62,557 research outputs found

    The sensory acceptance of fibre-enriched cereal foods:a meta-analysis

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    Improved understanding of the sensory responses to fibre fortification may assist manufacturers and health promotion efforts. The effects of fibre fortification (or modified ingredients) on sensory acceptability of baked cereal foods (bread, cookies, muffins) were estimated by linear random-effects meta-analysis of twenty eligible studies (869 panellists, 34% male). As little as 2 g per 100 g fortification caused moderate–large reductions in overall acceptability, flavour acceptability, and appearance acceptability in most items, with cookies most negatively affected. Fortification of base nonfortified foods with low initial acceptability improved acceptability; however, at higher basic levels, fortification lowered acceptability. Fortification improved texture acceptability of muffins and bread with low base acceptability, but lowered texture acceptability when base acceptability was high. Flavour improvement of muffins with fortification decreased with increasing base food acceptability. Fibre fortification of baked cereal foods lowers acceptability, but food format and base food acceptability affect the magnitude and direction of responses. Refining fibre fortification approaches could improve consumer uptake

    Vitamin A Status of Women and Children in Yaoundé and Douala, Cameroon, is Unchanged One Year after Initiation of a National Vitamin A Oil Fortification Program.

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    Vitamin A (VA) fortification of cooking oil is considered a cost-effective strategy for increasing VA status, but few large-scale programs have been evaluated. We conducted representative surveys in Yaoundé and Douala, Cameroon, 2 years before and 1 year after the introduction of a mandatory national program to fortify cooking oil with VA. In each survey, 10 different households were selected within each of the same 30 clusters (n = ~300). Malaria infection and plasma indicators of inflammation and VA (retinol-binding protein, pRBP) status were assessed among women aged 15-49 years and children aged 12-59 months, and casual breast milk samples were collected for VA and fat measurements. Refined oil intake was measured by a food frequency questionnaire, and VA was measured in household oil samples post-fortification. Pre-fortification, low inflammation-adjusted pRBP was common among children (33% <0.83 µmol/L), but not women (2% <0.78 µmol/L). Refined cooking oil was consumed by >80% of participants in the past week. Post-fortification, only 44% of oil samples were fortified, but fortified samples contained VA concentrations close to the target values. Controlling for age, inflammation, and other covariates, there was no difference in the mean pRBP, mean breast milk VA, prevalence of low pRBP, or prevalence of low milk VA between the pre- and post-fortification surveys. The frequency of refined oil intake was not associated with VA status indicators post-fortification. In sum, after a year of cooking oil fortification with VA, we did not detect evidence of increased plasma RBP or milk VA among urban women and preschool children, possibly because less than half of the refined oil was fortified. The enforcement of norms should be strengthened, and the program should be evaluated in other regions where the prevalence of VA deficiency was greater pre-fortification

    The effects of iron fortification on the gut microbiota in African children: a randomized controlled trial in Cote d'Ivoire.

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    BACKGROUND: Iron is essential for the growth and virulence of many pathogenic enterobacteria, whereas beneficial barrier bacteria, such as lactobacilli, do not require iron. Thus, increasing colonic iron could select gut microbiota for humans that are unfavorable to the host. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to determine the effect of iron fortification on gut microbiota and gut inflammation in African children. DESIGN: In a 6-mo, randomized, double-blind, controlled trial, 6-14-y-old Ivorian children (n = 139) received iron-fortified biscuits, which contained 20 mg Fe/d, 4 times/wk as electrolytic iron or nonfortifoed biscuits. We measured changes in hemoglobin concentrations, inflammation, iron status, helminths, diarrhea, fecal calprotectin concentrations, and microbiota diversity and composition (n = 60) and the prevalence of selected enteropathogens. RESULTS: At baseline, there were greater numbers of fecal enterobacteria than of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria (P < 0.02). Iron fortification was ineffective; there were no differences in iron status, anemia, or hookworm prevalence at 6 mo. The fecal microbiota was modified by iron fortification as shown by a significant increase in profile dissimilarity (P < 0.0001) in the iron group as compared with the control group. There was a significant increase in the number of enterobacteria (P < 0.005) and a decrease in lactobacilli (P < 0.0001) in the iron group after 6 mo. In the iron group, there was an increase in the mean fecal calprotectin concentration (P < 0.01), which is a marker of gut inflammation, that correlated with the increase in fecal enterobacteria (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Anemic African children carry an unfavorable ratio of fecal enterobacteria to bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, which is increased by iron fortification. Thus, iron fortification in this population produces a potentially more pathogenic gut microbiota profile, and this profile is associated with increased gut inflammation. This trial was registered at controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN21782274

    Effectiveness of folic acid fortified flour for prevention of neural tube defects in a high risk region

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    Despite efforts to tackle folate deficiency and Neural Tube Defects (NTDs) through folic acid fortification, its implementation is still lacking where it is needed most, highlighting the need for studies that evaluate the effectiveness of folic acid fortified wheat flour in a poor, rural, high-risk, NTD region of China. One of the most affected regions, Shanxi Province, was selected as a case study. A community intervention was carried out in which 16,648 women of child-bearing age received fortified flour (eight villages) and a control group received ordinary flour (three villages). NTD birth prevalence and biological indicators were measured two years after program initiation at endline only. The effect on the NTD burden was calculated using the disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) method. In the intervention group, serum folate level was higher than in the control group. NTDs in the intervention group were 68.2% lower than in the control group (OR = 0.313, 95% CI = 0.207-0473, p < 0.001). In terms of DALYs, burden in intervention group was approximately 58.5% lower than in the control group. Flour fortification was associated with lower birth prevalence and burden of NTDs in economically developing regions with a high risk of NTDs. The positive findings confirm the potential of fortification when selecting an appropriate food vehicle and target region. As such, this study provides support for decision makers aiming for the implementation of (mandatory) folic acid fortification in China

    On Fortification of Projection Games

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    A recent result of Moshkovitz \cite{Moshkovitz14} presented an ingenious method to provide a completely elementary proof of the Parallel Repetition Theorem for certain projection games via a construction called fortification. However, the construction used in \cite{Moshkovitz14} to fortify arbitrary label cover instances using an arbitrary extractor is insufficient to prove parallel repetition. In this paper, we provide a fix by using a stronger graph that we call fortifiers. Fortifiers are graphs that have both 1\ell_1 and 2\ell_2 guarantees on induced distributions from large subsets. We then show that an expander with sufficient spectral gap, or a bi-regular extractor with stronger parameters (the latter is also the construction used in an independent update \cite{Moshkovitz15} of \cite{Moshkovitz14} with an alternate argument), is a good fortifier. We also show that using a fortifier (in particular 2\ell_2 guarantees) is necessary for obtaining the robustness required for fortification.Comment: 19 page

    The process of setting micronutrient recommendations: a cross-European comparison of nutrition-related scientific advisory bodies

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    Copyright @ The Authors 2010Objective: To examine the workings of the nutrition-related scientific advisory bodies in Europe, paying particular attention to the internal and external contexts within which they operate. Design: Desk research based on two data collection strategies: a questionnaire completed by key informants in the field of micronutrient recommendations and a case study that focused on mandatory folic acid (FA) fortification. Setting: Questionnaire-based data were collected across thirty-five European countries. The FA fortification case study was conducted in the UK, Norway, Denmark, Germany, Spain, Czech Republic and Hungary. Results: Varied bodies are responsible for setting micronutrient recommendations, each with different statutory and legal models of operation. Transparency is highest where there are standing scientific advisory committees (SAC). Where the standing SAC is created, the range of expertise and the terms of reference for the SAC are determined by the government. Where there is no dedicated SAC, the impetus for the development of micronutrient recommendations and the associated policies comes from interested specialists in the area. This is typically linked with an ad hoc selection of a problem area to consider, lack of openness and transparency in the decisions and over-reliance on international recommendations. Conclusions: Even when there is consensus about the science behind micronutrient recommendations, there is a range of other influences that will affect decisions about the policy approaches to nutrition-related public health. This indicates the need to document the evidence that is drawn upon in the decisions about nutrition policy related to micronutrient intake.This work has been carried out within the EURRECA Network of Excellence (www.eurreca.org) which is financially supported by the Commission of the European Communities, specific Research, Technology and Development (RTD) Programme Quality of Life and Management of Living Resources, within the Sixth Framework Programme, contract no. 036196

    Iron deficiency up-regulates iron absorption from ferrous sulphate but not ferric pyrophosphate and consequently food fortification with ferrous sulphate has relatively greater efficacy in iron-deficient individuals

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    Fe absorption from water-soluble forms of Fe is inversely proportional to Fe status in humans. Whether this is true for poorly soluble Fe compounds is uncertain. Our objectives were therefore (1) to compare the up-regulation of Fe absorption at low Fe status from ferrous sulphate (FS) and ferric pyrophosphate (FPP) and (2) to compare the efficacy of FS with FPP in a fortification trial to increase body Fe stores in Fe-deficient children v. Fe-sufficient children. Using stable isotopes in test meals in young women (n 49) selected for low and high Fe status, we compared the absorption of FPP with FS. We analysed data from previous efficacy trials in children (n 258) to determine whether Fe status at baseline predicted response to FS v. FPP as salt fortificants. Plasma ferritin was a strong negative predictor of Fe bioavailability from FS (P <0·0001) but not from FPP. In the efficacy trials, body Fe at baseline was a negative predictor of the change in body Fe for both FPP and FS, but the effect was significantly greater with FS (P <0·01). Because Fe deficiency up-regulates Fe absorption from FS but not from FPP, food fortification with FS may have relatively greater impact in Fe-deficient children. Thus, more soluble Fe compounds not only demonstrate better overall absorption and can be used at lower fortification levels, but they also have the added advantage that, because their absorption is up-regulated in Fe deficiency, they innately ‘target’ Fe-deficient individuals in a populatio