861,535 research outputs found

    Indicators and methods for assessing the quality of logistic activity processes

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    Purpose: This article is aimed at identifying and evaluating the quality and safety indicators of processes in the logistics system and solving the problems of product control in the goods’ distribution process. Design/Methodology/Approach: In order to assess the risks and quality of control methods in the goods’ distribution processes, studies were carried out in the process of grain supply, on which the risk assessment was tested using the fault tree using a qualitative approach with a deductive logic, which allowed to identify events at the lower levels of the system. To evaluate the results when comparing various methods of monitoring the characteristics of products in the product distribution process certain statistical tools were used. The evaluation with comparative tests is required in order to determine the way of measuring products in the goods distribution logistics system. The study uses the methods of formalization, analysis, measurement, experimental and comparison. Findings: The considered risk assessment method and the given example allow us to recommend its use for the product distribution processes for various purposes. A technique is proposed for comparing various control methods based on statistical tools that can be recommended for various goods’ distribution operations. Practical implications: The results of the study can be applied in practice to improve the quality of goods’ distribution processes and reduce risks in the various supply chains. Originality/value: The main contribution of this study is to shift the emphasis on the assessment of processes in goods’ distribution to the positions of a risk-based approach and the use of various statistical tools in logistics’ activities.peer-reviewe

    Public Goods and the Distribution of Income

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    This article addresses conceptual issues concerning the distributive incidence of public goods. Solutions depend on the specific purposes for asking the question of distributive incidence notably, assessing the extent to which various public goods should be provided, determining how the provision of public goods affects the desirability of income redistribution, and providing a meaningful description of the distribution of well-being. In the course of the analysis, a simple and intuitive version of the benefit principle of taxation (qualitatively different from those commonly advanced in pertinent literatures) is presented, and some of the problems confronting empirical attempts to measure the distributive incidence of public goods are resolved.

    IMPACT OF REGULATED PRICE ADJUSTMENTS ON PRICE VARIABILITY IN A VERY LOW INFLATION TRANSITION ECONOMY: CASE OF ARMENIA

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    The impact of macroeconomic management (monetary policy) and administrative price adjustments on price variability in a low inflation economy characterized by relatively frequent administrative price adjustments is examined. Fluctuations of market determined prices, prices of agricultural goods in particular, are linked to the lack of synchronization between administrative price changes and monetary policy. If monetary policy does not account for expected changes in administrative prices, demand in “free” goods markets will shift causing fluctuation of prices for agricultural goods, because the supply of these goods is highly inelastic in Armenia. The findings contribute to a better understanding of agricultural price variability during 1998-2002. The impact of macroeconomic policy and structural adjustments on income distribution and rural poverty incidence are also examined. This research has immediate policy implications since Armenia will undergo major upward price adjustments for goods and services with regulated prices, which may have a negative impact on income distribution if aggregate demand management is unchanged.http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/40117/3/wp731.pd

    On the Distribution of City Sizes

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    The city size distribution of many countries is remarkably well approximated by a Pareto distribution. We study what constraints this regularity imposes on standard urban models. We find that under general conditions urban models must have (i) a balanced growth path and (ii) a Pareto distribution for the underlying source of randomness. In particular, one of the following combinations can induce a Pareto distribution of city sizes: (i) preferences for different goods follow reflected random walks, and the elasticity of substitution between goods is 1; or (ii) total factor productivities in the production of different goods follow reflected random walks, and increasing returns are equal across goods.City Size Distribution, Zipf's Law, Rank-Size Rule, Pareto Distribution, Urban Growth, Multisectorial Models, Balanced Growth, Cities

    Distribution margins, imported inputs, and the insensitivity of the CPI to exchange rates

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    Border prices of traded goods are highly sensitive to exchange rates, but the CPI and the retail prices of traded goods are more stable. Our paper decomposes the sources of this stability for twenty-one OECD countries, focusing on the important roles of distribution margins and imported inputs in transmitting exchange rate fluctuations into consumption prices. We provide rich cross-country and cross-industry details on distribution margins and their sensitivity to exchange rates, imported inputs used in different categories of consumption goods, and weights in consumption of nontradables, home tradables and imported goods. While distribution margins damp the sensitivity of consumption prices of tradable goods to exchange rates, they also lead to enhanced pass-through when nontraded goods prices are sensitive to exchange rates. Such price sensitivity arises because imported inputs are used in production of home nontradables. Calibration exercises show that, at under 5%, the United States has the lowest expected CPI sensitivity to exchange rates of all countries examined. On average, calibrated exchange rate pass-through into CPIs is expected to be closer to 15%.Exchange rate; pass through; import prices; distribution margins;

    Distribution Margins, Imported Inputs, and the Sensitivity of the CPI to Exchange Rates

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    Border prices of traded goods are highly sensitive to exchange rates, but the CPI, and the retail prices of these goods, are more stable. Our paper decomposes the sources of this stability for twenty-one OECD countries, focusing on the important roles of distribution margins and imported inputs in transmitting exchange rate fluctuations into consumption prices. We provide rich cross-country and cross-industry details on distribution margins and their sensitivity to exchange rates, imported inputs used in different categories of consumption goods, and weights in consumption of nontradables, home tradables and imported goods. While distribution margins damp the sensitivity of consumption prices of tradable goods to exchange rates, they also lead to enhanced pass through when nontraded goods prices are sensitive to exchange rates. Such price sensitivity arises because imported inputs are used in production of home nontradables. Calibration exercises show that, at under 5 percent, the United States has the lowest expected CPI sensitivity to exchange rates of all countries examined. On average, calibrated exchange rate pass through into CPIs is expected to be closer to 15 percent.

    Asymptotic Existence of Proportionally Fair Allocations

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    Fair division has long been an important problem in the economics literature. In this note, we consider the existence of proportionally fair allocations of indivisible goods, i.e., allocations of indivisible goods in which every agent gets at least her proportionally fair share according to her own utility function. We show that when utilities are additive and utilities for individual goods are drawn independently at random from a distribution, proportionally fair allocations exist with high probability if the number of goods is a multiple of the number of agents or if the number of goods grows asymptotically faster than the number of agents

    Estimation of the state of the domestic market of goods

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    The paper examines the state of the domestic market goods of Ukrainian, based on methodological approaches to assessing the state of the domestic market. The distribution of coefficients of change of individual indices of the internal market of goods with the account of information orientation of indicators is substantiated. The group of coefficients was substantiated and introduced and the method of calculation was determined. As a result, the distribution of indicators for assessing the state of the domestic market, taking into account their informational heterogeneity, was formed and substantiated. The evaluation of indicators of a functional nature, a structural nature, a factor and a determining factor was conducted in order to obtain a generalizing indicator of the state of the domestic market of goods

    New goods and the size distribution of firms

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    This paper describes a simple model of aggregate and firm growth based on the introduction of new goods. An incumbent firm can combine labor with blueprints for goods it already produces to develop new blueprints. Every worker in the economy is also a potential entrepreneur who can design a new blueprint from scratch and set up a new firm. The implied firm size distribution closely matches the fat tail observed in the data when the marginal entrepreneur is far out in the tail of the entrepreneurial skill distribution. The model produces a variance of firm growth that declines with size. But the decline is more rapid than suggested by the evidence. The model also predicts a new-firm entry rate equal to only 2.5% per annum, instead of the observed rate of 10% in U.S. data.Production (Economic theory)

    SOCIAL CAPITAL AND POVERTY REDUCTION: TOWARD A MATURE PARADIGM

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    Introduction The purposes of this paper are: (1) to introduce the social capital paradigm; (2) to present evidence that social capital has an important role in poverty reduction; and (3) to suggest several policy prescriptions for building and using social capital to reduce poverty. The social capital paradigm includes social capital, networks, socio-emotional goods, attachment values, institutions, and power. Social capital is a person or group's sympathy for others. Social capital resides in sympathetic relationships that can be described using networks. One reason to value social capital is because it can produce economic benefits and if neglected, economic disadvantages. Another reason to value social capital is because it can be used to produce socio-emotional goods. Sometimes socio-emotional goods become embedded in objects. When this occurs, the meaning and value of the object change. The change in the value of an object produced by embedded socio-emotional goods is the object's attachment value. Individuals exchange both physical and socio-emotional goods. Institutions are the rules that order and give meaning to exchanges. Institutions with high attachment values are more likely to be observed than those whose compliance depends on economic incentives or threats. Finally, power, the ability to influence others, depends on one's resources, including one's social capital. In most personalized transactions, persons exchange both socio-emotional goods and physical goods and services. Moreover, the relative amounts of socio-emotional goods and physical goods and services exchanged will alter the levels and terms of trade when measured in physical units. Since one's ability to include socio-emotional goods in exchanges for physical goods and services depends on one's social capital, the terms and levels of exchange of physical goods and services will be influenced by the transacting party's social capital. Those with high levels of social capital will have advantages over those who lack social capital because they can exchange both socio-emotional goods and physical goods and services. Furthermore, since social capital alters the terms and levels of trade and the terms and levels of trade influence the distribution of incomes derived from trades, then social capital also has an important influence on the distribution of household income and poverty. Some evidence suggests that the distribution of social capital in networks and the distribution of household incomes are connected.Food Security and Poverty, Institutional and Behavioral Economics,
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