33,663 research outputs found

    Modelling uncertainties for measurements of the H → γγ Channel with the ATLAS Detector at the LHC

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    The Higgs boson to diphoton (H → γγ) branching ratio is only 0.227 %, but this final state has yielded some of the most precise measurements of the particle. As measurements of the Higgs boson become increasingly precise, greater import is placed on the factors that constitute the uncertainty. Reducing the effects of these uncertainties requires an understanding of their causes. The research presented in this thesis aims to illuminate how uncertainties on simulation modelling are determined and proffers novel techniques in deriving them. The upgrade of the FastCaloSim tool is described, used for simulating events in the ATLAS calorimeter at a rate far exceeding the nominal detector simulation, Geant4. The integration of a method that allows the toolbox to emulate the accordion geometry of the liquid argon calorimeters is detailed. This tool allows for the production of larger samples while using significantly fewer computing resources. A measurement of the total Higgs boson production cross-section multiplied by the diphoton branching ratio (σ × Bγγ) is presented, where this value was determined to be (σ × Bγγ)obs = 127 ± 7 (stat.) ± 7 (syst.) fb, within agreement with the Standard Model prediction. The signal and background shape modelling is described, and the contribution of the background modelling uncertainty to the total uncertainty ranges from 18–2.4 %, depending on the Higgs boson production mechanism. A method for estimating the number of events in a Monte Carlo background sample required to model the shape is detailed. It was found that the size of the nominal γγ background events sample required a multiplicative increase by a factor of 3.60 to adequately model the background with a confidence level of 68 %, or a factor of 7.20 for a confidence level of 95 %. Based on this estimate, 0.5 billion additional simulated events were produced, substantially reducing the background modelling uncertainty. A technique is detailed for emulating the effects of Monte Carlo event generator differences using multivariate reweighting. The technique is used to estimate the event generator uncertainty on the signal modelling of tHqb events, improving the reliability of estimating the tHqb production cross-section. Then this multivariate reweighting technique is used to estimate the generator modelling uncertainties on background V γγ samples for the first time. The estimated uncertainties were found to be covered by the currently assumed background modelling uncertainty

    Metaphors of London fog, smoke and mist in Victorian and Edwardian Art and Literature

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    Julian Wolfreys has argued that after 1850 writers employed stock images of the city without allowing them to transform their texts. This thesis argues, on the contrary, that metaphorical uses of London fog were complex and subtle during the Victorian and Edwardian periods, at least until 1914. Fog represented, in particular, formlessness and the dissolution of boundaries. Examining the idea of fog in literature, verse, newspaper accounts and journal articles, as well as in the visual arts, as part of a common discourse about London and the state of its inhabitants, this thesis charts how the metaphorical appropriation of this idea changed over time. Four of Dickens's novels are used to track his use of fog as part of a discourse of the natural and unnatural in individual and society, identifying it with London in progressively more negative terms. Visual representations of fog by Constable, Turner, Whistler, Monet, Markino, O'Connor, Roberts and Wyllie and Coburn showed an increasing readiness to engage with this discourse. Social tensions in the city in the 1880s were articulated in art as well as in fiction. Authors like Hay and Barr showed the destruction of London by its fog because of its inhabitants' supposed degeneracy. As the social threat receded, apocalyptic scenarios gave way to a more optimistic view in the work of Owen and others. Henry James used fog as a metaphorical representation of the boundaries of gendered behaviour in public, and the problems faced by women who crossed them. The dissertation also examines fog and individual transgression, in novels and short stories by Lowndes, Stevenson, Conan Doyle and Joseph Conrad. After 1914, fog was no more than a crude signifier of Victorian London in literature, film and, later, television, deployed as a cliche instead of the subtle metaphorical idea discussed in this thesis

    Queer spies in British Cold War culture: literature, film, theatre and television

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    This PhD thesis investigates how male homosexuality has been represented in British spy fiction from the 1950s to the 2010s in multiple media: literature, film, television and theatre. Due mainly to the betrayal of the Cambridge Spy ring around the middle of the century, British culture has associated spies with homosexuality, while the wider Anglophone world was in the grip of a homophobic atmosphere created by McCarthy's Red Scare. My thesis explores how this history is reflected in the spy genre from the Cold War to the present, in which male homosexuality and secret agency intersect as “queer”, in so far as they were both considered to be discreet and criminal, existing outside of the heteronormative order. By following multiple texts across media and time, I discuss how some writers, television and film directors and actors update queer identity in spy fiction, creating a shifting image of queer spies through decades. I refer to the findings of adaptation studies and queer studies, along with numerous studies on spy fiction. I conclude that the interrelation of different media has contributed to the re-drawing of queer identity in spy fiction. These developments have enabled the spies' queer identity to transcend its pejorative history in British culture, towards its more flexible and pliant sense which is designated by the term's modern usage. I also discuss that spies’ homosexuality has been represented as a fleeting ghost in most of the texts examined, hovering on the margins of pages and screen. Although homosexuality is not “the love that dare not speak its name” anymore, clandestine queer spies have been preserved as spectral others in the genre for many years. Spy fiction is a cultural repository retaining the memory of violence inflicted against those who have been called “queer” in twentieth century Britain, and the spectral nature of queer spies narrates this history reaching back to the Oscar Wilde trial in 1895, from which point British queer identity as we know now developed. This thesis benefits the study of spy fiction by filling a gap in the investigation of homosexual representation. It also contributes to the field of gender studies of literature, film, television, and theatre by illustrating queer history in a genre which has not received a great deal of focus on its representation of homosexuality. Spy fiction occupies a central position in British popular culture, and by exploring this genre in terms of homosexuality, this research will identify the role which same-sex desire has historically played in the British cultural imagination

    Data-to-text generation with neural planning

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    In this thesis, we consider the task of data-to-text generation, which takes non-linguistic structures as input and produces textual output. The inputs can take the form of database tables, spreadsheets, charts, and so on. The main application of data-to-text generation is to present information in a textual format which makes it accessible to a layperson who may otherwise find it problematic to understand numerical figures. The task can also automate routine document generation jobs, thus improving human efficiency. We focus on generating long-form text, i.e., documents with multiple paragraphs. Recent approaches to data-to-text generation have adopted the very successful encoder-decoder architecture or its variants. These models generate fluent (but often imprecise) text and perform quite poorly at selecting appropriate content and ordering it coherently. This thesis focuses on overcoming these issues by integrating content planning with neural models. We hypothesize data-to-text generation will benefit from explicit planning, which manifests itself in (a) micro planning, (b) latent entity planning, and (c) macro planning. Throughout this thesis, we assume the input to our generator are tables (with records) in the sports domain. And the output are summaries describing what happened in the game (e.g., who won/lost, ..., scored, etc.). We first describe our work on integrating fine-grained or micro plans with data-to-text generation. As part of this, we generate a micro plan highlighting which records should be mentioned and in which order, and then generate the document while taking the micro plan into account. We then show how data-to-text generation can benefit from higher level latent entity planning. Here, we make use of entity-specific representations which are dynam ically updated. The text is generated conditioned on entity representations and the records corresponding to the entities by using hierarchical attention at each time step. We then combine planning with the high level organization of entities, events, and their interactions. Such coarse-grained macro plans are learnt from data and given as input to the generator. Finally, we present work on making macro plans latent while incrementally generating a document paragraph by paragraph. We infer latent plans sequentially with a structured variational model while interleaving the steps of planning and generation. Text is generated by conditioning on previous variational decisions and previously generated text. Overall our results show that planning makes data-to-text generation more interpretable, improves the factuality and coherence of the generated documents and re duces redundancy in the output document

    Underwater optical wireless communications in turbulent conditions: from simulation to experimentation

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    Underwater optical wireless communication (UOWC) is a technology that aims to apply high speed optical wireless communication (OWC) techniques to the underwater channel. UOWC has the potential to provide high speed links over relatively short distances as part of a hybrid underwater network, along with radio frequency (RF) and underwater acoustic communications (UAC) technologies. However, there are some difficulties involved in developing a reliable UOWC link, namely, the complexity of the channel. The main focus throughout this thesis is to develop a greater understanding of the effects of the UOWC channel, especially underwater turbulence. This understanding is developed from basic theory through to simulation and experimental studies in order to gain a holistic understanding of turbulence in the UOWC channel. This thesis first presents a method of modelling optical underwater turbulence through simulation that allows it to be examined in conjunction with absorption and scattering. In a stationary channel, this turbulence induced scattering is shown to cause and increase both spatial and temporal spreading at the receiver plane. It is also demonstrated using the technique presented that the relative impact of turbulence on a received signal is lower in a highly scattering channel, showing an in-built resilience of these channels. Received intensity distributions are presented confirming that fluctuations in received power from this method follow the commonly used Log-Normal fading model. The impact of turbulence - as measured using this new modelling framework - on link performance, in terms of maximum achievable data rate and bit error rate is equally investigated. Following that, experimental studies comparing both the relative impact of turbulence induced scattering on coherent and non-coherent light propagating through water and the relative impact of turbulence in different water conditions are presented. It is shown that the scintillation index increases with increasing temperature inhomogeneity in the underwater channel. These results indicate that a light beam from a non-coherent source has a greater resilience to temperature inhomogeneity induced turbulence effect in an underwater channel. These results will help researchers in simulating realistic channel conditions when modelling a light emitting diode (LED) based intensity modulation with direct detection (IM/DD) UOWC link. Finally, a comparison of different modulation schemes in still and turbulent water conditions is presented. Using an underwater channel emulator, it is shown that pulse position modulation (PPM) and subcarrier intensity modulation (SIM) have an inherent resilience to turbulence induced fading with SIM achieving higher data rates under all conditions. The signal processing technique termed pair-wise coding (PWC) is applied to SIM in underwater optical wireless communications for the first time. The performance of PWC is compared with the, state-of-the-art, bit and power loading optimisation algorithm. Using PWC, a maximum data rate of 5.2 Gbps is achieved in still water conditions

    Analysis of reliable deployment of TDOA local positioning architectures

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    .Local Positioning Systems (LPS) are supposing an attractive research topic over the last few years. LPS are ad-hoc deployments of wireless sensor networks for particularly adapt to the environment characteristics in harsh environments. Among LPS, those based on temporal measurements stand out for their trade-off among accuracy, robustness and costs. But, regardless the LPS architecture considered, an optimization of the sensor distribution is required for achieving competitive results. Recent studies have shown that under optimized node distributions, time-based LPS cumulate the bigger error bounds due to synchronization errors. Consequently, asynchronous architectures such as Asynchronous Time Difference of Arrival (A-TDOA) have been recently proposed. However, the A-TDOA architecture supposes the concentration of the time measurement in a single clock of a coordinator sensor making this architecture less versatile. In this paper, we present an optimization methodology for overcoming the drawbacks of the A-TDOA architecture in nominal and failure conditions with regards to the synchronous TDOA. Results show that this optimization strategy allows the reduction of the uncertainties in the target location by 79% and 89.5% and the enhancement of the convergence properties by 86% and 33% of the A-TDOA architecture with regards to the TDOA synchronous architecture in two different application scenarios. In addition, maximum convergence points are more easily found in the A-TDOA in both configurations concluding the benefits of this architecture in LPS high-demanded applicationS

    De la sinophilie à la sinophobie ? : les femmes chinoises sous le regard des voyageurs européens aux XVIIe et XVIIIe siÚcles

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    Ce mĂ©moire cherche Ă  dĂ©montrer les liens qui existent entre la reprĂ©sentation des femmes chinoises et celle de la Chine en gĂ©nĂ©ral aux XVIIe et XVIIIe siĂšcles. L’historiographie soutient qu’il y a une transition dans la maniĂšre de percevoir la Chine qui fait passer celle-ci de gĂ©nĂ©ralement positive Ă  nĂ©gative vers la fin du XVIIIe siĂšcle. RenĂ© Étiemble qualifie cette Ă©volution de sinophilie/sinophobie et se base principalement sur les Ă©changes philosophiques, scientifiques et thĂ©ologiques entre la Chine et l’Europe. Ces concepts ont cependant Ă©tĂ© peu analysĂ©s sous l’angle du genre. M’appuyant sur les rĂ©cits de voyages des diplomates et marchands de cette pĂ©riode, je dĂ©fends que les reprĂ©sentations des Chinoises Ă©voluent dans plusieurs directions : certaines d’entre elles s’inscrivent dans la mouvance de la sinophilie/sinophobie, alors que d’autres s’écartent de ce cadre thĂ©orique. Dans certains cas, la Chinoise devient un truchement par lequel on s’invente l’Empire du Milieu. Dans d’autres situations, la reprĂ©sentation des Chinoises se fait indĂ©pendamment de l’image de la Chine, et il convient donc de la concevoir autrement. En observant le corps des Chinoises, les rapports de genre dans le quotidien et la marginalitĂ© fĂ©minine, ce mĂ©moire a la modeste prĂ©tention de vĂ©rifier la pertinence du modĂšle thĂ©orique d’Étiemble du point de vue des reprĂ©sentations de genre