1,849 research outputs found

    Spermidine improves the antioxidant capacity and morphology of intestinal tissues and regulates intestinal microorganisms in Sichuan white geese

    Get PDF
    IntroductionIntestinal health is very important to the health of livestock and poultry, and is even a major determining factor in the performance of livestock and poultry production. Spermidine is a type of polyamine that is commonly found in a variety of foods, and can resist oxidative stress, promote cell proliferation and regulate intestinal flora.MethodsIn this study, we explored the effects of spermidine on intestinal health under physiological states or oxidative stress conditions by irrigation with spermidine and intraperitoneal injection of 3-Nitropropionic acid (3-NPA) in Sichuan white goose.Results and discussionOur results showed that spermidine could increase the ratio of intestinal villus to crypt and improve intestinal morphology. In addition, spermidine can also reduce malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation caused by 3-NPA by increasing superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) enzyme activity, thus alleviating intestinal damage. Furthermore, spermidine can regulate intestinal digestive enzyme activities and affect intestinal digestion and absorption ability. Spermidine can also promote an increase in intestinal microbial diversity and abundance and alleviate the change of microflora structure caused by 3-NPA. In conclusion, spermidine promotes the production of beneficial intestinal metabolites such as Wikstromol, Alpha-bisabolol and AS 1–5, thus improving the level of intestinal health. Taken together, these results indicate that spermidine can improve intestinal health by improving intestinal morphology, increasing antioxidant capacity and regulating intestinal flora structure

    Protective effects and mechanisms of ellagic acid on intestinal injury in piglets infected with porcine epidemic diarrhea virus

    Get PDF
    The present study was conducted to decipher the protection effects of ellagic acid (EA) on piglets infected with porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV). Thirty 7-day-old piglets were randomly assigned to three treatment groups: control, PEDV, and EA + PEDV groups. After a 3-day period of adaption, piglets in the EA + PEDV group were orally administered with 20 mg/kg·BW EA during days 4-11 of the trial. On day 8, piglets were orally administered with PEDV at a dose of 106 TCID50 (50% tissue culture infectious dose) per pig. Additionally, intestinal porcine epithelial (IPEC-1) cells infected with PEDV were used to investigate the anti-PEDV effect of EA in vitro. The results showed that EA at a dose of 10-40 μmol/L increased the viability of PEDV-infected IPEC-1 cells, and EA administration mitigated intestinal edema in piglets challenged with PEDV. Further studies indicated that EA treatment significantly increased the proportion of white blood cells in blood and concentrations of IL-6, IL-1β, and IL-10 in the serum, but decreased the TNF-α content and gene expression of IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α, and CXCL2 in the jejunum. Moreover, EA intervention considerably elevated the activity of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), but decreased the H2O2 concentration in the ileum of piglets. Importantly, EA suppressed the increased expression of antiviral-related genes and proteins (including MXI, ISG15, HSP70, and p-IRF7) induced by PEDV challenge in the jejunum. Furthermore, PEDV infection increased the protein abundance of p-JAK2 and p-STAT3, which were further enhanced by EA supplementation. In conclusion, our results revealed that EA could promote the restoration of intestinal homeostasis by regulating the interferon pathway that was interrelated with the activation of JAK2/STAT3 signaling. These findings provide theoretical basis for the use of EA as a therapy targeting PEDV infection in piglets

    Tanshinone IIA protects intestinal epithelial cells from deoxynivalenol-induced pyroptosis

    No full text
    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the most common mycotoxin in food and feed, which can cause undesirable effects, including diarrhea, emesis, weight loss, and growth delay in livestock. Intestinal epithelial cells were the main target of DON, which can cause oxidative stress and inflammatory injury. Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA) is fat-soluble diterpene quinone, which is the most abundant active ingredient in salvia miltiorrhiza plant with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory characteristics. However, it is not clear whether Tan IIA can protect against or inhibit intestinal oxidative stress and inflammatory injury under DON exposure. This study aimed to explore the protective effect of Tan IIA on DON-induced toxicity in porcine jejunum epithelial cells (IPEC-J2). Cells were exposed to 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 µM DON and/or 45 µg/mL TAN ⅡA to detect oxidative stress indicators. inflammatory cytokines, NF-κB expression, NLRP3 inflammasome and pyroptosis-related factors. In this study, DON exposure caused IPEC-J2 cells oxidative stress by elevating ROS and 8-OHdG content, inhibited GSH-Px activity. Furthermore, DON increased pro-inflammatory factor (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-18 and IL-6) expression and decreased the anti-inflammatory factor (IL-10) expression, causing inflammatory response via triggering NF-κB pathway. Interestingly, above changes were alleviated after Tan IIA treatment. In addition, Tan IIA relieved DON-induced pyroptosis by suppressing the expression of pyroptosis-related factors (NLRP3, Caspase-1, GSDMD, IL-1β, and IL-18). In general, our data suggested that Tan IIA can ameliorate DON-induced intestinal epithelial cells injury associated with suppressing the pyroptosis signaling pathway. Our findings pointed that Tan IIA could be used as the potential therapeutic drugs on DON-induced enterotoxicity

    Beyond protein synthesis: the emerging role of arginine in poultry nutrition and host-microbe interactions

    Get PDF
    Arginine is a functional amino acid essential for various physiological processes in poultry. The dietary essentiality of arginine in poultry stems from the absence of the enzyme carbamoyl phosphate synthase-I. The specific requirement for arginine in poultry varies based on several factors, such as age, dietary factors, and physiological status. Additionally, arginine absorption and utilization are also influenced by the presence of antagonists. However, dietary interventions can mitigate the effect of these factors affecting arginine utilization. In poultry, arginine is utilized by four enzymes, namely, inducible nitric oxide synthase arginase, arginine decarboxylase and arginine: glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT). The intermediates and products of arginine metabolism by these enzymes mediate the different physiological functions of arginine in poultry. The most studied function of arginine in humans, as well as poultry, is its role in immune response. Arginine exerts immunomodulatory functions primarily through the metabolites nitric oxide (NO), ornithine, citrulline, and polyamines, which take part in inflammation or the resolution of inflammation. These properties of arginine and arginine metabolites potentiate its use as a nutraceutical to prevent the incidence of enteric diseases in poultry. Furthermore, arginine is utilized by the poultry gut microbiota, the metabolites of which might have important implications for gut microbial composition, immune regulation, metabolism, and overall host health. This comprehensive review provides insights into the multifaceted roles of arginine and arginine metabolites in poultry nutrition and wellbeing, with particular emphasis on the potential of arginine in immune regulation and microbial homeostasis in poultry

    Silybin Showed Higher Cytotoxic, Antiproliferative, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities in the CaCo Cancer Cell Line while Retaining Viability and Proliferation in Normal Intestinal IPEC-1 Cells

    No full text
    The anticancer potential of silymarin is well known, including its anti-inflammatory as well as antiproliferative effect mediated by influencing the cell cycle, suppression of apoptosis, and inhibition of cell-survival kinases. However, less is known about silybin, the main component of the silymarin complex, where studies indicate its dual effect on the proliferation and immune response of various cell types in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, there is a lack of studies comparing the effect of silybin on the same type of healthy and tumor cells, especially intestinal ones. Therefore, our study aimed to investigate the concentration-dependent effect of silybin on the normal intestinal porcine epithelial cell line-1 (IPEC-1) and the human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line (CaCo-2). The metabolic viability, cell cycle, mitochondrial membrane potential, apoptosis, and the relative gene expression for pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines were monitored in cells treated with silybin. Silybin stimulates metabolic viability as well as proliferation in IPEC-1 cells, protects the mitochondrial membrane, and thus exerts a cytoprotective effect, and has only a minimal effect on the gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines but significantly increases the expression of anti-inflammatory TGF-β. In contrast, it inhibits metabolic viability in tumor intestinal CaCo-2 cells, has an antiproliferative effect accompanied by increased apoptosis, and significantly reduces the expression of genes for pro-inflammatory interleukins as well as TGF-β. The antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory effect of silybin on tumor intestinal cells without a negative effect on healthy cells is a prerequisite for its potential use in the adjuvant therapy of colon cancer; however, further studies are necessary

    Association of gut microbiota and SCFAs with finishing weight of Diannan small ear pigs

    Get PDF
    Finishing weight is a key economic trait in the domestic pig industry. Evidence has linked the gut microbiota and SCFAs to health and production performance in pigs. Nevertheless, for Diannan small ear (DSE) pigs, a specific pig breed in China, the potential effect of gut microbiota and SCFAs on their finishing weight remains unclear. Herein, based on the data of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene and metagenomic sequencing analysis, we found that 13 OTUs could be potential biomarkers and 19 microbial species were associated with finishing weight. Among these, carbohydrate-decomposing bacteria of the families Streptococcaceae, Lactobacillaceae, and Prevotellaceae were positively related to finishing weight, whereas the microbial taxa associated with intestinal inflammation and damage exhibited opposite effects. In addition, interactions of these microbial species were found to be linked with finishing weight for the first time. Gut microbial functional annotation analysis indicated that CAZymes, such as glucosidase and glucanase could significantly affect finishing weight, given their roles in increasing nutrient absorption efficiency. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) Orthologies (KOs) and KEGG pathways analysis indicated that glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, phosphotransferase system (PTS), secondary bile acid biosynthesis, ABC transporters, sulfur metabolism, and one carbon pool by folate could act as key factors in regulating finishing weight. Additionally, SCFA levels, especially acetate and butyrate, had pivotal impacts on finishing weight. Finishing weight-associated species Prevotella sp. RS2, Ruminococcus sp. AF31-14BH and Lactobacillus pontis showed positive associations with butyrate concentration, and Paraprevotella xylaniphila and Bacteroides sp. OF04-15BH were positively related to acetate level. Taken together, our study provides essential knowledge for manipulating gut microbiomes to improve finishing weight. The underlying mechanisms of how gut microbiome and SCFAs modulate pigs’ finishing weight required further elucidation

    The Bidirectional Gut-Lung Axis in COPD

    Get PDF
    Epidemiological studies indicate that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with the incidence of changes in intestinal health. Cigarette smoking, as one of the major causes of COPD, can have an impact on the gastrointestinal system and promotes intestinal diseases. This points to the existence of gut-lung interactions, however, an overview of the underlying mechanisms of the bidirectional connection between the lungs and the gut in COPD is lacking. The interaction between the lungs and the gut can occur through circulating inflammatory cells and mediators. Moreover, gut microbiota dysbiosis, observed in both COPD and intestinal disorders, can lead to a disturbed mucosal environment, including the intestinal barrier and immune system, and hence, may negatively affect both the gut and the lungs. Furthermore, systemic hypoxia and oxidative stress that occurs in COPD may also be involved in intestinal dysfunction and play a role in the gut-lung axis. This review summarizes data from clinical research, animal models and in vitro studies that may explain the possible mechanisms of gut-lung interactions associated with COPD. Interesting observations on the possibility of promising future add-on therapies for intestinal dysfunction in COPD patients will be highlighted

    Sinapic acid alleviates inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) through localization of tight junction proteins by direct binding to TAK1 and improves intestinal microbiota

    Get PDF
    Introduction: Although sinapic acid is found in various edible plants and has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties including colitis, its underlying mechanism and effects on the composition of the gut microbiota are largely unknown. We aimed to identify an early response kinase that regulates the localization of tight junction proteins, act at the onset of the inflammatory response, and is regulated by sinapic acid. Additionally, we analyzed the effects of sinapic acid on the homeostasis of the intestinal microbiome.Methods: We examined the aberrant alterations of early response genes such as nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and activating transcription factor (ATF)-2 within 2 h of sinapic acid treatment in fully differentiated Caco-2 cells with or without lipopolysaccharide and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α stimulation. To confirm the effect of sinapic acid on stimulus-induced delocalization of tight junction proteins, including zonula occludens (ZO)-1, occludin, and claudin-2, all tight junction proteins were investigated by analyzing a fraction of membrane and cytosol proteins extracted from Caco-2 cells and mice intestines. Colitis was induced in C57BL/6 mice using 2% dextran sulfate sodium and sinapic acid (2 or 10 mg/kg/day) was administrated for 15 days. Furthermore, the nutraceutical and pharmaceutical activities of sinapic acid for treating inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) evaluated.Results: We confirmed that sinapic acid significantly suppressed the stimulus-induced delocalization of tight junction proteins from the intestinal cell membrane and abnormal intestinal permeability as well as the expression of inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1β and TNF-α in vitro and in vivo. Sinapic acid was found to bind directly to transforming growth factor beta-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) and inhibit the stimulus-induced activation of NF-κB as well as MAPK/ATF-2 pathways, which in turn regulated the expression of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MLCK). Dietary sinapic acid also alleviated the imbalanced of gut microbiota and symptoms of IBD, evidenced by improvements in the length and morphology of the intestine in mice with colitis.Discussion: These findings indicate that sinapic acid may be an effective nutraceutical and pharmaceutical agent for IBD treatment as it targets TAK1 and inhibits subsequent NF-κB and ATF-2 signaling

    Hypoxia exacerbates heat stress effects on the porcine intestinal epithelium in vitro

    Get PDF
    Heat stress (HS) negatively impacts human health, as well as animal agriculture. The mechanisms underlying HS-induced intestinal dysfunction in vivo are still not fully elucidated. However, HS has been shown to cause intestinal ischemia/hypoxia, which contributes to reduced barrier integrity. The objective of this study was to examine hypoxia alone, HS alone, and a combination using IPEC-J2 cells. We hypothesized that hypoxia is a critical factor and important step in the pathway to HS-induced barrier dysfunction. Porcine IPEC-J2 cells were grown in Transwell™ plates and then treated either under thermal neutral (TN; 38°C) or heat stress (HS; 42°C) and either normoxia (NX; ~21% O2) or hypoxia (HX; 1% O2) conditions for 24 h. Transepithelial electrical resistance, paracellular permeability marker, FITC-dextran, media interleukin 8, cell HSP70 and 90, CLDN4, ZO-1, and EEA1 were all analyzed. Results showed that HS did not increase intestinal permeability in this model and elicited a reduction in IL-8 while still exhibiting a robust HSP response. In this model, hypoxia was required to induce intestinal barrier dysfunction and TJ redistribution. The combination of HS and hypoxia caused even more severe tight junction disruption. This was accompanied by the absence of an IL-8 response under HS
    corecore