139,393 research outputs found

    Building Capacity for ESL, Legal Services, and Citizenship

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    Provides a funders' guide to opportunities, strategies, and resources for promoting immigrants' civic integration by investing in a local infrastructure of services, including English instruction, legal services, and assistance with naturalization

    Historical Exploration - Learning Lessons from the Past to Inform the Future

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    This report examines a number of exploration campaigns that have taken place during the last 700 years, and considers them from a risk perspective. The explorations are those led by Christopher Columbus, Sir Walter Raleigh, John Franklin, Sir Ernest Shackleton, the Company of Scotland to Darien and the Apollo project undertaken by NASA. To provide a wider context for investigating the selected exploration campaigns, we seek ways of finding analogies at mission, programmatic and strategic levels and thereby to develop common themes. Ultimately, the purpose of the study is to understand how risk has shaped past explorations, in order to learn lessons for the future. From this, we begin to identify and develop tools for assessing strategic risk in future explorations. Figure 0.1 (see Page 6) summarizes the key inputs used to shape the study, the process and the results, and provides a graphical overview of the methodology used in the project. The first step was to identify the potential cases that could be assessed and to create criteria for selection. These criteria were collaboratively developed through discussion with a Business Historian. From this, six cases were identified as meeting our key criteria. Preliminary analysis of two of the cases allowed us to develop an evaluation framework that was used across all six cases to ensure consistency. This framework was revised and developed further as all six cases were analyzed. A narrative and summary statistics were created for each exploration case studied, in addition to a method for visualizing the important dimensions that capture major events. These Risk Experience Diagrams illustrate how the realizations of events, linked to different types of risks, have influenced the historical development of each exploration campaign. From these diagrams, we can begin to compare risks across each of the cases using a common framework. In addition, exploration risks were classified in terms of mission, program and strategic risks. From this, a Venn diagram and Belief Network were developed to identify how different exploration risks interacted. These diagrams allow us to quickly view the key risk drivers and their interactions in each of the historical cases. By looking at the context in which individual missions take place we have been able to observe the dynamics within an exploration campaign, and gain an understanding of how these interact with influences from stakeholders and competitors. A qualitative model has been created to capture how these factors interact, and are further challenged by unwanted events such as mission failures and competitor successes. This Dynamic Systemic Risk Model is generic and applies broadly to all the exploration ventures studied. This model is an amalgamation of a System Dynamics model, hence incorporating the natural feedback loops within each exploration mission, and a risk model, in order to ensure that the unforeseen events that may occur can be incorporated into the modeling. Finally, an overview is given of the motivational drivers and summaries are presented of the overall costs borne in each exploration venture. An important observation is that all the cases - with the exception of Apollo - were failures in terms of meeting their original objectives. However, despite this, several were strategic successes and indeed changed goals as needed in an entrepreneurial way. The Risk Experience Diagrams developed for each case were used to quantitatively assess which risks were realized most often during our case studies and to draw comparisons at mission, program and strategic levels. In addition, using the Risk Experience Diagrams and the narrative of each case, specific lessons for future exploration were identified. There are three key conclusions to this study: Analyses of historical cases have shown that there exists a set of generic risk classes. This set of risk classes cover mission, program and strategic levels, and includes all the risks encountered in the cases studied. At mission level these are Leadership Decisions, Internal Events and External Events; at program level these are Lack of Learning, Resourcing and Mission Failure; at Strategic Level they are Programmatic Failure, Stakeholder Perception and Goal Change. In addition there are two further risks that impact at all levels: Self-Interest of Actors, and False Model. There is no reason to believe that these risk classes will not be applicable to future exploration and colonization campaigns. We have deliberately selected a range of different exploration and colonization campaigns, taking place between the 15th Century and the 20th Century. The generic risk framework is able to describe the significant types of risk for these missions. Furthermore, many of these risks relate to how human beings interact and learn lessons to guide their future behavior. Although we are better schooled than our forebears and are technically further advanced, there is no reason to think we are fundamentally better at identifying, prioritizing and controlling these classes of risk. Modern risk modeling techniques are capable of addressing mission and program risk but are not as well suited to strategic risk. We have observed that strategic risks are prevalent throughout historic exploration and colonization campaigns. However, systematic approaches do not exist at the moment to analyze such risks. A risk-informed approach to understanding what happened in the past helps us guard against the danger of assuming that those events were inevitable, and highlights those chance events that produced the history that the world experienced. In turn, it allows us to learn more clearly from the past about the way our modern risk modeling techniques might help us to manage the future - and also bring to light those areas where they may not. This study has been retrospective. Based on this analysis, the potential for developing the work in a prospective way by applying the risk models to future campaigns is discussed. Follow on work from this study will focus on creating a portfolio of tools for assessing strategic and programmatic risk

    Student-Centered Learning Opportunities For Adolescent English Learners In Flipped Classrooms

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    This study documents opportunities for diverse adolescent English learners to deeply engage with content and language in flipped learning environments. Through a linked description of teaching practices and student learning experiences in an urban New England high school, the study attempts to understand the potential of flipped instruction in preparing a traditionally underserved population for post-secondary education. Our research partner Patriot High School (PHS) is one of the New England schools implementing flipped learning. PHS represents a typical secondary school context for adolescent English learners: More than half of students speak a language other than English at home and the majority of students are from minority and low-income homes (Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2014). PHS is also an urban school committed to implementing student-centered learning strategies to meet the needs of its diverse students

    College Readiness Initiative: AVID and Navigation 101

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    The purpose of this report is to provide summative feedback to personnel at the Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction (OSPI) and at the College Spark Washington regarding evidence of implementation and impact of the Advancement via Individual Determination (AVID) and Navigation 101 programs in schools funded by the College Readiness Initiative (CRI) in Washington State. The report, while addressing the effects of both programs, is also designed to provide formative feedback to assist in ongoing program development

    HER Initiative to Lead Change: The Power of Education

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    The purpose of this report is to measure the successes of HER's Cohort One in achieving the program goals.The first section, "At a Glance", presents a brief overview of the key findings from the three chapters, as well as best practices and lessons learned from the pilot program beneficial for future HER cohorts and other programs. It also details the participants' activities after program graduation. The concluding section summarizes the best practices and lessons learned and draws conclusions from Cohort One's program experience.Three appendices offer technical and background information on the program. Appendix I analyzes key components of the HER program, with reflections on each component from the key stakeholders such as HER students, guardians, and mentors. Appendix II covers the education context in Ethiopia and the need for the HER program. It also presents key information about the two schools in the HER program: School A and School B. Finally, Appendix III describes the evaluation methodology and limitations

    Foreign language learning needs in higher education: Reasons for convergence and accountability

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    Needs analysis is a relevant issue in language teaching as its final aim is to enhance the language learning process by setting realistic course objectives. This paper briefly reviews past and present approaches to the concept of “needs” and “needs analysis” in foreign language (FL) methodology with particular reference to the higher education context and the post-Bologna reform. It discusses the complex interplay of addressing target and learning FL needs by gathering data from different stakeholder groups and making use of different data collection instruments. Then, it explores current trends in needs analysis research and explains how “competences” and “profiling” have surpassed “needs” and “needs analysis” in the educational systems under the European Space of Higher Education. Last, this study addresses the implications of adopting a more critical, quality-driven approach to FL needs analysis with a view to attaining a more participatory and accountable higher education

    Shifting Gears: State Innovation to Advance Workers and the Economy in the Midwest

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    Outlines five states' policy actions to expand access to postsecondary credentials and careers and innovations implemented through Joyce's initiative, including combining basic skills content with workforce readiness, support services, and specialization

    High quality teaching in higher education : a challenge and a possibility

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    A shared concern in higher education establishments is the quality of teaching taking place and thereby, the quality of students leaving the college/university. While keeping in mind that quality cannot be easily defined, this paper aims to raise awareness on a number of challenges which could be impinging on the quality of education in the higher education sector. There are a number of external factors which could be attributed to the quality of teaching. However, the focus of this paper is limited to the teaching and learning process in the higher education classroom setting. In the first section of the paper, the author raises awareness on the dynamic and complex nature of the teaching and learning process which could be affecting the quality of education in the higher education classroom. The emphasis is on the main stakeholders - the lecturers and the students – and the relationship between the two. Next, the author outlines a number of challenges which could be affecting the process. The aim is to reflect upon the teaching and learning that go on in the higher education classroom, so as to be able to align future actions. Finally, the author proposes concrete practices which can be adopted in order to overcome the challenges and improve the quality of teaching, and thereby, the quality of students leaving higher education. High quality teaching in a higher education classroom has got its challenges but it is a possibility.peer-reviewe

    Raising the Stakes: Investing in a Community School Model to Lift Student Achievement in Community School District 16

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    Brooklyn's Community School District 16 (CSD16) is a chronically low-performing district that encompasses the eastern half of Bedford-Stuyvesant, a section of northeastern Crown Heights, and a small portion of Brownsville. CSD16 consists of 26 traditional public schools with a total enrollment of 9,900 students. Eighty percent of CSD16 students are eligible for free and reduced lunch. CSD16 serves 11 public housing complexes.In CSD16, 45% of girls and 34% percent of boys in grade three tested at or above grade level for English Language Arts in 2010-2011, as compared to 56% and 55% respectively for New York State overall. Similarly, 52% of girls and 49% of boys in CSD16 tested at or above grade level for math in grade three, as compared to 60% and 59% respectively for New York State overall. Of the CSD16 students who were in grade nine in 2006-2007, 50% received Regents diplomas in 2010-2011. CSD16 had a 44% graduation rate in a city where 59% is the average.The metric used to determine college and career readiness, however, is even more troubling. Students are considered college ready in New York when they score 75% or higher on their English Regents and 80% or higher on their Math Regents. Of the four high schools located in CSD16 with 2011-2012 graduating classes, two had a 5% college readiness rate among graduates over a four year period, one had a 3% rate, and the remaining had a college readiness rate of 0.0%.In citing these statistics, this report makes the case that CSD16 has significant challenges that severely undermine the efforts of Black and Brown families to provide opportunities for their children to thrive educationally. At the same time, CSD16 has strengths. For example, there are strong nonprofit institutions and a civically engaged working-and middle-class, which offer opportunities for individual community-based donors, established foundations, and public sector agencies to team up with local stakeholders to improve the educational outcomes of students in CSD16
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