┼żni za njihov rast i razvoj te je njihova uloga nedovoljno istra┼żena. Klini─Źki su najzna─Źajnije vrste roda Fusarium koje proizvode mikotoksine trihotecene (T-2, HT-2, DON, NIV), zearalenon i njegove derivate (╬▒-ZOL, ╬▓-ZOL), fumonizine (FB1), fuzarinsku kiselinu i emergentne mikotoksine (ENN, BEA, MON, FUS). Me─Ĺu njima, fuzarinska kiselina ima ulogu ─Źimbenika virulencije jer poja─Źava virulenciju F. oxysporum tijekom infekcije. DON, T-2, FB1 i MON pove─çavaju osjetljivost intestinalnog sustava na enteri─Źke bakterije (Salmonella Typhimurium i E. coli), pove─çavaju invazivnost tih bakterija i produljuju vrijeme izlje─Źenja ┼íto pokazuje njihovo ÔÇ×posredni─ŹkoÔÇť virulentno djelovanje. Ve─çina fuzarijskih mikotoksina ima proupalni u─Źinak, posebice u intestinalnom sustavu ┼íto mo┼że doprinijeti virulenciji pravih i oportunisti─Źkih patogenih mikroba. Vrsta Scedosporium apiospermum tijekom infekcije proizvodi mikotoksin gliotoksin i niz peptida koji imaju citotoksi─Źno i imunosupresivno djelovanje ┼íto doprinosi njihovoj virulenciji. Vrste roda Acremonium visoki potencijal tvorbe sekundarnih metabolita od kojih bi neki mogli imati i ulogu u virulenciji. Tehnika LC-MS/MS omogu─çila je otkrivanje velikog broja sekundarnih metabolita plijesni ─Źiju ulogu u virulenciji tek treba istra┼żiti, ┼íto ─çe doprinijeti unaprje─Ĺenju dijagnostike i razvoju terapijskih sustava za lije─Źenje hijalohifomikoza.Hyalohyphomycoses are diseases caused by molds with hyaline (transparent) hyphae and can be localized, most often in immunocompetent people, or disseminated infections, most often in immunocompromised people. The most common localized infections are onychomycosis, keratitis and skin infection, while disseminated infections are common in hematological patients. Opportunistic hyalohyphomycetes that cause hyalohyphomycosis are species of the genera Fusarium, Scedosporium, Acremonium, Scopulariopsis, Paecilomyces and Purpureocillium. Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of mold, not important for their growth and development, and their role is insufficiently studied. The most clinically significant species is Fusarium spp. whose mycotoxins are trichothecenes (T-2, HT-2, DON, NIV), zearalenone and its metabolites (╬▒-ZOL, ╬▓-ZOL), fumonisins (FB1), fusaric acid and emergent mycotoxins (ENN, BEA, MON, FUS). Among them, fusaric acid plays the role of virulence factor because it enhances the virulence of F. oxysporum during infection. DON, T-2, FB1 and MON increase the sensitivity of the intestinal system to enteric bacteria (Salmonella Typhimurium and E. coli), increase the invasiveness of these bacteria and prolong the healing time, which shows their "intermediate" virulence effect. Most fusarium mycotoxins have a pro-inflammatory effect, especially in the intestinal system, which can contribute to the virulence of true and opportunistic pathogenic microbes. The species Scedosporium apiospermum produces mycotoxin gliotoxin during infection and a number of peptides that have cytotoxic and immunosuppressive effects, which contributes to their virulence. Species of the Acremonium genus have a high potential for the formation of secondary metabolites, some of which could also play a role in virulence. The LC-MS/MS technique enabled the detection of a large number of secondary metabolites of mold whose role in virulence has yet to be investigated, which will contribute to the improvement of diagnostics and the development of therapeutic systems for the treatment of hyalohyphomycosis

    Ocorr├¬ncia de micotoxinas em explora├ž├Áes bovinas de leite nos a├žoes e a sua poss├şvel associa├ž├úo a fatores produtivos

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    Os A├žores s├úo caracterizados por ter um setor leiteiro, em modelo semi-intensivo, com vacas leiteiras em pastoreio todo o ano. A pastagem espont├ónea ├ę complementada com uma mistura alimentar completa (TMR, do Ingl├¬s total mixed ration) com alimentos grosseiros e concentrados, minerais e vitaminas em quantidades definidas que s├úo misturados para formar um alimento balanceado. Devido ├ás poucas estruturas para armazenamento e ├ás grandes oscila├ž├Áes clim├íticas que caracterizam os A├žores, esta mistura alimentar completa ├ę suscet├şvel ├á prolifera├ž├úo de uma variedade de fungos e micotoxinas provenientes de diferentes mat├ęrias-primas. Assim, a ingest├úo cr├│nica destes xenobi├│ticos poder├í conduzir ao aumento da suscetibilidade a doen├žas, perdas de desempenho reprodutivo e, no caso dos bovinos de leite, diminui├ž├úo da produtividade e da qualidade do leite produzido. Sendo imposs├şvel a elimina├ž├úo total das micotoxinas, torna-se essencial garantir a implementa├ž├úo de estrat├ęgias que reduzam a sua concentra├ž├úo em produtos que se destinam ├á alimenta├ž├úo humana e animal, bem como, monitorizar e controlar os teores presentes nos alimentos. Este trabalho pretendeu avaliar a ocorr├¬ncia de micotoxinas no alimento (TMR) em quatro explora├ž├Áes de bovinos leiteiros na ilha a├žoriana de S├úo Miguel e relacionar com a ocorr├¬ncia destas micotoxinas no leite produzido, associando diversos indicadores produtivos e sanit├írios. Para tal, recorreu-se aos dados mensais do contraste leiteiro, ├á determina├ž├úo de ocorr├¬ncia de micotoxinas no alimento ingerido e ├á an├ílise de Zearalenona (ZEA), em amostras de leite (individuais), provenientes das quatro explora├ž├Áes inclu├şdas no estudo. Considerando as amostras de alimento analisadas, verificou-se a coexist├¬ncia de micotoxinas em todas as explora├ž├Áes. Em duas explora├ž├Áes determinou-se ZEA, Fumonisinas (FUM) e Nivalenol (NIV). Foram encontradas micotoxinas do tipo Eniatina em tr├¬s das explora├ž├Áes em estudo. Oitenta e tr├¬s (98,8 %) das amostras de leite analisadas apresentaram teores detet├íveis de ZEA (1,56┬▒1,36 ╬╝g/L), superiores ao reportado em estudos similares anteriores. Apesar da concentra├ž├úo de ZEA n├úo estar significativamente associada a qualquer indicador de produ├ž├úo analisado (dias em leite, idade ao parto, produ├ž├úo leiteira, teor proteico, teor butiroso, concentra├ž├úo de c├ęlulas som├íticas e ureia), verificou-se que o regime de produ├ž├úo e tipo de maneio do alimento constituem fatores de grande import├óncia na exposi├ž├úo dos animais a teores elevados de micotoxinas. Na avalia├ž├úo de risco, verificou-se que o quociente de perigo (HQ) foi aceit├ível (<1) em todos os cen├írios considerados, com exce├ž├úo do consumo, por parte de uma crian├ža de 4 anos, do leite com o teor mais elevado de ZEA (4,46 ╬╝g/L). ├ë recomendada a realiza├ž├úo de estudos adicionais, para garantir a monitoriza├ž├úo cont├şnua e diminui├ž├úo do risco associado ├á exposi├ž├úo dos animais e humanos ├ás micotoxinas, em particular ├á ZEA.The Azores is characterized by having a dairy industry, on a semi-intensive model, with dairy cows grazing all year round. The spontaneous grazing is supplemented with a total mixed ration (TMR) with roughage and concentrates, minerals and vitamins in defined quantities that are mixed to form a balanced feed. Due to the few storage facilities and the large climatic fluctuations that characterize the Azores, this complete feed mixture is susceptible to the proliferation of a variety of fungi and mycotoxins from different raw materials. Thus, chronic ingestion of these xenobiotics may lead to increased susceptibility to disease, loss of reproductive performance and, in the case of dairy cattle, decreased productivity and quality of milk produced. Since it is impossible to totally eliminate the presence of mycotoxins, it is essential to ensure the implementation of strategies to reduce their concentration in products intended for food and feed, as well as to monitor and control the levels present in food. This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of mycotoxins in food (TMR) in four dairy cattle farms on the Azores island of S├úo Miguel and relate it to the occurrence of these mycotoxins in the milk produced, by associating several production and health indicators translated by the monthly milk contrast. To this end, the monthly milk contrast data, the determination of the occurrence of mycotoxins in the ingested food and the analysis of zearalenone (ZEA) in milk samples (individual) from the four farms included in the study were used. Considering the food samples analyzed, mycotoxins were found to coexist on all farms. In two farms ZEA, Fumonisins (FUM) and Nivalenol (NIV) were determined. Enniatin-type mycotoxins were found in three of the farms under study. Eighty-three (98.8 %) of the milk samples under study had detectable ZEA levels (1.56┬▒1.36╬╝g/L), Higher than reported in previous similar studies. Although ZEA concentration was not significantly associated with any production indicator analyzed (days in milk, age at calving, milk yield, protein content, butyrate content, somatic cell concentration and urea), it was concluded that the production regime and type of feed management is a major factor in the exposure of animals to high mycotoxin contents. Further studies are recommended to ensure continued monitoring and reduction of the risk associated with exposure of animals and humans to mycotoxins, in particular ZEA

    Spanish version of survey used for this study.

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    Previous research has demonstrated human exposure to mycotoxins among Guatemalans, with high levels of mycotoxins being found in blood and urine samples as well as in maize for human consumption. Mishandling of crops such as maize during pre- and post-harvest has been associated with mycotoxin contamination. The overarching goal of this study was to identify risk factors for aflatoxin and fumonisin exposure in Guatemala. A cross-sectional survey of 141 women tortilla makers was conducted in the departments of Guatemala, Solol├í, Suchitep├ęquez, Izabal, and Zacapa in February 2022. Maize and tortilla samples were collected and analyzed for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and fumonisin B1, B2, and B3 contamination (FB1, FB2, FB3). Urine samples were collected and analyzed for urinary FB1 (uFB1) contamination. A questionnaire was administered to collect data on sociodemographic characteristics, dietary intake of maize-based foods the week prior to the study, and maize handling practices. Descriptive statistics were used to describe common maize handling practices. A univariable analysis was conducted to identify predictors of low/high AFB1, total fumonisins, and uFB1. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). During tortilla processing, a reduction in the AFB1 and total fumonisin levels was observed. The presence of AFB1 in maize was associated with department and mean total fumonisin level in maize (OR: 1.705, 95% CI: 1.113ÔÇô2.613). The department where the tortilleria was located was significantly associated with the presence of fumonisins in tortillas. Increased consumption of Tortrix was significantly associated with the presence of FB1 in urine (OR: 1.652, 95% CI: 1.072ÔÇô2.546). Results of this study can be used in the development and implementation of supply chain management practices that mitigate mycotoxin production, reduce food waste and economic loss, and promote food security.</div

    The role of mycotoxins in hyalohyphomycosis

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    Hijalohifomikoze su bolesti uzrokovane plijesnima s hijalinim (prozirnim) hifama te mogu biti lokalizirane, naj─Źe┼í─çe kod imunokompetentnih, ili diseminirane infekcije, naj─Źe┼í─çe kod imunokompromitiranih osoba. Naj─Źe┼í─çe lokalizirane infekcije su onihomikoza, keratitis i infekcija ko┼że, dok su diseminirane infekcije u─Źestale kod hematolo┼íkih bolesnika. Oportunisti─Źke hijalohifomicete koje uzrokuju hijalohifomikoze su vrste rodova Fusarium, Scedosporium, Acremonium, Scopulariopsis, Paecilomyces i Purpureocillium. Mikotoksini su sekundarni metaboliti plijesni, nisu va┼żni za njihov rast i razvoj te je njihova uloga nedovoljno istra┼żena. Klini─Źki su najzna─Źajnije vrste roda Fusarium koje proizvode mikotoksine trihotecene (T-2, HT-2, DON, NIV), zearalenon i njegove derivate (╬▒-ZOL, ╬▓-ZOL), fumonizine (FB1), fuzarinsku kiselinu i emergentne mikotoksine (ENN, BEA, MON, FUS). Me─Ĺu njima, fuzarinska kiselina ima ulogu ─Źimbenika virulencije jer poja─Źava virulenciju F. oxysporum tijekom infekcije. DON, T-2, FB1 i MON pove─çavaju osjetljivost intestinalnog sustava na enteri─Źke bakterije (Salmonella Typhimurium i E. coli), pove─çavaju invazivnost tih bakterija i produljuju vrijeme izlje─Źenja ┼íto pokazuje njihovo ÔÇ×posredni─ŹkoÔÇť virulentno djelovanje. Ve─çina fuzarijskih mikotoksina ima proupalni u─Źinak, posebice u intestinalnom sustavu ┼íto mo┼że doprinijeti virulenciji pravih i oportunisti─Źkih patogenih mikroba. Vrsta Scedosporium apiospermum tijekom infekcije proizvodi mikotoksin gliotoksin i niz peptida koji imaju citotoksi─Źno i imunosupresivno djelovanje ┼íto doprinosi njihovoj virulenciji. Vrste roda Acremonium visoki potencijal tvorbe sekundarnih metabolita od kojih bi neki mogli imati i ulogu u virulenciji. Tehnika LC-MS/MS omogu─çila je otkrivanje velikog broja sekundarnih metabolita plijesni ─Źiju ulogu u virulenciji tek treba istra┼żiti, ┼íto ─çe doprinijeti unaprje─Ĺenju dijagnostike i razvoju terapijskih sustava za lije─Źenje hijalohifomikoza.Hyalohyphomycoses are diseases caused by molds with hyaline (transparent) hyphae and can be localized, most often in immunocompetent people, or disseminated infections, most often in immunocompromised people. The most common localized infections are onychomycosis, keratitis and skin infection, while disseminated infections are common in hematological patients. Opportunistic hyalohyphomycetes that cause hyalohyphomycosis are species of the genera Fusarium, Scedosporium, Acremonium, Scopulariopsis, Paecilomyces and Purpureocillium. Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of mold, not important for their growth and development, and their role is insufficiently studied. The most clinically significant species is Fusarium spp. whose mycotoxins are trichothecenes (T-2, HT-2, DON, NIV), zearalenone and its metabolites (╬▒-ZOL, ╬▓-ZOL), fumonisins (FB1), fusaric acid and emergent mycotoxins (ENN, BEA, MON, FUS). Among them, fusaric acid plays the role of virulence factor because it enhances the virulence of F. oxysporum during infection. DON, T-2, FB1 and MON increase the sensitivity of the intestinal system to enteric bacteria (Salmonella Typhimurium and E. coli), increase the invasiveness of these bacteria and prolong the healing time, which shows their "intermediate" virulence effect. Most fusarium mycotoxins have a pro-inflammatory effect, especially in the intestinal system, which can contribute to the virulence of true and opportunistic pathogenic microbes. The species Scedosporium apiospermum produces mycotoxin gliotoxin during infection and a number of peptides that have cytotoxic and immunosuppressive effects, which contributes to their virulence. Species of the Acremonium genus have a high potential for the formation of secondary metabolites, some of which could also play a role in virulence. The LC-MS/MS technique enabled the detection of a large number of secondary metabolites of mold whose role in virulence has yet to be investigated, which will contribute to the improvement of diagnostics and the development of therapeutic systems for the treatment of hyalohyphomycosis
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