160,527 research outputs found

    Electromechanical Probing of Ionic Currents in Energy Storage Materials

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    The electrochemical processes in energy storage materials are generally linked with changes of molar volume of the host compound. Here, the frequency dependent strain response of 1D electrochemically active systems to periodic electric bias is analyzed. The sensitivity and resolution of these electrochemical strain measurements are compared to the current-based electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The resolution and detection limits of interferometric and atomic force microscopy based systems for probing electrochemical reactions on the nanoscale are analyzed.Comment: 12 pages, 4 figures, 2 tables, 2 appendices, submitted to Appl. Phys. Let

    Electrochemical energy storage systems for solar thermal applications

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    Existing and advanced electrochemical storage and inversion/conversion systems that may be used with terrestrial solar-thermal power systems are evaluated. The status, cost and performance of existing storage systems are assessed, and the cost, performance, and availability of advanced systems are projected. A prime consideration is the cost of delivered energy from plants utilizing electrochemical storage. Results indicate that the five most attractive electrochemical storage systems are the: iron-chromium redox (NASA LeRC), zinc-bromine (Exxon), sodium-sulfur (Ford), sodium-sulfur (Dow), and zinc-chlorine (EDA)

    Electrochemical characterization of systems for secondary battery application First quarterly report, May - Jul. 1966

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    Screening techniques for electrode-electrolyte electrochemical systems for high energy density batterie

    Study of multiple reserve electrochemical power sources Final report

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    High energy density electrolytic cell systems for multiple reserve electrochemical spacecraft power supplie

    New Materials and New Configurations for Advanced Electrochemical Capacitors

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    Today, electrochemical capacitors (ECs) have the potential to emerge as a promising energy storage technology. The weakness of EC systems is certainly the limited energy density, which restricts applications to power delivery over only few seconds. As a consequence, many research efforts are focused on designing new materials to improve energy and power densities. These are reviewed below

    Alkali metal carbon dioxide electrochemical system for energy storage and/or conversion of carbon dioxide to oxygen

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    An alkali metal, such as lithium, is the anodic reactant; carbon dioxide or a mixture of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide is the cathodic reactant; and carbonate of the alkali metal is the electrolyte in an electrochemical cell for the storage and delivery of electrical energy. Additionally, alkali metal-carbon dioxide battery systems include a plurality of such electrochemical cells. Gold is a preferred catalyst for reducing the carbon dioxide at the cathode. The fuel cell of the invention produces electrochemical energy through the use of an anodic reactant which is extremely energetic and light, and a cathodic reactant which can be extracted from its environment and therefore exacts no transportation penalty. The invention is, therefore, especially useful in extraterrestrial environments

    Electrochemical Studies of Redox Systems for Energy Storage

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    Particular attention was paid to the Cr(II)/Cr(III) redox couple in aqueous solutions in the presence of Cl(-) ions. The aim of this research has been to unravel the electrode kinetics of this redox couple and the effect of Cl(1) and electrode substrate. Gold and silver were studied as electrodes and the results show distinctive differences; this is probably due to the role Cl(-) ion may play as a mediator in the reaction and the difference in state of electrical charge on these two metals (difference in the potential of zero charge, pzc). The competition of hydrogen evolution with CrCl3 reduction on these surfaces was studied by means of the rotating ring disk electrode (RRDE). The ring downstream measures the flux of chromous ions from the disk and therefore separation of both Cr(III) and H2 generation can be achieved by analyzing ring and disk currents. The conditions for the quantitative detection of Cr(2+) at the ring electrode were established. Underpotential deposition of Pb on Ag and its effect on the electrokinetics of Cr(II)/Cr(III) reaction was studied

    A program to develop a high-energy density primary battery with a minimum of 200 watt hours per pound of total battery weight third quarterly report, jan. - mar. 1965

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    Electrochemical study of prospective electrode- electrolyte systems for high-energy primary battery with minimum of 200 watt hours per pound of total battery weigh

    Chemisorption as the essential step in electrochemical energy conversion

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    Growing world population and energy demands have placed energy conversion and storage into the very centre of modern research. Electrochemical energy conversion systems including batteries, fuel cells, and supercapacitors, are widely considered as the next generation power sources. Even though they rely on different mechanisms of energy conversion and storage, fundamentally these are all electrochemical cells, operating through processes taking place at the solid/liquid interfaces, i.e. electrodes. Considering the interfacial nature of electrodes, it is clear that adsorption phenomena cannot be neglected when considering electrochemical systems. More than that, they are of crucial importance for electrochemical processes and represent an essential step in electrochemical energy conversion. In this contribution we give an overview of the phenomena underlying the operation of sustainable metal-ion batteries, fuel cells and supercapacitors, ranging from electrocatalytic reactions and pseudo-faradaic processes to purely adsorptive processes, emphasizing the types, roles and significance of chemisorption. We review experimental and theoretical methods which can provide information about chemisorption in the mentioned systems, stressing the importance of combining both approaches
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