25,563 research outputs found

    Territory, Temporality and Clustered Europeanization. IHS Political Science Series: 2006, No. 109

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    Non-convergence amongst the EU member states, despite a wide range of integration effects, has come to be accepted as conventional wisdom in the Europeanization debate. This paper takes issue with the stress on non-convergence and makes a case for ‘clustered Europeanization’. Clustering is promoted by two variables that have so far received little attention in Europeanization research: territory and temporality. Territory influences Europeanization through (a) ‘families of nations’ and (b) center-periphery structures in an expanding European political space. Temporality matters, in particular, through the ‘relative time of accession’, i.e. when countries joined (c) in relation to their domestic political and economic development and (d) in relation to the phase of European integration. While (a) and (c) promote intra-regional commonalities in Europeanization-related domestic variables, (b) and (d) highlight inter-regional differences in the integration experience. This regional distinctness of both domestic and integration variables, in turn, promotes clustered Europeanization

    Europeanization as a Process: Thoughts on the Europeanization of Private Law

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    Professor Christian Joerges delivered the Second Annual Herbert L. Bernstein Memorial Lecture in Comparative Law in 2003 and this article is based on his remarks. The article is included in the inaugural volume of CICLOPs that collects the first six Bernstein lectures. Professor Joerges puts forth a three part thesis concerning the “Europeanization of Private Law”, the process by which the European Community influences the legal and political policies of its member states within a framework of transnational cooperation. Joerges first establishes the eroding importance of the idea that legal systems operating at the national level fulfill the goals of Europeanization, arguing this to be the result of Europe being a multi-level system rather than a coalition of autonomous nation-states. He then discusses how the process of Europeanization defies the conventional modes of analysis provided by three different patterns of juridification, each attempting to square Europeanization within the framework of legal science. Finally, Joerges focuses on the normative issues raised by Europeanization as process, such as the role Europeanization plays in resolving the extra-territorial effects of policies enacted by the various nation-states within the Community. Throughout his paper, the Europeanization process is described as a useful tool for the members of the Community to coordinate mutually beneficial policies but also as a hindrance to the autonomous exercise of power within the territory of each individual member; illustrated by controversial cases coming out of France, Greece, and Spain

    Applying the Concept of Europeanization to the Study of Foreign Policy: Dimensions and Mechanisms

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    Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in applying the Europeanization concept to the study of foreign policy. Discussing how foreign policy Europeanization relates to Europeanization research in other areas of EU governance as well as to traditional approaches from the International Relations discipline, we examine the added value of studying foreign policy through the lens of Europeanization. As there is by now a considerable diversity of explanations for EU-induced changes of the national foreign policies of EU Member States, we propose important conceptual refinements, providing a clear distinction between the dimensions of Europeanization, their respective outcomes and particularly the mechanisms that drive Europeanization in these different dimensions. Overall, this working paper illustrates that Europeanization research addresses important shortcomings of International Relations approaches dominant in the field of European foreign policy analysis. By focusing on the interplay of “top-down” and “bottom-up” dynamics between the EU and national levels, which have been previously considered as isolated phenomena, the Europeanization concept contributes to a better understanding of the complex nature of European foreign policy-making.Europeanization; CFSP/ESDP; CFSP/ESDP; CFSP/ESDP; international relations; expert committees; socialization; national interest; political science

    Neighbourhood Europeanization trough ENP - The Case of Ukraine

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    We contribute to the literature of European Studies by introducing the approach of Neighbourhood Europeanization. Based on insights from Membership and Enlargement Europeanization, we reveal important inconsistencies of Neighbourhood Europeanization through the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) as well as a lack of robust empirical support for its effectiveness. We also define core dimensions and determinants of Neighbourhood Europeanization and implement this analytical framework for the case of Ukraine. Our analysis clearly demonstrates substantial asymmetries in the ENP for Ukraine across three dimensions we chose – democracy promotion, economic cooperation, and Justice and Home Affairs, which clearly reflect the inconsistency of the ENP concept, that is top-down formulation of EU interests combined with weak conditionality. However, our analysis shows that despite Ukraine’s growing frustration because of the lack of a membership perspective, there is a lot of room for keeping up Ukraine’s motivation for Europeanization reforms. Especially, widening and strengthening the linkage-mechanisms would allow to overcome ENP inconsistency and to improve the effectiveness of Neighborhood Europeanization.neighbourhood policy; enlargement; ideas; integration theory; Europeanization; Europeanization

    Let's talk about Europe': explaining vertical and horizontal Europeanization in the quality press

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    This paper contributes to the ongoing quest for a European public sphere understood as a structural transformation of national media debates. The process of Europeanization has a vertical and a horizontal dimension: an increased focus on the EU as well as more attention for other European countries. A content analysis of quality newspapers in five EU member states covering a period of 20 years reveals common trends across different countries but no convergence over time. Four different patterns of Europeanization can be identified: comprehensive Europeanization, segmented Europeanization, Europeanization aloof from the EU, a parochial public sphere. This paper pushes research in this area ahead by identifying and testing factors which explain these differences in newspaper coverage. In-depth case analysis as well as regression analysis show that the editorial mission of a newspaper and the size of a country have a significant effect on patterns of Europeanization. Contrary to common expectations, the number of correspondents in Brussels and the degree of popular identification with Europe did not significantly affect patterns of Europeanization. --


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    Europeanization is one of the theoretical instruments which had a vital influence on candidate countries for EU membership. Due to its aspirations of becoming member of the European Union (EU) and in its attempt to fulfil the Copenhagen criteria, Turkey is trying to comply with the EU acquis communautaire. The aim of this paper is to assess the effects of the Europeanization process on the countries subject to EU enlargement strategy, with a special focus on Turkey, particularly since the country received the EU candidate status in 1999. This paper has been organized in the following way: firstly, it points out how both the traditional Europeanization and the enlargement led Europeanization have been depicted in the work of several important scholars; secondly, by offering a short overview of Turkey’s foreign relations vis-à-vis its neighbourhood, especially in the last decade, it examines how the mechanism of Europeanization largely influenced the country’s diplomatic culture. Traditionally, Turkey has been attuned to hard security issues and architectures. However, the Turkish foreign policy strategy emphasised in thepast years the Venus side of things in many settings in line with EU requirements.Europeanization theory, the European Union, the enlargement process, foreign policy, international relations

    The Transformative Power of Europe Reloaded - The Limits of External Europeanization

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    With the borders of the European Union (EU) moved eastwards, students of Europeanization have been awarded yet another real-world experiment. This paper explores to what extent existing Europeanization approaches travel beyond the EU’s border to its South Eastern and Eastern neighbours, which are marked by bad governance with regard to both the effectiveness and democratic legitimacy of their domestic institutions. The first part outlines key insights of the literature on Europeanization West regarding the outcomes and the mechanism of the domestic impact of the EU. Then, I summarize the main findings of research on Europeanization East focusing on factors that have limited or at least qualified the domestic impact of the EU in the ten Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) countries in comparison to the EU 15 (those that were members before the 2004 enlargement). This paper discusses to what extent the concepts and causal mechanisms need even further qualification when applied to countries, such as the European Neighbourhood Countries (ENC), that are neither willing nor necessarily capable of adapting to Europe and that do not even have the incentive of EU membership to cope with the costs. I will argue that the EU is unlikely to deploy any transformative power in its neighbourhood as long as it does not adjust its accession tool box to countries the EU does not want to take on as members. The paper concludes with some considerations on the policy implications of the EU’s approach of move closer but don’t touch which has started to creep into its relations with the Western Balkans and Turkey.EU-South-Eastern Europe; EU-South-Eastern Europe; governance; democracy; Europeanization; Europeanization


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    The Central and Eastern Europe Countries (CEECs) have been shaped by the EU conditionality, meaning that these countries were obliged to develop their administrative capacities in completely convergence with the acquis communautaire in order to join the European Union. The 2004 and 2007 enlargement of the EU and the accession negotiations have brought a systemic transformation of the CEECs through what is known in the literature as Europeanization. It seems to be a strong connection between conditionality and Europeanization, the former giving way to the latter. Therefore the capacity and the willingness of candidate countries to transfer the acquis into the domestic legal context have had a significant influence in the way in which the Europeanization process has succeeded in inhabiting the governance system of the CEECs. Considering these, the purpose of this paper is to examine through which mechanisms it was realized the correspondence between EU conditionality and the process of central and eastern enlargement-led Europeanization which seems to have been internalized distinctively by the CEECs, where administrative resources to comply with European standards were lagging behind.Europeanization, conditionality, European Union, CEECs

    Globalization and Europeanization - A Projection on a European Model of Public Administration

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    The specialized studies and literature present moreover and insistently the connection between globalization and Europeanization, more precisely between globalization and a European model of integration, whose features aim to set up a global-type European society. The development of the European model of integration starts with economic elements, it reveals nowadays the Economic and Monetary Union and in perspective it will be structured within a sui generis system of transnational governance. The values of the European model of integration become fundamental values of a social process, with powerful economic and political determinations, aiming the multi-causal interference between individual, community and European construction. This process, remarked increasingly in the specialized literature, being assigned with the name of Europeanization has got original, functional features in the spectrum of significations of the globalization paradigm. As essential global-type formula, within Europeanization, we shall find models with economic, political or social finality, integrating also a model of administration among the latter ones. When we say administration, we refer to its up dated and adequate contents to the new European developments. This assertion derives from a less economic modality to conceptualize the relationship between globalization and Europeanization, presenting Europeanization more as a political adaptation to globalization and even a political expression of globalization. In this context, the development of a system for European governance on several levels (local, regional, national, intergovernmental and supranational) suggests its evolution towards globalization. In fact, the literature specific for Europeanization asserts the fact that the European model has also features with integrative nature related to the supranational and trans-governmental dimensions, as well as features with normative nature in view of harmonization, also by standards. These assertions, to which we can add also others, are leading to a new model of public administration, whose area overlaps with the space of European Union, incorporating the effects of globalization under its European expression, Europeanization. Consequently, the proposed model, emphasizing the process of European Union construction will comprise transparency, accountability and participation of the interested parties to public decision. The new public administration aims to use efficiently the resources in order to create favourable conditions for its citizens to become more competitive on the world market and to reduce the gap between the poorest and the richest inhabitants of the world. The current paper aims to conceptualize and to describe a model of public administration. The architecture of this model will be that of a complex system, with a mixed architecture, emphasizing connections with different intensities among its various levels: European, regional, national etc. The feedback mechanisms will be different and specific for each level and they will be ensured by different institutions on compatible normative grounds