4,430 research outputs found

    Sox10 contributes to the balance of fate choice in dorsal root ganglion progenitors

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    The development of functional peripheral ganglia requires a balance of specification of both neuronal and glial components. In the developing dorsal root ganglia (DRGs), these compo- nents form from partially-restricted bipotent neuroglial precursors derived from the neural crest. Work in mouse and chick has identified several factors, including Delta/Notch signal- ing, required for specification of a balance of these components. We have previously shown in zebrafish that the Sry-related HMG domain transcription factor, Sox10, plays an unex- pected, but crucial, role in sensory neuron fate specification in vivo. In the same study we described a novel Sox10 mutant allele, sox10baz1, in which sensory neuron numbers are elevated above those of wild-types. Here we investigate the origin of this neurogenic pheno- type. We demonstrate that the supernumerary neurons are sensory neurons, and that enteric and sympathetic neurons are almost absent just as in classical sox10 null alleles; peripheral glial development is also severely abrogated in a manner similar to other sox10 mutant alleles. Examination of proliferation and apoptosis in the developing DRG reveals very low levels of both processes in wild-type and sox10baz1, excluding changes in the bal- ance of these as an explanation for the overproduction of sensory neurons. Using chemical inhibition of Delta-Notch-Notch signaling we demonstrate that in embryonic zebrafish, as in mouse and chick, lateral inhibition during the phase of trunk DRG development is required to achieve a balance between glial and neuronal numbers. Importantly, however, we show that this mechanism is insufficient to explain quantitative aspects of the baz1 phenotype. The Sox10(baz1) protein shows a single amino acid substitution in the DNA binding HMG domain; structural analysis indicates that this change is likely to result in reduced flexibility in the HMG domain, consistent with sequence-specific modification of Sox10 binding to DNA. Unlike other Sox10 mutant proteins, Sox10(baz1) retains an ability to drive neurogenin1 transcription. We show that overexpression of neurogenin1 is sufficient to produce supernu- merary DRG sensory neurons in a wild-type background, and can rescue the sensory neu- ron phenotype of sox10 morphants in a manner closely resembling the baz1 phenotype. We conclude that an imbalance of neuronal and glial fate specification results from the Sox10 (baz1) protein\u2019s unique ability to drive sensory neuron specification whilst failing to drive glial development. The sox10baz1 phenotype reveals for the first time that a Notch-dependent lat- eral inhibition mechanism is not sufficient to fully explain the balance of neurons and glia in the developing DRGs, and that a second Sox10-dependent mechanism is necessary. Sox10 is thus a key transcription factor in achieving the balance of sensory neuronal and glial fates

    Anti-inflammatory activity of Wnt signaling in enteric nervous system: in vitro preliminary evidences in rat primary cultures

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    Background: In the last years, Wnt signaling was demonstrated to regulate inflammatory processes. In particular, an increased expression of Wnts and Frizzled receptors was reported in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and ulcerative colitis to exert both anti- and pro-inflammatory functions regulating the intestinal activated nuclear factor \u3baB (NF-\u3baB), TNFa release, and IL10 expression. Methods: To investigate the role of Wnt pathway in the response of the enteric nervous system (ENS) to inflammation, neurons and glial cells from rat myenteric plexus were treated with exogenous Wnt3a and/or LPS with or without supporting neurotrophic factors such as basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), epithelial growth factor (EGF), and glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). The immunophenotypical characterization by flow cytometry and the protein and gene expression analysis by qPCR and Western blotting were carried out. Results: Flow cytometry and immunofluorescence staining evidenced that enteric neurons coexpressed Frizzled 9 and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) while glial cells were immunoreactive to TLR4 and Wnt3a suggesting that canonical Wnt signaling is active in ENS. Conclusions: The results of this study suggested the existence of neuronal surveillance through FZD9 and Wnt3a in enteric myenteric plexus. Moreover, experimental evidences were provided to clarify the correlation among soluble trophic factors, Wnt signaling, and anti-inflammatory protection of ENS

    HIV-1 Tat exacerbates lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine release via TLR4 signaling in the enteric nervous system

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    The loss of gut epithelium integrity leads to translocation of microbes and microbial products resulting in immune activation and drives systemic inflammation in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. Although viral loads in HIV patients are significantly reduced in the post-cART era, inflammation and immune activation persist and can lead to morbidity. Here, we determined the interactive effects of the viral protein HIV-1 Tat and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on enteric neurons and glia. Bacterial translocation was significantly enhanced in Tat-expressing (Tat+) mice. Exposure to HIV-1 Tat in combination with LPS enhanced the expression and release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-1╬▓ and TNF-╬▒ in the ilea of Tat+ mice and by enteric glia. This coincided with enhanced NF-╬║B activation in enteric glia that was abrogated in glia from TLR4 knockout mice and by knockdown (siRNA) of MyD88 siRNA in wild type glia. The synergistic effects of Tat and LPS resulted in a reduced rate of colonic propulsion in Tat+ mice treated with LPS. These results show that HIV-1 Tat interacts with the TLR4 receptor to enhance the pro-inflammatory effects of LPS leading to gastrointestinal dysmotility and enhanced immune activation

    Paradigm on Chronic Constipation: Pathophysiology, Diagnostic, and Recent Therapy

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    Chronic constipation is a medical gastrointestinal problem which can degrade patient's quality of life. So far, the shifting pathophysiologic mechanism to colonic neuropathology has not been supported by diagnostic facility and therapy. Target therapy for chronic constipation related to enteric nervous system is still limited to study. Currently, the discovery of neurotrophin-3 has not shown any significant development needed in daily clinical practice. Until now study related to endoscopic full-thickness biopsy has not been done in human and waiting for its applications in daily practice. Targeted therapy for chronic constipation which is related to enteric nervous system is still limited to study. The discovery of neurotrophin-3, although currently on clinical trial phase II, still not showing any significant contribution in daily clinical practice. New pathophysiologic mechanism shifting the ÔÇśidiopathic' paradigm or ÔÇśfunctional' to colonic neuropathology has not been met with diagnostic modalities and therapy based on this knowledge. Study regarding endoscopic full-thickness biopsy to help revealing this novel mechanism has not been done in human. Henceforth, until now applied studies pertinent to this subject are longing in order for enteric neuron etiology can be firmly established Thus, in the future, translational study is demandingly needed for a firm establishment of diagnostic and therapeutic modalities to its currently evolving pathophysiology

    Adult enteric nervous system in health is maintained by a dynamic balance between neuronal apoptosis and neurogenesis

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    According to current dogma, there is little or no ongoing neurogenesis in the fully developed adult enteric nervous system. This lack of neurogenesis leaves unanswered the question of how enteric neuronal populations are maintained in adult guts, given previous reports of ongoing neuronal death. Here, we confirm that despite ongoing neuronal cell loss because of apoptosis in the myenteric ganglia of the adult small intestine, total myenteric neuronal numbers remain constant. This observed neuronal homeostasis is maintained by new neurons formed in vivo from dividing precursor cells that are located within myenteric ganglia and express both Nestin and p75NTR, but not the pan-glial marker Sox10. Mutation of the phosphatase and tensin homolog gene in this pool of adult precursors leads to an increase in enteric neuronal number, resulting in ganglioneuromatosis, modeling the corresponding disorder in humans. Taken together, our results show significant turnover and neurogenesis of adult enteric neurons and provide a paradigm for understanding the enteric nervous system in health and disease

    Glial-derived neurotrophic factor modulates enteric neuronal survival and proliferation through neuropeptide Y.

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    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) promotes the survival and proliferation of enteric neurons. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is an important peptide regulating gastrointestinal motility. The role of NPY on the survival and proliferation of enteric neurons is not known. We examined the effects of GDNF on the expression and release of NPY from enteric neurons and the role of NPY in promoting enteric neuronal proliferation and survival. METHODS: Studies were performed in primary enteric neuronal cultures and NPY knockout mice (NPY(-/-)). GDNF-induced expression of NPY was assessed by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunocytochemistry, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Using NPY-siRNA and NPY-Y1 receptor antagonist, we examined the role of NPY in mediating the survival and proliferation effects of GDNF. Gastrointestinal motility was assessed by measuring gastric emptying, intestinal transit, and isometric muscle recording from intestinal muscle strips. RESULTS: GDNF induced a significant increase in NPY messenger RNA and protein expression in primary enteric neurons and the release of NPY into the culture medium. NPY (1 mumol/L) significantly increased proliferation of neurons and reduced apoptosis. In the presence of NPY-siRNA and NPY-Y1 receptor antagonist or in enteric neurons cultured from NPY(-/-) mice, GDNF-mediated neuronal proliferation and survival was reduced. NPY increased the phosphorylation of Akt, a downstream target of the PI-3-kinase pathway. In NPY(-/-) mice, there were significantly fewer nNOS-containing enteric neurons compared with wild-type (WT) mice. NPY(-/-) mice had accelerated gastric emptying and delayed intestinal transit compared with WT mice. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that NPY acts as an autocrine neurotrophic factor for enteric neurons

    Neuropathic alterations of the myenteric plexus neurons following subacute intraperitoneal administration of salsolinol

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    Introduction. Impairment of the enteric nervous system has been suggested to occur within the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, in the current study, we consider salsolinol (1-methyl-6,7-dihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline, SAL) as a substance that can potentially induce myenteric neurodegen┬şeration. Material and methods. Male Wistar rats were subjected to continuous intraperitoneal dosing of salsolinol (200 mg/kg in total) with osmotic mini-pumps for either two or four weeks. An equivalent group of rats served as the control. Jejunal myenteric neurons were subjected to immunofluorescence staining to detect neuron specific protein ÔÇö protein gene product (pan-neuronal marker, PGP 9.5), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), Bax-protein and alpha-synuclein. In search of any functional impairment within the gastrointestinal tract, gut motility was assessed by determining the residual solid food contents in the stomach and the small and large intestine transit. Results. The myenteric neuron count, the mean size of the neuron body, the area of ganglia and the diameter of nerve strands were decreased in both of the salsolinol-treated groups compared with the controls. The number of NOS-positive cells was lower in the salsolinol-treated groups, while the number of ChAT-positive cells remained unchanged in comparison with the controls. Neurons expressing the pro-apoptotic Bax protein and alpha-synuclein deposits were observed among the myenteric neurons of the salsolinol-treated rats. Conclusions. Salsolinol evokes enteric neuronal cell death via initiation of apoptosis and leads to the formation of pathological aggregates of alpha-synuclein. Impairment of myenteric neurons, mainly the inhibitory motor neurons, might be responsible for the abnormal intestinal transit. Thus, salsolinol might be regarded as a suitable compound for inducing experimental enteric neurodegeneration in rats

    Retinoic acid temporally orchestrates colonization of the gut by vagal neural crest cells

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    The enteric nervous system arises from neural crest cells that migrate as chains into and along the primitive gut, subsequently differentiating into enteric neurons and glia. Little is known about the mechanisms governing neural crest migration en route to and along the gut in vivo. Here, we report that Retinoic Acid (RA) temporally controls zebrafish enteric neural crest cell chain migration. In vivo imaging reveals that RA loss severely compromises the integrity and migration of the chain of neural crest cells during the window of time window when they are moving along the foregut. After loss of RA, enteric progenitors accumulate in the foregut and differentiate into enteric neurons, but subsequently undergo apoptosis resulting in a striking neuronal deficit. Moreover, ectopic expression of the transcription factor meis3 and/or the receptor ret, partially rescues enteric neuron colonization after RA attenuation. Collectively, our findings suggest that retinoic acid plays a critical temporal role in promoting enteric neural crest chain migration and neuronal survival upstream of Meis3 and RET in vivo
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