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    Measurement of true ileal calcium digestibility of feed ingredients for broiler chickens : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Animal Science at Institute of Veterinary, Animal and Biomedical Science (IVABS), Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

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    Listed in 2017 Dean's List of Exceptional ThesesThe recent interest towards the use of digestible phosphorus (P) in poultry feed formulations necessitates the measurement of true calcium (Ca) digestibility of feed ingredients because of the close relationship between these two minerals for their absorption and post absorptive utilisation. When this thesis research was initiated, no published data were available on Ca digestibility of feed ingredients for broiler chickens. The major objective of the studies reported in this thesis was to determine the true Ca digestibility of feed ingredients for broiler chickens. In total, nine studies were conducted. The first study (Chapter 4) was conducted to determine the effect of methodology on ileal endogenous Ca losses. Three methods, namely feeding a Ca- and P-free diet, maize gluten meal based diet and egg albumen based diet, were used. Ileal endogenous Ca losses differed among different methodologies. The highest ileal endogenous losses of 125 mg/kg dry matter intake (DMI) were recorded on the Ca- and P-free diet, followed by 77 and 43 mg/kg DMI on maize gluten meal and egg albumen diets, respectively. In the second and third studies (Chapters 5 and 6), regression and direct methods, respectively, were used to determine the true Ca digestibility of meat and bone meal (MBM). The true Ca digestibility coefficient of MBM samples were ranged from 0.41 to 0.60. No difference was observed between true Ca digestibility coefficients of MBM determined by regression and direct methods. Since the direct method is less laborious and cost effective compared to regression method, this method was used in subsequent studies (Chapters 7 to 10) to determine the true Ca digestibility of a range of Ca sources. In fourth and fifth studies (Chapters 7 and 8), the influence of dietary P, particle size and Ca to non-phytate P ratio was investigated on the true Ca digestibility of limestone for broiler chickens. The true Ca digestibility of three limestone samples varied from 0.56 to 0.62. Supplementation with recommended dietary P (4.5 g/kg) increased the true Ca digestibility of limestone when compared to diets without P. An increase in particle size from <0.5 to 1-2mm improved the true ileal Ca digestibility of limestone. Widening the Ca to non-phytate P ratio reduced the true Ca digestibility of limestone for broiler chickens. The sixth study (Chapter 9) was conducted to determine the effect of Ca source and particle size on the true Ca digestibility and total tract retention. Limestone and oyster shell were used as Ca sources. No difference was observed between the true Ca digestibility of limestone and oyster shell. An increase in particle size from <0.5 to 1-2 mm increased both the Ca digestibility and retention of both Ca sources, and increased the Ca concentration of gizzard contents. The study reported in Chapter 10 was conducted to determine the true Ca digestibility of dicalcium phosphate (DCP), monocalcium phosphate (MCP), canola meal, poultry by-product meal and fish meal, and to compare the effect of dietary adaptation length on true Ca digestibility of DCP and MCP. The true Ca digestibility coefficients of these feed ingredients were lower than MBM, limestone and oyster shell, and ranged from 0.24 to 0.33. It was speculated that the length of adaption to the assay diets may be responsible for the lower than expected estimates. The effect of dietary adaptation length (24, 48 or 72 hrs) was subsequently examined, but had no effect on true Ca digestibility of DCP and MCP. In the final study (Chapter 11), the true Ca digestibility of DCP was determined using different methodologies (regression, difference and direct methods). The true Ca digestibility coefficients of DCP were 0.34 and 0.21 with direct and different methods, respectively. A very low digestibility coefficient of 0.13 was determined by the regression method. In conclusion, the true Ca digestibility coefficient of major Ca sources (limestone, oyster shell and MBM) is not high and varied from 0.40 to 0.70. Particle size of limestone and oyster shell influenced Ca digestibility, with coarser particles having higher digestibility. The direct method appears to be suitable for the determination of true Ca digestibility of limestone, oyster shell and MBM, but may not be appropriate for other Ca sources with intrinsic imbalance of Ca and P

    Digestibility in selected rainbow trout families and modelling of growth from the specific intake of digestible protein

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    The experiments aimed to clarify variations in digestibility of dietary nutrients in rainbow trout. Furthermore, the objective was to study how differences in digestibility might be related to growth and feed utilisation at various growth rates. When comparing the results from the experiments it appeared that particularly protein digestibility was closely related to specific growth rate and feed conversion ratio at high growth rates. As a tool to visualise the relationship between protein digestibility and growth of rainbow trout a growth model was developed based on the specific intake of digestible protein, and general assumptions on protein content and protein retention efficiency in rainbow trout. The model indicated that increased protein digestibility only partly explained growth increase and that additional factors were important for growth increment

    Brown Mid-Rib Corn Variety Trial

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    Brown mid-rib (BMR) corn has a lower lignin content than other silage corn varieties. The lower lignin content increases the fiber digestibility (NDF digestibility) of the corn silage. Increases in NDF digestibility lead to increased in dry matter intake, milk production, milk protein content, and better body condition. Several studies have reported that for every one percentage point increase in NDF digestibility fed to dairy cattle there will be a 0.50 lb per day increase in milk production. Feeding BMR corn silage is a means to increase NDF digestibility and milk production. Since 2010, the University of Vermont Extension Northwest Crops & Soils program has conducted research trials to evaluate BMR corn silage varieties. In 2012, the trial included 10 varieties from three different seed companies. While the information presented can begin to describe the yield and quality performance of these BMR corn varieties in this region, it is important to note that the data represent results from only one season and one location. Compare other hybrid performance data before making varietal selections

    Impact of bacteria and yeast with probiotic properties on performance, digestibility, health status and gut environment of growing pigs in Vietnam

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    This thesis aimed to evaluate the effects of six lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains and Bacillus subtilis H4, Saccharomyces boulardii Sb, and a microbial enzyme mixture, supplemented to basal diets on the performance, diet digestibility, health status, and gut environment of growing pigs under Vietnamese conditions. The results showed that three different 3-strain-LAB complexes, comprising combinations of Enterococcus faecium 6H2, Lactobacillus acidophilus C3, Pediococcus pentosaceus D7, L. plantarum 1K8 and L. plantarum 3K2 improved performance, digestibility, health status and gut environment of the LAB-supplemented piglets in the first two weeks post-weaning (Per I), but not in the following 3 weeks (Per II). Adding an LAB strain (L. fermentum NC1) alone or combined with the Bacillus, or combined with a Bacillus and yeast complex, to a 3-strain-LAB complex showed improvements in the performance, diet digestibility, health status and gut environment of the probiotics-supplemented piglets in both Per I and II. The inclusion of Bacillus resulted in higher nutrient digestibility, and the addition of Saccharomyces showed improvements in the scouring scores of the piglets. Supplementation with either a microbial enzyme mixture alone or a combination of a 3-strain-LAB complex and yeast in a weaner diet improved the performance and diet digestibility in piglets in Per I. In Per II, no changes in performance or digestibility were found in enzymes-fed piglets, while improved performance and diet digestibility were obtained in piglets fed the LAB-yeast diet. There was lack of response of piglets to this enzyme mixture when these enzymes were supplemented to the diet that contained the complex of LAB and yeast in both Per I and II. Dietary supplementation with the combination of Bacillus, Saccharomyces and 4-strain-LAB complex had positive effects on performance and digestibility in grower pigs, but not in finisher pigs, while supplementation with the Bacillus alone or combined with Saccharomyces did not affect the performance and digestibility in grower and finisher pigs. The results of these studies suggest that combinations of suitable strains of Bacillus, Saccharomyces and LAB can be used as an alternative to antibiotic feed additives in pig production under the conditions of Vietnam

    The use of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) for prediction of the nutritive value of barley for growing pigs

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    peer-reviewedThere is a need in the feed industry for a rapid means of evaluating the nutritive value of feeds and feed ingredients. Chemical analysis provides only basic information and most of the laboratory techniques take too long for this information to be of use in feed formulation at the feed mill. Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) has been proposed as an alternative means of predicting nutritive value. In this study, NIRS was used to predict the digestible energy (DE) concentration and in vitro ileal digestibility of crude protein (CP) and total-tract digestibility of energy of locally produced barley. The calibration and validation statistics were developed using modified partial least squares (MPLS). Derivatisation and scatter correction procedures were carried out to reduce interference from external effects. The correlations between actual and predicted DE values, based on both calibration (R2 0.93) and validation (R2 0.69), were strong with corresponding low standard errors of calibration (SEC) and cross validation (SECV) (SEC 0.128, SECV 0.279). Strong correlations were also observed between predicted and actual in vitro digestibility values for both calibration and validation exercises. It was noted that validation weakened the correlations (R2 0.73 vs. 0.50 for in vitro ileal digestibility of CP and 0.80 vs. 0.68 for in vitro total tract digestibility of energy) and fractionally increased the standard errors (0.016 vs. 0.020 for in vitro ileal digestibility of CP and 0.018 vs. 0.024 for in vitro total tract digestibility of energy). The correlations obtained by cross validation of the lowest SECV equations were not significantly different to those obtained by the scatter correction treatments. The strong relationships and low standard errors obtained between the actual and predicted values indicates that NIRS may be of use in predicting the nutritive value of barley for growing pigs, although more research is required to include larger sample sets

    Digestibility and nutrient utilisation of soybean bran-based diets in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

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    The digestibility and utilisation of two soybean bran-based diets and two fishmeal-based diets serving as control, at optimal (30%) and suboptimal (20%) protein levels were evaluated in Oreochromis niloticus. These were Diet I (Control)-fishmeal based diet at 30% crude protein, Diet II (Control) - fishmeal based diet at 20% crude protein, Diet III - hydrolysed Soybean Bran based diet at 30% crude protein, Diet IV - hydrolysed Soybean Bran based diet at 20%. Dry matter digestibility differed insignificantly with variation in diets (P<0.05). There was significant variation in the protein (p 20.05), lipid and ash digestibility. Protein was more digestible at optimum level than sub-optimum level, while lipid and ash digestibility did not vary with their inclusion levels. Variation in the utilisation of the diets was significant (P<0.05) except for survival. It was observed that the best diet was Diet 1, closely followed by Diet II with highest values of mean final weight, specific growth rate, protein efficiency ratio and the apparent net protein utilisation. The high digestibility values of Diets III and IV suggests their inclusion in fish diet to spare protein for growt

    Influence of oxidized oils on digestibility of caseins in O/W emulsions

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    The impact of lipid oxidation on protein modifications in emulsions and the consequences on protein digestibility remains unclear. In this study, this impact is evaluated in casein (6 mg mL(-1)) based emulsions containing oxidized soybean or fish oil (3%) in presence (0.3%) or absence of the emulsifier Tween 20. Emulsions are prepared using oils at three oxidation levels and subsequently the impact on protein digestibility is evaluated after 24 h incubation at 4 degrees C. Remarkably, protein digestibility increases in emulsions containing medium and highly oxidized fish oil: 70 +/- 0.4% and 73 +/- 0.4% of the proteins are digested, respectively, whereas protein digestibility in emulsions containing low oxidized fish oil amounted to 63 +/- 0.4%. Protein digestibility in emulsions containing soybean oil stabilized by Tween 20 is not influenced by the oxidation level of the oil used. A remarkable tendency is observed for the malondialdehyde content of the emulsions depending on the presence of Tween 20. For soybean oil based emulsions, malondialdehyde concentrations are consistently higher in the presence of Tween 20. On the other hand, for the fish oil based emulsions an opposite trend is observed, except at the highest oxidation level evaluated, for which no significant differences can be detected. It is concluded that the composition of the interface in emulsions depends strongly upon the degree of oil oxidation and the presence of other emulsifiers. If the oil is more oxidized, less protein is present in the interface restricting the impact of lipid oxidation products on the proteins and hence their digestibility

    Phosphorus in pig diets

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    Pig feed is mainly based on cereals where phosphorus (P) is mostly present in inositol hexaphosphate (IP6), which is not readily available to monogastric animals. More available P sources are often added to ensure that pigs’ requirements are fulfilled; this results in high excretion levels of P. The digestibility of P depends on phytase activity and amount of IP6 in feedstuffs. The overall aim was to study effects of liquid feeding, P levels and phytase supplementation on digestibility and performance. Effects of soaking and P levels on digestibility were studied by total collection in metabolic cages, and effects on performance were studied in 192 growing pigs. Effects of soaking fermentation and phytase supplementation on ileal and total tract digestibility were studied with indicator technique on pigs surgically fitted with PVTC cannulas. P levels and phytase supplementation were studied in 104 pregnant sows for two reproduction cycles. All diets were cereal based and included wheat. Basic properties of a cereal mix fermented with whey, wet wheat distillers’ grain and water in different temperatures were also studied. Soaking reduced the level of IP6, whereas apparent digestibility of P was not significantly improved. Soaking increased average daily weight gain, carcass weights and improved the energy conversion ratio in pigs fed a low P diet to the same level as pigs fed high P diets. Low P diets resulted in lower femur density than high P diets. However, soaking of a low P diet resulted in increased femur density. Fermentation degraded IP6 efficiently and improved ileal apparent digestibility of P, organic matter, nitrogen, amino acids and total tract apparent digestibility of organic matter. Microbiological and biochemical properties of fermented liquid diets are strongly affected by feed components and temperature used. Phytase supplementation slightly affected apparent digestibility of P. Supplementing a low P gestation diet with phytase did not significantly affect sow performance. The slight effects of phytase supplementations found may depend on high levels of intrinsic phytase in the diets, and possibly suggest that the provided P level in the sows may have been sufficient. Under typical Swedish conditions of sow management, reduced total P level in gestation diets seems not to negatively affect performance

    Nutrient digestibility and growth response of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri ) fed different carbohydrate types

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    Seven groups of fingerling rainbow trout (S. gairdneri ) were fed for 10 weeks on 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% of cassava or rice in isonitrogenous diets. Optimum growth and food utilization was at 20% dietary cassava. High fiber content of the control diet did not suppress protein digestibility in this group. Rather, at all levels, protein digestibility was good and remained between 84.4% and 90.1%. However, in the control group, carbohydrate digestibility was very poor. The cassava diets which had the highest digestible energy as carbohydrate produced the best growth performance, food utilization and protein sparing. At the levels studied, the dietary carbohydrates produced no hyperglycamic effect on the fis

    Nutrient Digestibility and Productivity of Bali Cattle Fed Fermented Hymenachne Amplexia­calis Based Rations Supplemented with Leucaena Leucocephala

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    An experiment was conducted to study the effects of lamtoro (Leucaena leucocephala) leaf supplementation in fermented kumpai grass (Hymenachne amplexia­calis) based rations on the productivity of Bali cattle. Variables measured were dry matter and organic matter intakes, nutrient digestibility (dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, and crude fiber), body weight gain, and feed efficiency. The types of rations were: Ration A= 45% fermented kumpai grass + 40% benggala grass + 15% concentrate + 0% lamtoro leaf, Ration B= 45% fermented kumpai grass + 30% benggala grass + 15% concentrate + 10% lamtoro leaf, Ration C= 45% fermented kumpai grass + 20% benggala grass + 15% concentrate + 20% lamtoro leaf, and Ration D= 45% fermented kumpai grass + 10% benggala grass + 15% concentrate + 30% lamtoro leaf. The supplementation of lamtoro leaf up to 30% into the ration could increase (P&lt;0.05) dry matter and organic matter intakes, and crude protein digestibility. The highest body weight gain and feed efficiency were found in Bali cattle fed ration with 20% lamtoro leaf supplementation. The level of lamtoro leaf supplementation in the ration did not affect the digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, and crude fiber. It was concluded that the supplementation of lamtoro leaf in the ration could increase dry matter, organic matter, and crude protein intakes. Addition of 20% lamtoro leaf gave the best effect on the increased body weight gain and feed efficiency in Bali cattle
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