1,617 research outputs found

    Kreacja z niczego. Propaganda faszystowska w Litzmannstadt

    Get PDF
    Artyku┼é omawia dzia┼éalno┼Ť─ç propagandy nazistowskiej w Litzmannstadt. Propaguje ona centralne poj─Öcia ideologii faszystowskiej, takie jak Volk, ziemia i przyw├│dztwo w walce. Celem dzia┼éania politycznego i militarnego jest przywr├│cenie i utrzymanie zdolno┼Ťci dominacji kulturowej nad innymi narodami. Pa┼ästwo nazistowskie jest jednolite etnicznie, j─Özykowo i rasowo ÔÇô nie zna poj─Öcia tolerancji wobec mniejszo┼Ťci etnicznych. Istotn─ů cech─ů tej propagandy jest jej wp┼éyw na dzia┼éania organ├│w administracyjnych.The article discusses activities of the Nazi propaganda in Litzmannstadt (Nazi name for Lodz, Poland). Said propaganda promoted central concepts of fascist ideology such as Volk, land and leadership in battle. The goal of political and military action was to restore and maintain the cultural domination over other nations. The Nazi state was ethnically, linguistically and racially uniform ÔÇô it lacked the concept of tolerance towards ethnic minorities. An important feature of this propaganda was its impact on the activities of administrative organs

    Struktura i dzia┼éalno┼Ť─ç niemieckiego aparatu wysiedle┼äczego na Zamojszczy┼║nie

    Get PDF
    In October 1939, the Zamo┼Ť─ç Region became a German-occupied territory. First displacement of the population from this area was initiated by the Germans in November 1941. But the organized action began a year later. Then the Germans marked the Zamo┼Ť─ç Region as ÔÇťthe first settlement area in the GeneralgouvernementÔÇŁ. Apart from the Poles, the Ukrainian population was also displaced. The Germans ended the resettlement of the Zamo┼Ť─ç Region in the summer of 1943. This article describes the structure and activities of the German resettlement system. First, this system was created in the Reichsgau Wartheland. Then the activity of this system was extended to the area of the Zamo┼Ť─ç Region. Also the German settlement in the Zamo┼Ť─ç Region was presented. Particular emphasis was put on the German administration of settled villages.Od pa┼║dziernika 1939 r. Zamojszczyzna znajdowa┼éa si─Ö pod okupacj─ů niemieck─ů. Pierwsze wysiedlenia ludno┼Ťci z tego terenu Niemcy rozpocz─Öli w listopadzie 1941 r., natomiast zorganizowana akcja rozpocz─Ö┼éa si─Ö rok p├│┼║niej. W├│wczas Niemcy okre┼Ťlili Zamojszczyzn─Ö jako ÔÇ×pierwszy obszar osiedle┼äczy w Generalnym GubernatorstwieÔÇŁ. Opr├│cz Polak├│w wysiedleniami zosta┼éa obj─Öta ludno┼Ť─ç ukrai┼äska. Niemcy zako┼äczyli akcj─Ö wysiedle┼äcz─ů na Zamojszczy┼║nie latem 1943 r. W artykule zosta┼éa opisana struktura i dzia┼éalno┼Ť─ç niemieckiego aparatu wysiedle┼äczego na Zamojszczy┼║nie. Pocz─ůtkowo zosta┼é on utworzony w Kraju Warty. P├│┼║niej jego dzia┼éalno┼Ť─ç rozci─ůgni─Öto r├│wnie┼╝ na obszar Zamojszczyzny. Ponadto zaprezentowano niemieckie osadnictwo na Zamojszczy┼║nie. Szczeg├│lny nacisk po┼éo┼╝ono na niemieck─ů administracj─Ö zasiedlanych wsi

    Rozw├│j strefowych i ponadstrefowych organ├│w niemieckich w zachodnich strefach okupacyjnych

    Get PDF
    The aim of allied superpowers confirmed in the Potsdam agreement was building a new German state authority on all stages of management and maintaining GermanyÔÇÖs state unity. The earliest appointment of German authorities took place at the municipal and lower, district level. The next stage of political development was establishing of new territorial division by occupation authorities in particular countriesÔÇÖzones. However, further development of the political situation in Germany as well of the relations between the Allies led to departing from the conception of one German state and to the establishment of two separate countries in 1949. All the earlier formed German countries were included in new states, except for Saara, which was united with France. Along with organizing the countries and forming of German national bodies, western occupation superpowers began to establish first all-zones German institutions. The first to do it were the Americans. As soon as October 1945 there was called into being the States Council, which in the beginning consisted of national prime ministers. Also the British authorities started creating all-zones institutions relatively quickly; those were: the Conference of National Prime Ministers and the Zonal Advisory Council. Only the French delayed for a long time, forming similar German institutions. It was only the middle of 1948, i.e. after making the decision about the creation of Trizonia that French authorities began to arganize the extranational institution within their zone. At the end of 1946, due to the lack of possibilities to come to agreement on working out a common stance of the four superpowers on the subject of restoring of GermanyÔÇÖs state unity, there were undertaken actions, initiated by the USA, aimed at joining the occupation zones with regard to the economic aspect. This offer was accepted by the Great Britain only, which caused the foundation of so-called Bizonia, whose official name was the United Economic Area. The two-zonal istitutions were: the Economic Council as the quasi-Parliament, the Executive Council, later on transformed into the States Council, which had the features of the second house of Parliament, and the Directors Board, later on the Administrative Council as the quasi-office, as well as, starting from 1948, the Supreme Court. After establishing the Federal Republic of Germany, the so far existing zonal institutions were either dissolved or transformed into federal authorities of the newly created State.Artyku┼é nie zawiera abstraktu w j─Özyku polski

    Bierne i czynne prawo wyborcze w wyborach przedstawicieli pracownik├│w do rady nadzorczej sp├│┼éki dominuj─ůcej koncernu. Glosa do wyroku Trybuna┼éu Sprawiedliwo┼Ťci (Wielka Izba) z dnia 18 lipca 2017 r. w sprawie Konrad Erzberger przeciwko TUI AG (C-566/15)

    Get PDF
    The commentary is partially critical. Mr Konrad Erzberger is a shareholder of the TUI concern, based in Germany, operating worldwide. Half of the TUI supervisory board is made up of shareholder representatives and half of the representatives appointed by the employees. In the judgement, the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) answered the question, whether it was compliant with Articles 18 and 45 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) stating that a Member State should grant active and passive voting rights in the elections of employee representatives to the supervisory board of a company to those employees only who are employed at the companyÔÇÖs premises or in the groupÔÇÖs enterprises on the national territory. The analysis of the arguments presented by the CJEU conducted in the commentary, pointing to e.g. the lack of objective and clear criteria for restricting the freedoms of the European market, is partially critical. It has been postulated that employees employed in a group of companies should enjoy the same rights to participate in decision-making, regardless of where their workplace is located.Glosa jest cz─Ö┼Ťciowo krytyczna. Konrad Erzberger jest akcjonariuszem TUI, z siedzib─ů w Niemczech. Koncern TUI prowadzi dzia┼éalno┼Ť─ç na ca┼éym ┼Ťwiecie. Rada nadzorcza TUI sk┼éada si─Ö w po┼éowie z przedstawicieli akcjonariuszy, a w po┼éowie z przedstawicieli wyznaczonych przez pracownik├│w. W wyroku Trybuna┼é Sprawiedliwo┼Ťci (TSUE) odpowiedzia┼é na pytanie, czy jest zgodne z art. 18 i 45 Traktatu o funkcjonowaniu Unii Europejskiej (TFUE), aby pa┼ästwo cz┼éonkowskie przyznawa┼éo czynne i bierne prawo wyborcze w wyborach przedstawicieli pracownik├│w do rady nadzorczej przedsi─Öbiorstwa tylko tym pracownikom, kt├│rzy s─ů zatrudnieni w zak┼éadach przedsi─Öbiorstwa lub w przedsi─Öbiorstwach koncernu na terytorium krajowym. W glosie dokonano cz─Ö┼Ťciowo krytycznej analizy argument├│w przedstawionych przez TSUE. Krytycznie oceniono brak obiektywnych i klarownych kryteri├│w ograniczenia swob├│d rynku europejskiego. Zawarty zosta┼é postulat, aby pracownicy zatrudnieni w koncernie sp├│┼éek mogli korzysta─ç z takich samych praw do udzia┼éu w podejmowaniu decyzji bez wzgl─Ödu na to, gdzie znajduje si─Ö ich miejsce pracy. Przemawia za tym ochrona ich praw do zbiorowej obrony interes├│w

    S─ůdownictwo SS i policji w Generalnym Gubernatorstwie (stan bada┼ä)

    Get PDF
    The problem of SS and police jurisdiction in GG has not been widely elaborated on so far in the Polish literature. It seems that the research should be further conducted, at least because of theresponsibility before courts of Polish police officers, taking into consideration archival research. At  first criminal liability of Polish police officers was not different from that of other citizens of GG.In the course of widening of German jurisdiction competences in August 1942 SS, court and police were provided with cases of serious misconduct on duty and non-political crimes committed on  duty at the request of German supervising police authority. Then in September 1943, SS and police jurisdiction took over all criminal cases of Polish police officers. These changes can be well assessed from the point of view of Polish officers. They were in that way protected against arbitrary decisions of security police (e.g. being sent to concentration camps) and were excluded from the competences of police summary courts (whose name is misleading as their activity was based on the principles being opposite to the principles characteristic of contemporary jurisdiction.)Brak abstraktu w języku polski

    Biblioteki i ksi─Ögozbiory w Bydgoszczy w okresie zabor├│w. Zarys dziej├│w

    Get PDF
    The article is an attempt to depict synthetically the history of Polish and German libraries in Bydgoszcz in the years 1772-1920. The sources are archives, library catalogues, address books, articles and press announcements. In the early 19th century, church, office and school libraries existed in Bydgoszcz. Monasterial libraries were dispersed in connection with disbandment. However, with the passage of time new types of libraries appeared, i.e. education, specialist, and scientific libraries. Among them, there were book collections of all type associations and organisations: scientific, education, professional, religious, and political. When bookselling started to develop on a larger scal─Ö in the early 19th century, paid lending libraries and reading rooms appeared. The first public library was established in the early 20,h century

    Kontakty mi─Ödzy towarzystwami naukowymi na ziemiach polskich pod zaborami ÔÇô stan i potrzeby bada┼ä

    Get PDF
    Contacts between academic societies in the lands of partitioned Poland ÔÇô status of and need for research (Summary)The article describes contacts between academic societies operating in the lands of partitioned Poland. Its purpose is to present the current status of research on this very wide topic and to indicate the need for research that arises in this respect. A comprehensive view of these contacts shows that the topic has not been acknowledged to-date. Therefore, it has not been properly reflected in the professional literature. Where the topic has been recognized by authors, it has often not been properly interpreted. The most frequent mistake that has been made by researchers is perceiving the issue from an exclusively ethnic angle, which ÔÇô particularly in respect of the lands of partitioned Poland ÔÇô is related to the conflicts arising in such conditions. Seen against the background of the contacts between the various academic institutions operating in the three partitions, it is clearly visible how complicated the matter was and how different factors played a role in forming and discontinuing relationships.Contacts between academic societies in the lands of partitioned Poland ÔÇô status of and need for research (Summary)The article describes contacts between academic societies operating in the lands of partitioned Poland. Its purpose is to present the current status of research on this very wide topic and to indicate the need for research that arises in this respect. A comprehensive view of these contacts shows that the topic has not been acknowledged to-date. Therefore, it has not been properly reflected in the professional literature. Where the topic has been recognized by authors, it has often not been properly interpreted. The most frequent mistake that has been made by researchers is perceiving the issue from an exclusively ethnic angle, which ÔÇô particularly in respect of the lands of partitioned Poland ÔÇô is related to the conflicts arising in such conditions. Seen against the background of the contacts between the various academic institutions operating in the three partitions, it is clearly visible how complicated the matter was and how different factors played a role in forming and discontinuing relationships

    Hierarchia akt├│w prawnych wprowadzonych przez okupanta niemieckiego w Generalnym Gubernatorstwie w latach 1939ÔÇô1945

    Get PDF
    Under the decree of 12 October 1939 by the Reich Chancellor the competences to constitute legal provisions for the General Government were vested in the Ministry for the Reich Defense, the plenipotentiary for the Four-Year Plan and the Governor-General. In practice other central government bodies not provided for in the 12 October decree also issued normative acts ÔÇô mainly F├╝hrer and Chancellor themselves. No formal hierarchy of legal acts was ever introduced within the General Government. On the basis of the content layout of the official journals of law one can attempt to list normative acts issued by the General Government bodies with regard to their importance. The General Governor Hans FrankÔÇÖs ordinances could be acknowledged as the framework of the legislation. Apart from that he also issued proclamations and decrees. Proclamations were of a political and propagandist character, decrees concerned in most cases political system issues while ordinances were to constitute surrogate for acts. Implementing regulations, implementing provisions, notices, police ordinances, tariff ordinances, ordinances, notices, proclamations by a higher commander of HitlerÔÇÖs SS and police could be placed lower in the hierarchy. It should be firmly stressed that a lot of the provisions issued by the German occupation authorities in the General Government may be regarded as ÔÇťshameful law ÔÇô statutory lawlessnessÔÇŁ.Artyku┼é nie zawiera abstraktu w j─Özyku polski
    • ÔÇŽ
    corecore