256,395 research outputs found

    Finding genetically-supported drug targets for Parkinson's disease using Mendelian randomization of the druggable genome

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    There is currently no disease-modifying treatment for Parkinson's disease, a common neurodegenerative disorder. Here, the authors use genetic variation associated with gene and protein expression to find putative drug targets for Parkinson's disease using Mendelian randomization of the druggable genome. Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative movement disorder that currently has no disease-modifying treatment, partly owing to inefficiencies in drug target identification and validation. We use Mendelian randomization to investigate over 3,000 genes that encode druggable proteins and predict their efficacy as drug targets for Parkinson's disease. We use expression and protein quantitative trait loci to mimic exposure to medications, and we examine the causal effect on Parkinson's disease risk (in two large cohorts), age at onset and progression. We propose 23 drug-targeting mechanisms for Parkinson's disease, including four possible drug repurposing opportunities and two drugs which may increase Parkinson's disease risk. Of these, we put forward six drug targets with the strongest Mendelian randomization evidence. There is remarkably little overlap between our drug targets to reduce Parkinson's disease risk versus progression, suggesting different molecular mechanisms. Drugs with genetic support are considerably more likely to succeed in clinical trials, and we provide compelling genetic evidence and an analysis pipeline to prioritise Parkinson's disease drug development.Peer reviewe

    Finding genetically-supported drug targets for Parkinson's disease using Mendelian randomization of the druggable genome

    Get PDF
    There is currently no disease-modifying treatment for Parkinson's disease, a common neurodegenerative disorder. Here, the authors use genetic variation associated with gene and protein expression to find putative drug targets for Parkinson's disease using Mendelian randomization of the druggable genome. Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative movement disorder that currently has no disease-modifying treatment, partly owing to inefficiencies in drug target identification and validation. We use Mendelian randomization to investigate over 3,000 genes that encode druggable proteins and predict their efficacy as drug targets for Parkinson's disease. We use expression and protein quantitative trait loci to mimic exposure to medications, and we examine the causal effect on Parkinson's disease risk (in two large cohorts), age at onset and progression. We propose 23 drug-targeting mechanisms for Parkinson's disease, including four possible drug repurposing opportunities and two drugs which may increase Parkinson's disease risk. Of these, we put forward six drug targets with the strongest Mendelian randomization evidence. There is remarkably little overlap between our drug targets to reduce Parkinson's disease risk versus progression, suggesting different molecular mechanisms. Drugs with genetic support are considerably more likely to succeed in clinical trials, and we provide compelling genetic evidence and an analysis pipeline to prioritise Parkinson's disease drug development.Peer reviewe

    A Novel Neurotrophic Drug for Cognitive Enhancement and Alzheimer's Disease

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    Currently, the major drug discovery paradigm for neurodegenerative diseases is based upon high affinity ligands for single disease-specific targets. For Alzheimer's disease (AD), the focus is the amyloid beta peptide (A脽) that mediates familial Alzheimer's disease pathology. However, given that age is the greatest risk factor for AD, we explored an alternative drug discovery scheme that is based upon efficacy in multiple cell culture models of age-associated pathologies rather than exclusively amyloid metabolism. Using this approach, we identified an exceptionally potent, orally active, neurotrophic molecule that facilitates memory in normal rodents, and prevents the loss of synaptic proteins and cognitive decline in a transgenic AD mouse model

    Bone marrow senescence and the microenvironment of hematological malignancies

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    Senescence is the irreversible arrest of cell proliferation that has now been shown to play an important role in both health and disease. With increasing age senescent cells accumulate throughout the body, including the bone marrow and this has been associated with a number of age-related pathologies including malignancies. It has been shown that the senescence associated secretory phenotype (SASP) creates a pro-tumoural environment that supports proliferation and survival of malignant cells. Understanding the role of senescent cells in tumor development better may help us to identify new treatment targets to impair tumor survival and reduce treatment resistance. In this review, we will specifically discuss the role of senescence in the aging bone marrow (BM) microenvironment. Many BM disorders are age-related diseases and highly dependent on the BM microenvironment. Despite advances in drug development the prognosis particularly for older patients remains poor and new treatment approaches are needed to improve outcomes for patients. In this review, we will focus on the relationship of senescence and hematological malignancies, how senescence promotes cancer development and how malignant cells induce senescence

    <i>C-elegans</i> model identifies genetic modifiers of alpha-synuclein inclusion formation during aging

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    Inclusions in the brain containing alpha-synuclein are the pathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease, but how these inclusions are formed and how this links to disease is poorly understood. We have developed a &lt;i&gt;C-elegans&lt;/i&gt; model that makes it possible to monitor, in living animals, the formation of alpha-synuclein inclusions. In worms of old age, inclusions contain aggregated alpha-synuclein, resembling a critical pathological feature. We used genome-wide RNA interference to identify processes involved in inclusion formation, and identified 80 genes that, when knocked down, resulted in a premature increase in the number of inclusions. Quality control and vesicle-trafficking genes expressed in the ER/Golgi complex and vesicular compartments were overrepresented, indicating a specific role for these processes in alpha-synuclein inclusion formation. Suppressors include aging-associated genes, such as sir-2.1/SIRT1 and lagr-1/LASS2. Altogether, our data suggest a link between alpha-synuclein inclusion formation and cellular aging, likely through an endomembrane-related mechanism. The processes and genes identified here present a framework for further study of the disease mechanism and provide candidate susceptibility genes and drug targets for Parkinson's disease and other alpha-synuclein related disorders

    Deciphering osteoarthritis genetics across 826,690 individuals from 9 populations

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    Osteoarthritis affects over 300 million people worldwide. Here, we conduct a genome-wide association study meta-analysis across 826,690 individuals (177,517 with osteoarthritis) and identify 100 independently associated risk variants across 11 osteoarthritis phenotypes, 52 of which have not been associated with the disease before. We report thumb and spine osteoarthritis risk variants and identify differences in genetic effects between weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing joints. We identify sex-specific and early age-at-onset osteoarthritis risk loci. We integrate functional genomics data from primary patient tissues (including articular cartilage, subchondral bone, and osteophytic cartilage) and identify high-confidence effector genes. We provide evidence for genetic correlation with phenotypes related to pain, the main disease symptom, and identify likely causal genes linked to neuronal processes. Our results provide insights into key molecular players in disease processes and highlight attractive drug targets to accelerate translation

    Biomarker-Drug and Liquid Biopsy Co-development for Disease Staging and Targeted Therapy: Cornerstones for Alzheimer's Precision Medicine and Pharmacology.

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    Systems biology studies have demonstrated that different (epi)genetic and pathophysiological alterations may be mapped onto a single tumor's clinical phenotype thereby revealing commonalities shared by cancers with divergent phenotypes. The success of this approach in cancer based on analyses of traditional and emerging body fluid-based biomarkers has given rise to the concept of liquid biopsy enabling a non-invasive and widely accessible precision medicine approach and a significant paradigm shift in the management of cancer. Serial liquid biopsies offer clues about the evolution of cancer in individual patients across disease stages enabling the application of individualized genetically and biologically guided therapies. Moreover, liquid biopsy is contributing to the transformation of drug research and development strategies as well as supporting clinical practice allowing identification of subsets of patients who may enter pathway-based targeted therapies not dictated by clinical phenotypes alone. A similar liquid biopsy concept is emerging for Alzheimer's disease, in which blood-based biomarkers adaptable to each patient and stage of disease, may be used for positive and negative patient selection to facilitate establishment of high-value drug targets and counter-measures for drug resistance. Going beyond the "one marker, one drug" model, integrated applications of genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, receptor expression and receptor cell biology and conformational status assessments during biomarker-drug co-development may lead to a new successful era for Alzheimer's disease therapeutics. We argue that the time is now for implementing a liquid biopsy-guided strategy for the development of drugs that precisely target Alzheimer's disease pathophysiology in individual patients

    A fruitful fly forward : the role of the fly in drug discovery for neurodegeneration

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    AD, Alzheimer鈥檚 disease; APP, amyloid precursor protein; BBB, blood brain barrier; GFP, green fluorescent protein; HTS, high-throughput screening; HD, Huntington鈥檚 disease; LB, Lewy bodies; PD, Parkinson鈥檚 disease; PolyQ, Polyglutamine; RNAi, RNA interference; SNCA, 伪-synuclein gene; UAS, Upstream Activating Sequence.peer-reviewe

    One special question to start with: can HIF/NFkB be a target in inflammation?

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    Hypoxia and Inflammation are strictly interconnected with important consequences at clinical and therapeutic level. While cell and tissue damage due to acute hypoxia mostly leads to cell necrosis, in chronic hypoxia, cells that are located closer to vessels are able to survive adapting their phenotype through the expression of a number of genes, including proinflammatory receptors for alarmins. These receptors are activated by alarmins released by necrotic cells and generate signals for master transcription factors such as NFkB, AP1, etc. which control hundreds of genes for innate immunity and damage repair. Clinical consequences of chronic inflammatory reparative response activation include cell and tissue remodeling, damage in the primary site and, the systemic involvement of distant organs and tissues. Thus every time a tissue environment becomes stably hypoxic, inflammation can be activated followed by chronic damage and cell death or repair with vessel proliferation and fibrosis. This pathway can occur in cancer, myocardial infarction and stroke, diabetes, obesity, neurodegenerative diseases, chronic and autoimmune diseases and age-related diseases. Interestingly, proinflammatory gene expression can be observed earlier in hypoxic tissue cells and, in addition, in activated resident or recruited leukocytes. Herewith, the reciprocal relationships between hypoxia and inflammation will be shortly reviewed to underline the possible therapeutic targets to control hypoxia-related inflammation in a number of epidemiologically important human diseases and conditions
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