6,570 research outputs found

    The Utility of Nanocomposites in Fire Retardancy

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    Nanocomposites have been shown to significantly reduce the peak heat release rate, as measured by cone calorimetry, for many polymers but they typically have no effect on the oxygen index or the UL-94 classification. In this review, we will cover what is known about the processes by which nanocomposite formation may bring this about. Montmorillonite will be the focus in this paper but attention will also be devoted to other materials, including carbon nanotubes and layered double hydroxides. A second section will be devoted to combinations of nanocomposite formation with conventional (and unconventional) fire retardants. The paper will conclude with a section attempting to forecast the future

    Study on Intumescent Flame Retarded Polystyrene Composites with Improved Flame Retardancy

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    The flame retardancy and thermal stability of ammonium polyphosphate/tripentaerythritol (APP/TPE) intumescent flame retarded polystyrene composites (PS/IFR) combined with organically-modified layered inorganic materials (montmorillonite clay and zirconium phosphate), nanofiber (multiwall carbon nanotubs), nanoparticle (Fe2O3) and nickel catalyst were evaluated by cone calorimetry, microscale combustion calorimetry (MCC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Cone calorimetry revealed that a small substitution of IFR by most of these fillers (≤2%) imparted substantial improvement in flammability performance. The montmorillonite clay exhibited the highest efficiency in reducing the peak heat release rate of PS/IFR composite, while zirconium phosphate modified with C21H26NClO3S exhibited a negative effect. The yield and thermal stability of the char obtained from TGA correlated well with the reduction in the peak heat release rate in the cone calorimeter. Since intumesence is a condensed-phase flame process, the MCC results showed features different from those obtained from the cone calorimeter

    Recent advances in the design of water based-flame retardant coatings for polyester and polyester-cotton blends

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    Over the last ten years a new trend of research activities regarding the flame retardancy of polymeric materials has arisen. Indeed, the continuous search for new flame retardant systems able to replace the traditional approaches has encouraged alternative solutions, mainly centred on nanotechnology. In this context, the deposition of nanostructured coatings on fabrics appears to be the most appealing and performance suitable approach. To this aim, different strategies can be exploited: from the deposition of a single monolayer consisting of inorganic nanoparticles (single-step adsorption) to the building-up of more complex architectures derived from layer by layer assembly (multi-step adsorption). The present paper aims to review the application of such systems in the field of polyester and polyester-cotton blend fabrics. The results collated by the authors are discussed and compared with those published in the literature on the basis of the different deposition methods adopted. A critical analysis of the advantages and disadvantages exhibited by these approaches is also presented

    Enhanced mechanical, thermal and flame retardant properties by combining graphene nanosheets and metal hydroxide nanorods for Acrylonitrile–Butadiene–Styrene copolymer composite

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    Three metal hydroxide nanorods (MHR) with uniform diameters were synthesized, and then combined with graphene nanosheets (GNS) to prepare acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene (ABS) copolymer composites. An excellent dispersion of exfoliated two-dimensional (2-D) GNS and 1-D MHR in the ABS matrix was achieved. The effects of combined GNS and MHR on the mechanical, thermal and flame retardant properties of the ABS composites were investigated. With the addition of 2 wt% GNS and 4 wt% Co(OH)2, the tensile strength, bending strength and storage modulus of the ABS composites were increased by 45.1%, 40.5% and 42.3% respectively. The ABS/GNS/Co(OH)2 ternary composite shows the lowest maximum weight loss rate and highest residue yield. Noticeable reduction in the flammability was achieved with the addition of GNS and Co(OH)2, due to the formation of more continuous and compact charred layers that retarded the mass and heat transfer between the flame and the polymer matrix

    Synergistic effects of zinc borate and aluminiumtrihydroxide on flammability behaviour of aerospaceepoxy system

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    The flame retardancy of mono-component epoxy resin (RTM6), widely used for aerospace composites, treated with zinc borate (ZB), aluminium trihydroxide (ATH) and their mixtures at different concentrations have been investigated by morphological and thermal characterization. Cone calorimeter data reveal that combustion behaviour, heat release rate peak (PHRR) and heat release rate average (HRR Average) of RTM6 resin decrease substantially when synergistic effects of zinc borate and aluminium trihydroxide intervene. Thermogravimetric (TGA) results and analysis of the residue show that addition higher than 20% w/w of ZB, ATH, and their mixture greatly promotes RTM6 char formation acting as a barrier layer for the fire development. Depending upon the different used flame additives, SEM micrographs indicate that the morphology of residual char could vary from a compact amalgam-like structure, for the RTM6+ZB system, to a granular structure, characterized by very small particles of degraded resin and additive for the AT

    Flammability behaviour of wood and a review of the methods for its reduction

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    Wood is one of the most sustainable, aesthetically pleasing and environmentally benign materials. Not only is wood often an integral part of structures, it is also the main source of furnishings found in homes, schools, and offices around the world. The often inevitable hazards of fire make wood a very desirable material for further investigation. As well as ignition resistance and a low heat release rate, timber products have long been required to resist burn-through and maintain structural integrity whilst continuing to provide protection when exposed to fire or heat. Various industry standard tests are thus required to ensure adequate protection from fire is provided. When heated, wood undergoes thermal degradation and combustion to produce gases, vapours, tars and char. In order to understand and alter the fire behaviour of wood, it is necessary to know in as much detail as possible about its processes of decomposition. Various thermal analysis and flammability assessment techniques are utilised for this purpose, including thermogravimetric analysis, cone calorimetry and the single burning item test. The results of such tests are often highly dependent on various parameters including changes to the gas composition, temperature, heating rate, and sample shape size. Potential approaches for fire retarding timber are reviewed, identifying two main approaches: char formation and isolating layers. Other potential approaches are recognised, including the use of inorganic minerals, such as sericrite, and metal foils in combination with intumescent products. Formulations containing silicon, nitrogen and phosphorus have been reported, and efforts to retain silicon in the wood have been successful using micro-layers of silicon dioxide. Nano-scale fire retardants, such as nanocomposite coatings, are considered to provide a new generation of fire retardants, and may have potential for wood. Expandable graphite is identified for use in polymers and has potential for wood provided coating applications are preferred

    Synergistic Effect of Carbon Nanotubes and Decabromodiphenyl Oxide/Sb\u3csub\u3e2\u3c/sub\u3eO\u3csub\u3e3\u3c/sub\u3e in Improving the Flame Retardancy of Polystyrene

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    Brominated flame retardant polystyrene composites were prepared by melt blending polystyrene, decabromodiphenyl oxide, antimony oxide, multi-wall carbon nanotubes and montmorillonite clay. Synergy between carbon nanotubes and clay and the brominated fire retardant was studied by thermogravimetric analysis, microscale combustion calorimetry and cone calorimetry. Nanotubes are more efficient than clay in improving the flame retardancy of the materials and promoting carbonization in the polystyrene matrix. Comparison of the results from the microscale combustion calorimeter and the cone calorimeter indicate that the rate of change of the peak heat release rate reduction in the microscale combustion calorimeter was slower than that in the cone. Both heat release capacity and reduction in the peak heat release rate in the microscale combustion calorimeter are important for screening the flame retardant materials; they show good correlations with the cone parameters, peak heat release rate and total heat released

    Layered double hydroxides intercalated with borate anions: Fire and thermal properties in ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer

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    Fire and thermal properties of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) composites prepared by melt blending with layered double hydroxides (LDH) have been studied. Two types of LDHs intercalated with borate anion were prepared using the coprecipitation method and the metals Mg2+, Zn2+ and Al3+. Characterization of the LDHs and the EVA composites was performed using X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, and cone calorimetry. Thermal analyses show that the addition of LDHs improves the thermal stability of EVA. Fire properties evaluated using the cone calorimeter were significantly improved in the EVA/LDH composites. The peak heat release rate was reduced by about 40% when only 3% by weight of the LDH was added to the copolymer. Comparison of the fire properties of the LDHs with those of aluminum trihydrate (ATH), magnesium hydroxides (MDH), zinc hydroxide (ZH) and their combinations at 40% loading, reveal that the LDHs were more effective than when MDH and ZH are used alone

    Flammability behaviour of wood and a review of the methods for its reduction

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    Wood is one of the most sustainable, aesthetically pleasing and environmentally benign materials. Not only is wood often an integral part of structures, it is also the main source of furnishings found in homes, schools, and offices around the world. The often inevitable hazards of fire make wood a very desirable material for further investigation. As well as ignition resistance and a low heat release rate, timber products have long been required to resist burn-through and maintain structural integrity whilst continuing to provide protection when exposed to fire or heat. Various industry standard tests are thus required to ensure adequate protection from fire is provided. When heated, wood undergoes thermal degradation and combustion to produce gases, vapours, tars and char. In order to understand and alter the fire behaviour of wood, it is necessary to know in as much detail as possible about its processes of decomposition. Various thermal analysis and flammability assessment techniques are utilised for this purpose, including thermogravimetric analysis, cone calorimetry and the single burning item test. The results of such tests are often highly dependent on various parameters including changes to the gas composition, temperature, heating rate, and sample shape size. Potential approaches for fire retarding timber are reviewed, identifying two main approaches: char formation and isolating layers. Other potential approaches are recognised, including the use of inorganic minerals, such as sericrite, and metal foils in combination with intumescent products. Formulations containing silicon, nitrogen and phosphorus have been reported, and efforts to retain silicon in the wood have been successful using micro-layers of silicon dioxide. Nano-scale fire retardants, such as nanocomposite coatings, are considered to provide a new generation of fire retardants, and may have potential for wood. Expandable graphite is identified for use in polymers and has potential for wood provided coating applications are preferred

    Flame retardancy and mechanical properties of poegmah compatibilized rice husk filled polypropylene composites

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    Flammability of Polypropylene, PP has restricted its usage as a versatile synthetic polymer. The addition of flame retardants will lower the flammability of PP. However, it will lower the mechanical properties. In this study, the flame retardancy of PP composite has been enhanced by the addition of intumescent flame retardant. Four formulations have been prepared, without flame retardant and with increasing concentration of flame retardant which are 20phr, 25phr and 30phr. The flammability of the composites has been measured using the Limiting Oxygen Index based on ASTM D2863. Two types of mechanical testing have been done to determine the mechanical properties, which are flexural test (ASTM D790) and impact test (ASTM D256). The thermal analysis has been done by thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) to determine the thermal stability of the composites prepared. Morphological study by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has been done to study the filler distribution. Results obtained from the flammability test indicate that the addition of flame retardant has strongly improved the flame retardancy. The flexural strength and impact strength decreases as the concentration of flame retardant increases while the flexural modulus increases. The thermal analysis has proven that the composites with flame retardant have better thermal stability as compared to the composite without flame retardant. The morphological study has shown that the addition of flame retardant did not affect the filler distribution. The filler remain well distributed as the flame retardant introduced to the composites
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