186,899 research outputs found

    Forskning og teknologiudvikling

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    Authors

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    LĂžn- og arbejdsmarkedsforskning

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    Feminist Materialisms

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    JubilĂŠumsnummer 1/2012

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    Safey in Transportation: The Role of Government

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    Stora samhÀllsförÀndringar och ökande komplexitet inom vÀlfÀrdsomrÄdet stÀller allt högre krav pÄ verksamhets- och kunskapsutveckling. Denna utveckling tillsammans med krav frÄn staten om samverkan mellan forskning och samhÀlle (Högskoleverket 2003; Statskontoret 2011) medför ett ökande behov av att tydligare knyta samman forskning och praktik. Kapitlets syfte Àr dels att argumentera för behovet av att knyta samman forskning inom vÀlfÀrdsomrÄdet med utvecklingsarbete i kommunernas verksamheter och dels att diskutera hur den internationellt etablerade forskningstraditionen praktikforskning kan erbjuda ett förhÄllningssÀtt och ett verktyg i detta arbete. Texten utgör ett exempel pÄ kommunstrategisk forskning med fokus pÄ socialtjÀnstens omrÄde, men resonemanget torde vara relevant för stora delar av vÀlfÀrdsomrÄdet

    FrÄn koja till plan

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    This thesis concerns questions regarding how children’s perspectives on the outdoor environment can be approached in a planning context. Attention is drawn to the general understanding of childhood and the definition of outdoor environment as variables in different planning contexts. Together these variables define in which way children become visible in the planning context. Children’s participation is emphasized in contemporary planning. This thesis argues that understanding and insights concerning children’s experiences and understanding of their own places can create complementary lines of communication. The first article provides the empirical and methodological point of departure. Through walkabouts with children, questions are developed concerning children’s use and experiences of outdoor environments. These questions are compared and related to problems, insights and experiences that planners have concerning environments for children. Parts of two perspectives are described in order to elucidate some of the problems that can arise due to differences between a child’s perspective and a planner’s perspective. In the second article children’s own places is the pivot. Through in depth studies of children’s dens it is shown that finding a suitable place, collecting, sorting and manipulating with environment and accessible materials are crucial parts of starting a den making process and appropriating a place as one’s own. Specific examples are put forward which show the close relationship between children’s experience and understanding of the outdoor environment and their construction and design of dens. Children’s dens are used to exemplify and clarify the difference between children’s perspectives and planner’s perspectives. The last article is concerned with the theoretical and practical analysis of these questions. Through interviews, studies of planning documents and reflections on my own planning experience an analysis is made of the importance of maps and plans as tools in the planning process. It is argued that the bias of these tools emphasizes and reinforces the visual point of departure to the physical environment and outdoor places, while children’s multi-sensuous and acting oriented point of departure is difficult to handle and process in maps and plans. A practical contribution is suggested on how to improve insights and understanding of children’s perspectives in planning contexts

    Development of competition indicators in the Norwegian general practice: Constructing a postal code-specific Herfindahl-Hirschman index applying STATA software

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    The purpose of this text is to describe a procedure that can be used to construct a Herfindahl-Hirschman index of market concentration based on the following two pieces of information: a) An output measure of individual producers located in areas identified with a postal code. b) A matrix containing information about the distances between the (centers of) the areas defined by postal codes. The examples presented in this text are from the market for general practitioners’ services in Norway, but applying the suggested procedures to other output measures should be straight forward. The STATA commands necessary to construct the index are provided.Herfindahl-Hirschman index; General practitioner; primary health care; market concentration; Norway

    Trygg i transport – effekten av tid och upprepning pĂ„ unghĂ€stars lasttrĂ€ning

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    HÀstar transporteras över hela vÀrlden i syften som försÀljning, tÀvling, trÀning och djursjukhusvistelse. I mÄnga fall, men kanske frÀmst vid transport till djursjukhus, hinner aldrig den unga hÀsten fÄ trÀna sig pÄ att lastas innan den ska Äka ivÀg nÄgonstans. Den unga hÀsten utsÀtts för mÄnga obekanta och frÀmmande situationer i samband med lastning, nÄgot som medför att den blir stressad. Den obehagskÀnsla eller stress som hÀsten upplever kan uttryckas pÄ flera olika sÀtt, exempelvis beteendemÀssigt eller fysiologiskt. Det krÀvs dÀrför att hÀsten lÀr sig vad transporten innebÀr och att det inte Àr nÄgot att vara rÀdd för, vilket kan innebÀra en svÄr uppgift för djurhÄllaren. Syftet med den hÀr experimentella studien var att fÄ en uppfattning för hur den unga hÀsten pÄverkas av att lastas samt att ge en förstÄelse för hur den orutinerade hÀstens inlÀrning kan tillÀmpas i vardagliga situationer dÄ hÀsthÄllare ska förbereda transport av sina unga hÀstar. Studien inriktade sig dÀrför pÄ att ta reda pÄ hur hÀsten beter sig vid lastning, hur hÀstens puls förÀndras under lastningstillfÀllet, hur lÄng tid det tar att lasta en unghÀst och hur dessa faktorer förÀndras med antalet gÄnger som hÀsten lastas. I studien anvÀndes sex stycken hÀstar av rasen islandshÀst. Samtliga hÀstar lastades tre gÄnger vardera, en gÄng om dagen i tre dagar. Beteenden som registrerades var fekaliserar, stÄr stilla och drar Ät sidan, det kunde utlÀsas att fler beteenden registrerades under dag 1 Àn under dag 2 och 3. Pulsen ökade markant nÀr hÀstarna gick in i transporten jÀmfört med pulsen som mÀttes innan lastning. Pulsen sjönk betydligt nÀr hÀstarna hade lastats av och stod Äter pÄ fast mark igen. Tiden som det tog att lasta hÀstarna minskade för varje dag som de lastades. Studien visar att unghÀstarna rent fysiologiskt Àr mycket mer pÄverkade av att stÄ inne i transporten Àn vad de Àr nÀr de stÄr pÄ vanlig fast mark. Studien klargör ocksÄ att den unga hÀsten med hjÀlp av inlÀrning förstÄr vad det innebÀr att lastas dÄ resultatet tydliggör en signifikant lÀgre puls men Àven mindre uppvisade beteenden med antalet gÄnger som hÀsten blir lastad. Undantaget för den hÀr studien Àr dock hÀstarna hade högre puls vid andra lastningstillfÀllet Àn vid första. Resultatet frÄn lastningstiden tolkas som att det gÄr fortare att lasta en hÀst pÄ en transport med antalet gÄnger som den blir lastad, Ätminstone om inget har skrÀmt hÀsten under tidigare lastningar. Att lastningstrÀna den unga hÀsten innan transportering anses vara av stort vÀrde för att förbÀttra den unga orutinerade hÀstens vÀlfÀrd vid transport.Horses are transported around the world for purposes such as sales, competition, training and veterinary care. In many cases, mainly in transport to the veterinary hospital, the horse has not been trained to be loaded before being transported. The young horse is exposed to many unfamiliar and potentially frightening situations during loading, which can result in stress. The discomfort or stress the horse is experiencing can be expressed behaviorally and/or physiologically. It is therefore required that the horse is habituated to the vehicle and transportation, which could be a difficult task for the horse owner. The aim of this study was to achieve an understanding of how the young horse is affected by loading. I also wanted to show how the inexperienced horse learning theory can be applied in everyday situations when horse keepers prepare for transporting their young horses. The study focused therefore on how the horse behaves when loading, how the horse's heart rate changes during the time of loading, how long it takes to load a young horse, and how these factors change with the number of times the horse is loaded. The study used six Icelandic horses. All horses were loaded three times each, once a day for three consecutive days. The results of the heart rate and loading time were compared and tested for statistical significance. Behaviors recorded were defecation, stand calm and pull to one side. It could be deduced that more behaviors were recorded on day 1 than on day 2 and 3. Heart rate was significantly higher when the horses were in the trailer (P= 0.042) compared with the heart rate that was measured before loading. Heart rate decreased significantly when the horses were unloaded and stood back on solid ground again (P= 0.008). The time it took to load the horses decreased significantly by day (P= 0.002). The study shows that young horses, physiologically, is significantly affected by standing inside the vehicle compared to when they are outside on solid ground. The study also clarifies that the young horse with the help of learning, through repeated exposure, understands what it means to be loaded as the result elucidates a significantly lower heart rate, but also less behavior exhibited by the number of times that the horse will be loaded. Somewhat surprising was that the horses had a higher heart rate the second time of loading than the first. Loading time was reduced with an increasing number of times the horse was loaded. However, this effect might be reversed if something scares the horse during loading. To train the young horse of loading before transportation is considered to be of great value to improve the young horse welfare and human safety during transport

    Enhancing R&D in organic agriculture - with what type of learning?

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    'Knowledge creation' is a metaphor for learning that deserves special attention when designing developmental activities for organic farming
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