409,151 research outputs found

    Does the gender composition of scientific committees matter?

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    We analyze how a larger presence of female evaluators affects committee decision-making using information on 100,000 applications to associate and full professorships in Italy and Spain. These applications were assessed by 8,000 randomly selected evaluators. A larger number of women in evaluation committees does not increase either the quantity or the quality of female candidates who qualify. Information from individual voting reports suggests that female evaluators are not significantly more favorable toward female candidates. At the same time, male evaluators become less favorable toward female candidates as soon as a female evaluator joins the committee

    Who stands in the way of women? Open vs. closed lists and candidate gender in Estonia

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    The literature on women's descriptive representation has looked at the debate on open and closed lists as a choice between electoral systems. This article instead focuses on whether voters or the parties are biased against female candidates. Using data from six Estonian elections, the article finds that voters are not consistently biased against female candidates and open lists do not necessarily decrease women's representation. However, unknown and non-incumbent female candidates fare significantly worse than similar men. The analysis also shows that parties do not place women in electable positions on closed lists, and closed lists do not improve women's representation

    Bias at the Ballot Box? Testing Whether Candidates' Gender Affects Their Vote

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    Using data from all elections to the Australian House of Representatives between 1903 and 2004, we examine the relationship between candidates’ gender and their share of the vote. We find that the vote share of female candidates is 0.6 percentage points smaller than that of male candidates (for major parties, the gap widens to 1½ percentage points), but find little evidence that the party preselection system is responsible for the voting bias against women. Over time, the gap between male and female candidates has shrunk considerably as a result of changes in social norms (as proxied by the gender pay gap and attitudinal data) and the share of female candidates running nationwide. We find little evidence that party-based affirmative action policies have reduced the gender penalty against female candidates.economics of gender, elections, voting behaviour

    The Looks of a Winner: Beauty, Gender and Electoral Success

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    We study the role of beauty in politics. For the first time, focus is put on differences in how women and men evaluate female and male candidates and how different candidate traits relate to success in real and hypothetical elections. We have collected 16,218 assessments by 2,772 respondents of photos of 1,929 Finnish political candidates. Evaluations of beauty explain success in real elections better than evaluations of competence, intelligence, likability, or trustworthiness. The beauty premium is larger for female candidates, in contrast to findings in previous labor-market studies.Beauty; Gender; Elections; Political candidates; Beauty premium

    The Looks of a Winner: Beauty, Gender and Electoral Success

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    We study the role of beauty in politics. For the first time, focus is put on differences in how women and men evaluate female and male candidates and how different candidate traits relate to success in real and hypothetical elections. We have collected 16,218 assessments by 2,772 respondents of photos of 1,929 Finnish political candidates. Evaluations of beauty explain success in real elections better than evaluations of competence, intelli-gence, likability, or trustworthiness. The beauty premium is larger for female candidates, in contrast to findings in previous labor-market studies.Beauty; gender; elections; political candidates; beauty premium

    High Court Contests: Competition, Controversy and Cash in Pennsylvania & Wisconsin

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    Fund raising for the 2007 and 2008 judicial elections in Pennsylvania and Wisconsin fell in line with the national trend of increasingly expensive judicial races. Highly competitive and contentious contests in both states resulted in significantly more spending than in previous elections.Fast FactsIn Wisconsin, the two female Supreme Court candidates in the general election raised 2.6millionin2007,doublethe2.6 million in 2007, double the 1.3 million raised in the previous most-costly judicial race, which took place in 1999 when another two female candidates vied for one seat.In the 2007 Pennsylvania Supreme Court races, contributions from individuals accounted for 39 percent of the nearly 9.5millionraisedbySupremeCourtcandidatesin2007.Attorneysmadeupthelargestshare(morethan9.5 million raised by Supreme Court candidates in 2007. Attorneys made up the largest share (more than 1.3 million) of the money given by individuals.Two of the seven Pennsylvania Supreme Court candidates in 2007 were African-American; both raised less than the other five candidates and were soundly defeated in the Democratic primary.Wisconsin's first and only African-American Supreme Court justice lost his seat on the Wisconsin Supreme Court, despite the fact that he raised nearly one-fifth of the money raised by all other Wisconsin high court candidates in 2007 and 2008

    Do Employers Discriminate by Gender? A Field Experiment in Female-Dominated Occupations

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    We test for gender discrimination by sending fake CVs to apply for entry-level jobs. Female candidates are more likely to receive a callback, with the difference being largest in occupations that are more female-dominated.discrimination, field experiments, employment, gender

    Do Employers Discriminate by Gender? A Field Experiment in Female-Dominated Occupations

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    We test for gender discrimination by sending fake CVs to apply for entry-level jobs. Female candidates are more likely to receive a callback, with the difference being largest in occupations that are more female-dominated.discrimination, field experiments, employment, gender

    Does Gender Matter for Political Leadership? The Case of U.S. Mayors

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    What are the consequences of electing a female leader for policy and political outcomes? We answer this question in the context of U.S. cities, where women’s participation in mayoral elections increased from negligible numbers in 1970 to about one-third of the elections in the 2000’s. We use a novel data set of U.S. mayoral elections from 1950 to 2005, and apply a regression discontinuity design to deal with the endogeneity of female candidacy to city characteristics. In contrast to most research on the influence of female leadership, we find no effect of gender of the mayor on policy outcomes related to the size of local government, the composition of municipal spending and employment, or crime rates. While female mayors do not implement different policies, they do appear to have higher unobserved political skills, as they have a 6-7 percentage point higher incumbent effect than a comparable male. But we find no evidence of political spillovers: exogenously electing a female mayor does not change the long run political success of other female mayoral candidates in the same city or of female candidates in local congressional elections.

    The Gender, Politic Issue, and Political Parties Role Factor on Female Candidate Election

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    The aim of this study is to know the probability for female candidates for having support from femalevoters than male candidates, the effect of gender role idelogy and level of gender group identity to thesupport for female candidates, and between the four independen varibles, which one that would be thebest predictor for female candidates for 2004 general election. The result shows that there is nodifferences of probability between male and female candidates to be choosen by female voters and thereis no differences also in gender role idelogy and gender group identification for voting the male andfemale candidates. Then, this research also shows that female voters behavior can't be predicted by thosevariables. The suggestion for the next research is to fix the way sampel is being collected, get morefocused on male participants, enhance other variables such as gender stereotype and involving thecognitive process in voting behavior
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