17,191 research outputs found

    Corporate Social Responsibility: the institutionalization of ESG

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    Understanding the impact of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) on firm performance as it relates to industries reliant on technological innovation is a complex and perpetually evolving challenge. To thoroughly investigate this topic, this dissertation will adopt an economics-based structure to address three primary hypotheses. This structure allows for each hypothesis to essentially be a standalone empirical paper, unified by an overall analysis of the nature of impact that ESG has on firm performance. The first hypothesis explores the evolution of CSR to the modern quantified iteration of ESG has led to the institutionalization and standardization of the CSR concept. The second hypothesis fills gaps in existing literature testing the relationship between firm performance and ESG by finding that the relationship is significantly positive in long-term, strategic metrics (ROA and ROIC) and that there is no correlation in short-term metrics (ROE and ROS). Finally, the third hypothesis states that if a firm has a long-term strategic ESG plan, as proxied by the publication of CSR reports, then it is more resilience to damage from controversies. This is supported by the finding that pro-ESG firms consistently fared better than their counterparts in both financial and ESG performance, even in the event of a controversy. However, firms with consistent reporting are also held to a higher standard than their nonreporting peers, suggesting a higher risk and higher reward dynamic. These findings support the theory of good management, in that long-term strategic planning is both immediately economically beneficial and serves as a means of risk management and social impact mitigation. Overall, this contributes to the literature by fillings gaps in the nature of impact that ESG has on firm performance, particularly from a management perspective

    Anuário científico da Escola Superior de Tecnologia da Saúde de Lisboa - 2021

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    É com grande prazer que apresentamos a mais recente edição (a 11.ª) do Anuário Científico da Escola Superior de Tecnologia da Saúde de Lisboa. Como instituição de ensino superior, temos o compromisso de promover e incentivar a pesquisa científica em todas as áreas do conhecimento que contemplam a nossa missão. Esta publicação tem como objetivo divulgar toda a produção científica desenvolvida pelos Professores, Investigadores, Estudantes e Pessoal não Docente da ESTeSL durante 2021. Este Anuário é, assim, o reflexo do trabalho árduo e dedicado da nossa comunidade, que se empenhou na produção de conteúdo científico de elevada qualidade e partilhada com a Sociedade na forma de livros, capítulos de livros, artigos publicados em revistas nacionais e internacionais, resumos de comunicações orais e pósteres, bem como resultado dos trabalhos de 1º e 2º ciclo. Com isto, o conteúdo desta publicação abrange uma ampla variedade de tópicos, desde temas mais fundamentais até estudos de aplicação prática em contextos específicos de Saúde, refletindo desta forma a pluralidade e diversidade de áreas que definem, e tornam única, a ESTeSL. Acreditamos que a investigação e pesquisa científica é um eixo fundamental para o desenvolvimento da sociedade e é por isso que incentivamos os nossos estudantes a envolverem-se em atividades de pesquisa e prática baseada na evidência desde o início dos seus estudos na ESTeSL. Esta publicação é um exemplo do sucesso desses esforços, sendo a maior de sempre, o que faz com que estejamos muito orgulhosos em partilhar os resultados e descobertas dos nossos investigadores com a comunidade científica e o público em geral. Esperamos que este Anuário inspire e motive outros estudantes, profissionais de saúde, professores e outros colaboradores a continuarem a explorar novas ideias e contribuir para o avanço da ciência e da tecnologia no corpo de conhecimento próprio das áreas que compõe a ESTeSL. Agradecemos a todos os envolvidos na produção deste anuário e desejamos uma leitura inspiradora e agradável.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    The feminisation of poverty: A study of Ndau women of Muchadziya village in Chimanimani Zimbabwe

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    Poverty statistics in many countries of the developing world, with Zimbabwe being no exception, continue to show a gender-skewed trend, with women more than men increasingly being more affected. This is worrying, considering the fact that it is women who are the majority, and they carry the brunt of the burden for most household duties. Zimbabwe adopted the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and yet women continue to be hit hard by poverty. This was a qualitative study involving interviews and focus group discussions with 58 purposively sampled participants from Muchadziya village to determine the extent to which women in Muchadziya village are contributing towards sustainable development in Zimbabwe. The aim of this article, was to explore the ways in which women in Muchadziya village are contributing towards the alleviation of poverty. In the process, they will be contributing towards the attainment of some of the SDGs, such as the ones focusing on ending poverty in all its forms everywhere (SDG 1) and ending hunger, achieving food security and improved nutrition and promoting sustainable agriculture (SDG 2). Using Africana womanism theoretical framework, the article maintained that African women should be perceived as agents, not subjects, of development and transformation in their communities. Findings indicated that women in Muchadziya village are selling various products and have sought markets in Beitbridge, Gweru and Zvishavane to sell them; others have set up shops and flea markets, and others make use of the land even though they do not own it to produce farm products to fight against poverty. The study concluded that women, despite being in difficult circumstances, are capable of contributing towards the achievement of the SDGs, particularly SDG 5 focusing on women’s empowerment and attaining gender equality. It is therefore recommended that women be given the necessary support to achieve more. Contribution: In a context where women are the most affected by poverty, Ndau women have proven that they can be agents of change by contributing towards the achievement of SDGs such as ending poverty in all its forms, zero hunger, education, gender equality and women’s empowerment and water and sanitation. Not much scholarly attention has been paid to the agency of women in Chimanimani in enhancing Zimbabwe’s sustainable development. This gap in literature might be influenced by the fact that African women, particularly women in rural areas, are perceived as beneficiaries or recipients of aid or development initiatives. As such, most programmes mainstreamed by aid or donor agencies in Africa have a specific focus on distributing aid to women and girl-children. Unfortunately, such programmes rarely seek to capacitate or empower their beneficiaries; hence, their interventions eventually disempower the intended beneficiaries

    Extractive desulfurization of fuel oils using ionic liquids

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    The sulphur content of transportation fuels must be reduced in high-sulphur crude oil by desulfurization. Traditionally, desulfurization methods have required harsh reaction conditions and are not very effective at removing refractory sulfur compounds such as benzothiophene (BT), dibenzothiophene (DBT) and 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene (4,6-DMDBT). Alternative methods, such as ionic liquid (IL)-mediated desulfurization, are both effective and environmentally friendly. Isolants ideal for desulfurization are required to be recyclable, insoluble in oil, selective for compounds containing sulphur, and eco-friendly. These properties are offered by ILs based on pyridinium. Therefore, the primary objectives of this thesis were to: (1) investigate the properties of N-butyl-pyridinium tetrafluoroborate ([BPy][BF₄]) and N-carboxymethyl pyridinium hydrogen sulfate ([CH₂COOHPy][HSO₄]); (2) understand the effects of reaction parameters (temperature, volume ratio, oxidant dosage, quantities of sulphur compound extracted, etc.) on desulfurization efficiency; (3) clarify the interactions between ILs and sulphur compounds; and (4) investigate the recycling and regeneration of ILs. Experimental results showed that the desulfurization efficiency of [BPy][BF₄] increased with temperature and oxidant dosage and declined with IL to fuel volume ratio. It was observed that at 30゚C, 1:1 ration of IL to model fuel [BPy][BF₄] could remove up to 79% of DBT in 80 min in the presence of oxidant H₂O₂. [CH₂COOHPy] [HSO₄] was found to be more effective in desulfurization, capable of removing up to 99.9% of DBT in the presence of oxidant H₂O₂ within 40 min at 25゚C, 1:1 ratio of IL to model fuel. The recycled [CH₂COOHPy][HSO₄] marginally lost effectiveness after 8 recycles. It was also found that the effectiveness of both ILs was lower in real diesel compared to model fuels. Computational density functional theory-based structural analysis revealed that there were two types of possible π-π interactions between [BPy] [BF₄] and DBT/DBTO₂, resulting in the formation of complexes with different geometries. [CH₂COOHPy][HSO₄] also exhibits similar potential π−π interactions with DBT/DBTO₂. Moreover, both ILs undergo the same oxidative mechanism of desulfurization, as they involve π-π interactions and hydrogen bonds

    Increased lifetime of Organic Photovoltaics (OPVs) and the impact of degradation, efficiency and costs in the LCOE of Emerging PVs

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    Emerging photovoltaic (PV) technologies such as organic photovoltaics (OPVs) and perovskites (PVKs) have the potential to disrupt the PV market due to their ease of fabrication (compatible with cheap roll-to-roll processing) and installation, as well as their significant efficiency improvements in recent years. However, rapid degradation is still an issue present in many emerging PVs, which must be addressed to enable their commercialisation. This thesis shows an OPV lifetime enhancing technique by adding the insulating polymer PMMA to the active layer, and a novel model for quantifying the impact of degradation (alongside efficiency and cost) upon levelized cost of energy (LCOE) in real world emerging PV installations. The effect of PMMA morphology on the success of a ternary strategy was investigated, leading to device design guidelines. It was found that either increasing the weight percent (wt%) or molecular weight (MW) of PMMA resulted in an increase in the volume of PMMA-rich islands, which provided the OPV protection against water and oxygen ingress. It was also found that adding PMMA can be effective in enhancing the lifetime of different active material combinations, although not to the same extent, and that processing additives can have a negative impact in the devices lifetime. A novel model was developed taking into account realistic degradation profile sourced from a literature review of state-of-the-art OPV and PVK devices. It was found that optimal strategies to improve LCOE depend on the present characteristics of a device, and that panels with a good balance of efficiency and degradation were better than panels with higher efficiency but higher degradation as well. Further, it was found that low-cost locations were more favoured from reductions in the degradation rate and module cost, whilst high-cost locations were more benefited from improvements in initial efficiency, lower discount rates and reductions in install costs

    Immunoinformatics and Computer-Aided Drug Design as New Approaches against Emerging and Re-Emerging Infectious Diseases

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    Infectious diseases are initiated by small pathogenic living germs that are transferred from person to person by direct or indirect contact. Recently, different newly emerging and reemerging infectious viral diseases have become greater threats to human health and global stability. Investigators can anticipate epidemics through the advent of numerous mathematical tools that can predict specific pathogens and identify potential targets for vaccine and drug design and will help to fight against these challenges. Currently, computational approaches that include mathematical and essential tools have unfolded the way for a better understanding of newly originated emerging and re-emerging infectious disease, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment option of specific diseases more easily, where immunoinformatics plays a crucial role in the discovery of novel peptides and vaccine candidates against the different viruses within a short time. Computational approaches include immunoinformatics, and computer-aided drug design (CADD)-based model trained biomolecules that offered reasonable and quick implementation approaches for the modern discovery of effective viral therapies. The essence of this review is to give insight into the multiple approaches not only for the detection of infectious diseases but also profound how people can pick appropriate models for the detection of viral therapeutics through computational approaches

    Substrate-specificity of the DNA-protein crosslink repair protease SPRTN

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