3,453,217 research outputs found

    The great transformation: decarbonising Europeâ??s energy and transport systems

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    The euro-area crisis dominates the economic news. Yet, the world and Europe may face even more important challenges that will shape our lives and the lives of our children.World population is projected to increase to 9 billion or more by 2050. At the same time, current trends indicate an increase in living standards and a growing middle class around the world. These two mega-trends will have profound implications, and the way they are managed will be one of the key determinants of prosperity and peace in the decades or even centuries to come. A number of factors are important in this respect. More people and more income will increase the global demand for energy. Choosing the right sources of this energy will be one of the determining factors of global temperature. The continued reliance on fossil-fuel energy sources is one of the main factors behind the risk of significant global temperature increases. The internationally agreed goal of limiting the temperature rise to less than two degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels appears increasingly illusory. Currently, fossil energy sources dominate many economic areas. For instance, our transport infrastructure is largely based on fossil fuels, and is thereby one of the main contributor of the carbon dioxide emissions that are linked to global temperature. Thinking about a decarbonisation strategy is therefore a key challenge with a global dimension. Economic growth in Europe will be affected by the costs of this transition from the current energy and transport system. A smooth transition towards a low-carbon energy and transport system could come at comparatively modest cost. Furthermore, identifying the most economically beneficial solutions early on and becoming a global technology leader and standard setter offers vast opportunities for exports and economic growth. Hence, our decarbonisation strategy may eventually have a greater impact on long-term European growth than the current economic crisis. Bruegel is contributing to this debate with this report, which is based on research that received funding from the Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking. The authors argue carefully that to make decarbonisation growth friendly, a consistent policy approach is needed. Policy intervention appears indispensable as the energy and transport system is so based around and locked-in into an incumbent technology. Overcoming this lock-in is crucial. The report makes three main proposals. First, the scope, geographical coverage and duration of carbon pricing should be extended. By setting a higher carbon price, incentives for developing and investing in new low-carbon technologies are created. Second, temporary consortia for new infrastructure to solve early-phase market failures could be put in place. This is discussed using the example of hydrogen vehicles. Lastly and importantly, an open and public transition model is needed so that second-best transport solutions do not get a head start that afterwardscannot be reversed. The technological, economic and political challenge ahead is vast. But choosing the right decarbonisaton strategy offers huge economic, environmental and societal benefits. We should not overlook this debate because of the euro crisis.

    Resilient Distributed Energy Management for Systems of Interconnected Microgrids

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    In this paper, distributed energy management of interconnected microgrids, which is stated as a dynamic economic dispatch problem, is studied. Since the distributed approach requires cooperation of all local controllers, when some of them do not comply with the distributed algorithm that is applied to the system, the performance of the system might be compromised. Specifically, it is considered that adversarial agents (microgrids with their controllers) might implement control inputs that are different than the ones obtained from the distributed algorithm. By performing such behavior, these agents might have better performance at the expense of deteriorating the performance of the regular agents. This paper proposes a methodology to deal with this type of adversarial agents such that we can still guarantee that the regular agents can still obtain feasible, though suboptimal, control inputs in the presence of adversarial behaviors. The methodology consists of two steps: (i) the robustification of the underlying optimization problem and (ii) the identification of adversarial agents, which uses hypothesis testing with Bayesian inference and requires to solve a local mixed-integer optimization problem. Furthermore, the proposed methodology also prevents the regular agents to be affected by the adversaries once the adversarial agents are identified. In addition, we also provide a sub-optimality certificate of the proposed methodology.Comment: 8 pages, Conference on Decision and Control (CDC) 201

    Passive cooling energy systems SWOT analyses for energy-use reductions at three spatial levels

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    Passive cooling energy systems are significantly important in achieving efficient design and performative built environment. Encouragingly, there are many passive cooling energy systems at three spatial levels of macro, meso and micro. In this research study, these energy systems are identified and are assessed in a SWOT analysis evaluation. Apart from social and economic implications that are broad and effective for most of passive cooling energy systems, this study focuses on the energy systems’ implications across five indicators of practice, health, environment, energy and policy, which are significant for disciplines of sustainable energy systems and the built environment. This study aims to evaluate the interdependency of each indicator across three spatial levels and then argue for methods that can be considered for potential implementation of passive cooling energy systems. Furthermore, this study offers a holistic overview of all available passive cooling energy systems and argue based on interplay between five indicators across the three studied spatial levels. This study focuses on warmer climate zones (e.g. hot and dry; hot and humid), where passive cooling is expected to me more effective and obligatory. As a result, this study aims to help energy specialists, policy makers, planners and designers to evaluate how they can utilize passive cooling energy systems based on the key studied indicators. Finally, this paper gives an overview of gaps in policy and practice implementation of such systems in practice and their effectiveness at various spatial levels of the built environment

    Particulate emissions from energy systems

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    General models of aerosol dynamics, originally developed to simulate atmospheric aerosol behavior, have been extended for application to combustion and other high temperature processes. These models are now being used to study the fate of ash vapors in conventional pulverized-coal combustion. Field measurements have shown that the vapors condense preferentially on the surfaces of the smaller ash particles. Previous simplified calculations have suggested that large numbers of very small particles may also be formed by the condensation of these vapors. The new, exact calculations will be used to explore the relative importance of new particle formation and condensation on existing particles, the size distributions of the particles produced under various combustion conditions, and the distribution of chemical composition with respect to particle size
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