11,678 research outputs found

    Taming tosyl azide: the development of a scalable continuous diazo transfer process

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    Heat and shock sensitive tosyl azide was generated and used on demand in a telescoped diazo transfer process. Small quantities of tosyl azide were accessed in a one pot batch procedure using shelf stable, readily available reagents. For large scale diazo transfer reactions tosyl azide was generated and used in a telescoped flow process, to mitigate the risks associated with handling potentially explosive reagents on scale. The in situ formed tosyl azide was used to rapidly perform diazo transfer to a range of acceptors, including β-ketoesters, β-ketoamides, malonate esters and β-ketosulfones. An effective in-line quench of sulfonyl azides was also developed, whereby a sacrificial acceptor molecule ensured complete consumption of any residual hazardous diazo transfer reagent. The telescoped diazo transfer process with in-line quenching was used to safely prepare over 21 g of an α-diazocarbonyl in >98% purity without any column chromatography

    Cleavable Biotin Probes for Labeling of Biomolecules via Azide−Alkyne Cycloaddition

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    The azide−alkyne cycloaddition provides a powerful tool for bio-orthogonal labeling of proteins, nucleic acids, glycans, and lipids. In some labeling experiments, e.g., in proteomic studies involving affinity purification and mass spectrometry, it is convenient to use cleavable probes that allow release of labeled biomolecules under mild conditions. Five cleavable biotin probes are described for use in labeling of proteins and other biomolecules via azide−alkyne cycloaddition. Subsequent to conjugation with metabolically labeled protein, these probes are subject to cleavage with either 50 mM Na_2S_2O_4, 2% HOCH_2CH_2SH, 10% HCO_2H, 95% CF_3CO_2H, or irradiation at 365 nm. Most strikingly, a probe constructed around a dialkoxydiphenylsilane (DADPS) linker was found to be cleaved efficiently when treated with 10% HCO_2H for 0.5 h. A model green fluorescent protein was used to demonstrate that the DADPS probe undergoes highly selective conjugation and leaves a small (143 Da) mass tag on the labeled protein after cleavage. These features make the DADPS probe especially attractive for use in biomolecular labeling and proteomic studies

    Intramolecular Azide to Alkene Cycloadditions for the Construction of Pyrrolobenzodiazepines and Azetidino-Benzodiazepines

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    The coupling of proline- and azetidinone-substituted alkenes to 2-azidobenzoic and 2-azidobenzenesulfonic acid gives precursors that undergo intramolecular azide to alkene 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions to give imine-, triazoline- or aziridine-containing pyrrolo[1,4]benzodiazepines (PBDs), pyrrolo[1,2,5]benzothiadiazepines (PBTDs), and azetidino[1,4]benzodiazepines. The imines and aziridines are formed after loss of nitrogen from a triazoline cycloadduct. The PBDs are a potent class of antitumour antibiotics

    Copper(I)-Phosphinite Complexes in Click Cycloadditions: Three-Component Reactions and Preparation of 5-Iodotriazoles

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    © 2016 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.The remarkable activity displayed by copper(I)–phosphinite complexes of general formula [CuBr(L)] in two challenging cycloadditions is reported: a) the one-pot azidonation/cycloaddition of boronic acids, NaN3, and terminal alkynes; b) the cycloaddition of azides and iodoalkynes. These air-stable catalysts led to very good results in both cases and the expected triazoles could be isolated in pure form under ‘Click-suitable’ conditions

    Synthesis of an azido-tagged low affinity ratiometric calcium sensor

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    Changes in high localized concentrations of Ca2+ ions are fundamental to cell signalling. The synthesis of a dual excitation, ratiometric calcium ion sensor with a Kd of 90 μM, is described. It is tagged with an azido group for bioconjugation, and absorbs in the blue/green and emits in the red region of the visible spectrum with a large Stokes shift. The binding modulating nitro group is introduced to the BAPTA core prior to construction of a benzofuran-2-yl carboxaldehyde by an allylation-oxdiation-cyclization sequence, which is followed by condensation with an azido-tagged thiohydantoin. The thiohydantoin unit has to be protected with an acetoxymethyl (AM) caging group to allow CuAAC click reaction and incorporation of the KDEL peptide endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention sequence
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