5,673 research outputs found

    Psychiatric manifestations of multiple sclerosis and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis

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    It is unusual for acute disseminated encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis to present as purely psychiatric disorders. We report five patients with such demyelinating diseases and symptoms of psychosis, depression or anxiety. The importance of excluding demyelination as the basis for these psychiatric disturbances is emphasized, especially in the presence of unexplained neurologic findings. The possible relationship between psychiatric symptoms and demyelinating disorders is explored

    Myelin basic protein peptide 45–89 induces the release of nitric oxide from microglial cells.

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    Continuous (24 h) exposure of mixed oligodendrocyte/microglial cells to peptides 45–89 derived from citrullinated C8 isoforms of myelin basic protein (MBP) induces cell death. In contrast, MBP-C8 at the same molecular concentration is not toxic to oligodendrocyte/microglial cells as detected by the MTT test and trypan blue exclusion method. The loss of oligodendrocyte/microglial cells resulted in the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria, suggesting MBP 45–89-induced apoptosis. On the other hand, peptides 45–89 stimulated the secretion of nitric oxide from microglial cells only via induction of iNOS. The addition of peptide 45–89 to the microglial cells led to a decrease of the level of the inhibitory protein IkB, indicating that activation of the transcription factor NF-kB is involved in these processes. We propose that the immunodominant peptide 45–89 induces damage of oligodendrocytes by activation of microglial cells and subsequent generation of nitric oxide, and that this may be the first step in the initiation of autoimmunity

    Five decades of cuprizone, an updated model to replicate demyelinating diseases

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    Abstract: Introduction: Demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) comprise a group of neurological disorders characterized by progressive (and eventually irreversible) loss of oligodendrocytes and myelin sheaths in the white matter tracts. Some of myelin disorders include: Multiple sclerosis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, peripheral nerve polyneuropathy and others. To date, the etiology of these disorders is not well known and no effective treatments are currently available against them. Therefore, further research is needed to gain a better understand and treat these patients. To accomplish this goal, it is necessary to have appropriate animal models that closely resemble the pathophysiology and clinical signs of these diseases. Herein, we describe the model of toxic demyelination induced by cuprizone (CPZ), a copper chelator that reduces the cytochrome and monoamine oxidase activity into the brain, produces mitochondrial stress and triggers the local immune response. These biochemical and cellular responses ultimately result in selective loss of oligodendrocytes and microglia accumulation, which conveys to extensive areas of demyelination and gliosis in corpus callosum, superior cerebellar peduncles and cerebral cortex. Remarkably, some aspects of the histological pattern induced by CPZ are similar to those found in multiple sclerosis. CPZ exposure provokes behavioral changes, impairs motor skills and affects mood as that observed in several demyelinating diseases. Upon CPZ removal, the pathological and histological changes gradually revert. Therefore, some authors have postulated that the CPZ model allows to partially mimic the disease relapses observed in some demyelinating diseases. Conclusion: for five decades, the model of CPZ-induced demyelination is a good experimental approach to study demyelinating diseases that has maintained its validity, and is a suitable pharmacological model for reproducing some key features of demyelinating diseases, including multiple sclerosis.UAEME

    Do we need broad immunological work-up in all patients with CIS?

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    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of altered immunological tests and their clinical significance in patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) suggestive of multiple sclerosis (MS). ----- PATIENTS AND METHODS: The information was gathered from medical records of patients hospitalized in the Referral Center for Demyelinating Diseases in the 2008-2010 period. All patients had ANA, ENA profile, ANCA, aCl IgG and IgM, C3, C4, CH50, anti-TPO, AST and RF antibodies tested. ----- RESULTS: From 726 patients with CIS that were reviewed, the complete battery of immunological tests was performed in 418 of them (57.6%), representing our cohort. Altered tests were found in 235 patients (56.2%); 73 (17.4%) had positive antinuclear antibodies, 14 (3.3%) had positive ENA, 47 (11.2%) had positive aCl IgG, 83 (19.8%) had positive aCl IgM, and 13 (3.1%) had anti TPO antibodies. We found no correlation between ANA, aCl IgG or IgM positivity (ANA vs aCL IgG p=0.554; ANA vs aCL IgM p=0.19; aCL IgG vs aCL IgM, p=0.155). None of the patients had any clinical manifestations other than MS symptoms. ----- CONCLUSION: These results indicate that significant number of patients with CIS have altered immunological tests but nevertheless none of them had clinical expression of any other autoimmune disease making them clinically insignificant. In conclusion there is no need to perform extensive immunological work-up in all patients with CIS. Contrary, our results argue for more focused testing rather than a battery of screening tests

    Galectin-1 in myelin repair

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    Galectin-1 (Gal-1) is a member of a highly conserved family of animal lectins which binds to the common disaccharide [Galβ(1-4)-GlcNAc] on both N- and O-glycans decorating cell surface glycoconjugates. Current evidence supports a role for Gal-1 in the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis (MS), one of the most prevalent chronic inflammatory diseases, as approximately one third of MS patients generate high titres of anti-Gal-1 antibodies. Four different lesion types have been described in MS: pattern-1 and -2 lesions are thought to be mediated by the autoimmune response, while pattern-3 and -4 lesions are considered primary oligodendropathy. The first two types are experimentally simulated in mice by experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), while the second two are mimicked by toxic models such as cuprizone (CPZ) or lysolecithin (LPC) administration. Studies in EAE models have demonstrated that Gal-1 is highly expressed in the acute phase of the disease and that its deficiency leads to severe inflammation-induced neurodegeneration [1]. Regarding its mechanism of action,Fil: Rinaldi, Mariana. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Oficina de Coordinación Administrativa Houssay. Instituto de Química y Físico-Química Biológicas "Prof. Alejandro C. Paladini". Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica. Instituto de Química y Físico-Química Biológicas; ArgentinaFil: Thomas, Laura. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Oficina de Coordinación Administrativa Houssay. Instituto de Química y Físico-Química Biológicas "Prof. Alejandro C. Paladini". Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica. Instituto de Química y Físico-Química Biológicas; ArgentinaFil: Pasquini, Laura Andrea. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Oficina de Coordinación Administrativa Houssay. Instituto de Química y Físico-Química Biológicas "Prof. Alejandro C. Paladini". Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica. Instituto de Química y Físico-Química Biológicas; Argentin

    Cannabidiol and Other Cannabinoids in Demyelinating Diseases

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    A growing body of preclinical evidence indicates that certain cannabinoids, including cannabidiol (CBD) and synthetic derivatives, may play a role in the myelinating processes and are promising small molecules to be developed as drug candidates for management of demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS), stroke and traumatic brain injury (TBI), which are three of the most prevalent demyelinating disorders. Thanks to the properties described for CBD and its interesting profile in humans, both the phytocannabinoid and derivatives could be considered as potential candidates for clinical use. In this review we will summarize current advances in the use of CBD and other cannabinoids as future potential treatments. While new research is accelerating the process for the generation of novel drug candidates and identification of druggable targets, the collaboration of key players such as basic researchers, clinicians and pharmaceutical companies is required to bring novel therapies to the patients
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