28,730 research outputs found

    Efficient simulations of ionized ISM emission lines: A detailed comparison between the FIRE high-redshift suite and observations

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    The Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) in the sub-millimeter and the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) in the infrared have achieved robust spectroscopic detections of emission lines from the interstellar medium (ISM) in some of the first galaxies. These unprecedented measurements provide valuable information regarding the ISM properties, stellar populations, galaxy morphologies, and kinematics in these high-redshift galaxies and, in principle, offer powerful tests of state-of-the-art galaxy formation models, as implemented in hydrodynamical simulations. To facilitate direct comparisons between simulations and observations, we develop a fast post-processing pipeline for predicting the line emission from the HII regions around simulated star particles, accounting for spatial variations in the surrounding gas density, metallicity, temperature, and incident radiation spectrum. Our ISM line emission model currently captures Hα\alpha, Hβ\beta, and all of the [OIII] and [OII] lines targeted by ALMA and the JWST at z>6z>6. We illustrate the power of this approach by applying our line emission model to the publicly available FIRE high-zz simulation suite and perform a detailed comparison with current observations. We show that the FIRE mass--metallicity relation is in 1σ1\sigma agreement with ALMA/JWST measurements after accounting for the inhomogeneities in ISM properties. We also quantitatively validate the one-zone model description, which is widely used for interpreting [OIII] and Hβ\beta line luminosity measurements. This model is publicly available and can be implemented on top of a broad range of galaxy formation simulations for comparison with JWST and ALMA measurements.Comment: 15 pages, 13 figure

    Isoxazolyl-Derived 1,4-Dihydroazolo[5,1-<i>c</i>][1,2,4]Triazines: Synthesis and Photochemical Properties

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    New fluorescent dyes containing an assembled 1,4-dihydroazolo[5,1-c][1,2,4]triazine (DAT) core and an isoxazole ring were synthesized through a reaction between diazopyrazole or diazoimidazoles and isoxazolyl-derived enamines in mild conditions. The photophysical characteristics (maxima absorption and emission, Stokes shifts, fluorescent quantum yields, and fluorescence lifetimes) of the new fluorophores were obtained. The prepared DATs demonstrated emission maxima ranging within 433–487 nm, quantum yields within 6.1–33.3%, and a large Stokes shift. The photophysical characteristics of representative DAT examples were studied in ten different solvents. Specific (hydrogen bonds) and non-specific (dipole–dipole) intermolecular and intramolecular interactions were analyzed using XRD data and spectral experiments. Solvatochromism was analyzed using Lippert–Mataga and Dimroth–Reichardt plots, revealing the relationship between the DAT structure and the nature of solute–solvent interactions. The significant advantages of DATs are the fluorescence of their powders (QY up to 98.7%). DAT-NMe2 10 expressed bright aggregation-induced emission (AIE) behavior in DMSO and THF as the water content increased. The numerous possible variations of the structures of the heterocycles included in the DATs, as well as substituents, create excellent prospects for adjusting their photophysical and physicochemical properties

    Direct observations of the atomic-molecular phase transition in the Milky Way's nuclear wind

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    Hundreds of high-velocity atomic gas clouds exist above and below the Galactic Centre, with some containing a molecular component. However, the origin of these clouds in the Milky Way's wind is unclear. This paper presents new high-resolution MeerKAT observations of three atomic gas clouds and studies the relationship between the atomic and molecular phases at 1\sim 1 pc scales. The clouds' atomic hydrogen column densities, NHIN_{\mathrm{HI}}, are less than a \mbox{few}\times 10^{20} cm2^{-2}, but the two clouds closest to the Galactic Centre nonetheless have detectable CO emission. This implies the presence of H2_{2} at levels of NHIN_{\mathrm{HI}} at least a factor of ten lower than in the typical Galactic interstellar medium. For the cloud closest to the Galactic Centre, there is little correlation between the NHIN_{\mathrm{HI}} and the probability that it will harbour detectable CO emissions. In contrast, for the intermediate cloud, detectable CO is heavily biased toward the highest values of NHIN_{\mathrm{HI}}. The cloud most distant from the Galactic Centre has no detectable CO at similar NHIN_{\mathrm{HI}} values. Moreover, we find that the two clouds with detectable CO are too molecule-rich to be in chemical equilibrium, given the depths of their atomic shielding layers, which suggests a scenario whereby these clouds consist of pre-existing molecular gas from the disc that the Galactic wind has swept up, and that is dissociating into atomic hydrogen as it flows away from the Galaxy. We estimate that entrained molecular material of this type has a few10\sim \mathrm{few}-10 Myr lifetime before photodissociating.Comment: 11 pages, 6 figures, 2 tables. Submitted to MNRA

    Phasing out coal for 2 \ub0C target requires worldwide replication of most ambitious national plans despite security and fairness concerns

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    Ending the use of unabated coal power is a key climate change mitigation measure. However, we do not know how fast it is feasible to phase-out coal on the global scale. Historical experience of individual countries indicates feasible coal phase-out rates, but can these be upscaled to the global level and accelerated by deliberate action? To answer this question, we analyse 72 national coal power phase-out pledges and show that these pledges have diffused to more challenging socio-economic contexts and now cover 17% of the global coal power fleet, but their impact on emissions (up to 4.8 Gt CO2 avoided by 2050) remains small compared to what is needed for achieving Paris climate targets. We also show that the ambition of pledges is similar across countries and broadly in line with historical precedents of coal power decline. While some pledges strengthen over time, up to 10% have been weakened by the energy crisis caused by the Russo-Ukrainian war. We construct scenarios of coal power decline based on empirically-grounded assumptions about future diffusion and ambition of coal phase-out policies. We show that under these assumptions unabated coal power generation in 2022-2050 would be between the median generation in 2 \ub0C-consistent IPCC AR6 pathways and the third quartile in 2.5 \ub0C-consistent pathways. More ambitious coal phase-out scenarios require much stronger effort in Asia than in OECD countries, which raises fairness and equity concerns. The majority of the 1.5 \ub0C- and 2 \ub0C-consistent IPCC pathways envision even more unequal distribution of effort and faster coal power decline in India and China than has ever been historically observed in individual countries or pledged by climate leaders

    EMPRESS. XI. SDSS and JWST Search for Local and z~4-5 Extremely Metal-Poor Galaxies (EMPGs): Clustering and Chemical Properties of Local EMPGs

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    We search for local extremely metal-poor galaxies (EMPGs), selecting photometric candidates by broadband color excess and machine-learning techniques with the SDSS photometric data. After removing stellar contaminants by shallow spectroscopy with Seimei and Nayuta telescopes, we confirm that three candidates are EMPGs with 0.05--0.1 ZZ_\odot by deep Magellan/MagE spectroscopy for faint {\sc[Oiii]}λ\lambda4363 lines. Using a statistical sample consisting of 105 spectroscopically-confirmed EMPGs taken from our study and the literature, we calculate cross-correlation function (CCF) of the EMPGs and all SDSS galaxies to quantify environments of EMPGs. Comparing another CCF of all SDSS galaxies and comparison SDSS galaxies in the same stellar mass range (107.0108.4M10^{7.0}-10^{8.4} M_\odot), we find no significant (>1σ>1\sigma) difference between these two CCFs. We also compare mass-metallicity relations (MZRs) of the EMPGs and those of galaxies at zz\sim 0--4 with a steady chemical evolution model and find that the EMPG MZR is comparable with the model prediction on average. These clustering and chemical properties of EMPGs are explained by a scenario of stochastic metal-poor gas accretion on metal-rich galaxies showing metal-poor star formation. Extending the broadband color-excess technique to a high-zz EMPG search, we select 17 candidates of zz\sim 4--5 EMPGs with the deep (30\simeq30 mag) near-infrared JWST/NIRCam images obtained by ERO and ERS programs. We find galaxy candidates with negligible {\sc[Oiii]}λλ\lambda\lambda4959,5007 emission weaker than the local EMPGs and known high-zz galaxies, suggesting that some of these candidates may fall in 0--0.01 ZZ_\odot, which potentially break the lowest metallicity limit known to date

    The First Flight of the Marshall Grazing Incidence X-Ray Spectrometer (MaGIXS)

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    The Marshall Grazing Incidence X-ray Spectrometer (MaGIXS) sounding rocket experiment launched on 2021 July 30 from the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. MaGIXS is a unique solar observing telescope developed to capture X-ray spectral images of coronal active regions in the 6–24 Å wavelength range. Its novel design takes advantage of recent technological advances related to fabricating and optimizing X-ray optical systems, as well as breakthroughs in inversion methodologies necessary to create spectrally pure maps from overlapping spectral images. MaGIXS is the first instrument of its kind to provide spatially resolved soft X-ray spectra across a wide field of view. The plasma diagnostics available in this spectral regime make this instrument a powerful tool for probing solar coronal heating. This paper presents details from the first MaGIXS flight, the captured observations, the data processing and inversion techniques, and the first science results

    Formation of star clusters and enrichment by massive stars in simulations of low-metallicity galaxies with a fully sampled initial stellar mass function

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    We present new GRIFFIN project hydrodynamical simulations that model the formation of galactic star cluster populations in low-metallicity (Z=0.00021Z=0.00021) dwarf galaxies, including radiation, supernova and stellar wind feedback of individual massive stars. In the simulations, stars are sampled from the stellar initial mass function (IMF) down to the hydrogen burning limit of 0.080.08 M_\odot. Mass conservation is enforced within a radius of 11 pc for the formation of massive stars. We find that massive stars are preferentially found in star clusters and follow a correlation set at birth between the highest initial stellar mass and the star cluster mass that differs from pure stochastic IMF sampling. With a fully sampled IMF, star clusters lose mass in the galactic tidal field according to mass-loss rates observed in nearby galaxies. Of the released stellar feedback, 60%60\% of the supernova material and up to 35%35\% of the wind material reside either in the hot interstellar medium (ISM) or in gaseous, metal enriched outflows. While stellar winds (instantaneously) and supernovae (delayed) start enriching the ISM right after the first massive stars form, the formation of supernova-enriched stars and star clusters is significantly delayed (by >50>50 Myr) compared to the formation of stars and star clusters enriched by stellar winds. Overall, supernova ejecta dominate the enrichment by mass, while the number of enriched stars is determined by continuous stellar winds. These results present a concept for the formation of chemically distinct populations of stars in bound star clusters, reminiscent of multiple populations in globular clusters.Comment: 26 pages, 23 figures. Accepted for publication in MNRA

    Inhomogeneous Enrichment of Radioactive Nuclei in the Galaxy: Deposition of Live 53 Mn, 60 Fe, 182 Hf, and 244 Pu into Deep-sea Archives. Surfing the Wave?

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    © 2023. The Author(s). Published by the American Astronomical Society. This article is license under a Creative Commons license. Original content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 licence. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/While modeling the galactic chemical evolution (GCE) of stable elements provides insights to the formation history of the Galaxy and the relative contributions of nucleosynthesis sites, modeling the evolution of short-lived radioisotopes (SLRs) can provide supplementary timing information on recent nucleosynthesis. To study the evolution of SLRs, we need to understand their spatial distribution. Using a three-dimensional GCE model, we investigated the evolution of four SLRs: 53Mn, 60Fe, 182Hf, and 244Pu with the aim of explaining detections of recent (within the last ≈1–20 Myr) deposition of live 53Mn, 60Fe, and 244Pu of extrasolar origin into deep-sea reservoirs. We find that core-collapse supernovae are the dominant propagation mechanism of SLRs in the Galaxy. This results in the simultaneous arrival of these four SLRs on Earth, although they could have been produced in different astrophysical sites, which can explain why live extrasolar 53Mn, 60Fe, and 244Pu are found within the same, or similar, layers of deep-sea sediments. We predict that 182Hf should also be found in such sediments at similar depths.Peer reviewe

    Modelling uncertainties for measurements of the H → γγ Channel with the ATLAS Detector at the LHC

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    The Higgs boson to diphoton (H → γγ) branching ratio is only 0.227 %, but this final state has yielded some of the most precise measurements of the particle. As measurements of the Higgs boson become increasingly precise, greater import is placed on the factors that constitute the uncertainty. Reducing the effects of these uncertainties requires an understanding of their causes. The research presented in this thesis aims to illuminate how uncertainties on simulation modelling are determined and proffers novel techniques in deriving them. The upgrade of the FastCaloSim tool is described, used for simulating events in the ATLAS calorimeter at a rate far exceeding the nominal detector simulation, Geant4. The integration of a method that allows the toolbox to emulate the accordion geometry of the liquid argon calorimeters is detailed. This tool allows for the production of larger samples while using significantly fewer computing resources. A measurement of the total Higgs boson production cross-section multiplied by the diphoton branching ratio (σ × Bγγ) is presented, where this value was determined to be (σ × Bγγ)obs = 127 ± 7 (stat.) ± 7 (syst.) fb, within agreement with the Standard Model prediction. The signal and background shape modelling is described, and the contribution of the background modelling uncertainty to the total uncertainty ranges from 18–2.4 %, depending on the Higgs boson production mechanism. A method for estimating the number of events in a Monte Carlo background sample required to model the shape is detailed. It was found that the size of the nominal γγ background events sample required a multiplicative increase by a factor of 3.60 to adequately model the background with a confidence level of 68 %, or a factor of 7.20 for a confidence level of 95 %. Based on this estimate, 0.5 billion additional simulated events were produced, substantially reducing the background modelling uncertainty. A technique is detailed for emulating the effects of Monte Carlo event generator differences using multivariate reweighting. The technique is used to estimate the event generator uncertainty on the signal modelling of tHqb events, improving the reliability of estimating the tHqb production cross-section. Then this multivariate reweighting technique is used to estimate the generator modelling uncertainties on background V γγ samples for the first time. The estimated uncertainties were found to be covered by the currently assumed background modelling uncertainty