528,087 research outputs found

    Continuous wave observation of massive polariton redistribution by stimulated scattering in semiconductor microcavities

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    A massive redistribution of the polariton occupancy to two specific wave vectors is observed under conditions of continuous wave excitation of a semiconductor microcavity. The “condensation” of the polaritons to the two specific states arises from stimulated scattering at final state occupancies of order unity. The stimulation phenomena, arising due to the bosonic character of the polariton quasiparticles, occur for conditions of resonant excitation of the lower polariton branch. High energy nonresonant excitation, as in most previous work, instead leads to conventional lasing in the vertical cavity structure

    Many-body theory of excitation dynamics in an ultracold Rydberg gas

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    We develop a theoretical approach for the dynamics of Rydberg excitations in ultracold gases, with a realistically large number of atoms. We rely on the reduction of the single-atom Bloch equations to rate equations, which is possible under various experimentally relevant conditions. Here, we explicitly refer to a two-step excitation-scheme. We discuss the conditions under which our approach is valid by comparing the results with the solution of the exact quantum master equation for two interacting atoms. Concerning the emergence of an excitation blockade in a Rydberg gas, our results are in qualitative agreement with experiment. Possible sources of quantitative discrepancy are carefully examined. Based on the two-step excitation scheme, we predict the occurrence of an antiblockade effect and propose possible ways to detect this excitation enhancement experimentally in an optical lattice as well as in the gas phase.Comment: 12 pages, 8 figure

    High-occupancy effects and stimulation phenomena in semiconductor microcavities

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    This paper describes recent work on high-occupancy effects in semiconductor microcavities, with emphasis on the variety of new physics and the potential for applications that has been demonstrated recently. It is shown that the ability to manipulate both exciton and photon properties, and how they interact together to form strongly coupled exciton-photon coupled modes, exciton polaritons, leads to a number of very interesting phenomena, which are either difficult or impossible to achieve in bulk semiconductors or quantum wells. The very low polariton density of states enables state occupancies greater than one to be easily achieved, and hence stimulation phenomena to be realized under conditions of resonant excitation. The particular form of the lower polariton dispersion curve in microcavities allows energy and momentum conserving polariton-polariton scattering under resonant excitation. Stimulated scattering of the bosonic quasi-particles occurs to the emitting state at the center of the Brillouin zone, and to a companion state at high wave vector. The stimulation phenomena lead to the formation of highly occupied states with macroscopic coherence in two specific regions of k space. The results are contrasted with phenomena that occur under conditions of nonresonant excitation. Prospects to achieve "polariton lasing" under nonresonant excitation, and high-gain, room-temperature ultrafast amplifiers and low-threshold optical parametric oscillator under resonant excitation conditions are discussed

    Resonance effects due to the excitation of surface Josephson plasma waves in layered superconductors

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    We analytically examine the excitation of surface Josephson plasma waves (SJPWs) in periodically-modulated layered superconductors. We show that the absorption of the incident electromagnetic wave can be substantially increased, for certain incident angles, due to the resonance excitation of SJPWs. The absorption increase is accompanied by the decrease of the specular reflection. Moreover, we find the physical conditions guaranteeing the total absorption (and total suppression of the specular reflection). These conditions can be realized for Bi2212 superconductor films.Comment: 17 pages, 3 figure
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