47,507 research outputs found

    Cockpit task management: A preliminary, normative theory

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    Cockpit task management (CTM) involves the initiation, monitoring, prioritizing, and allocation of resources to concurrent tasks as well as termination of multiple concurrent tasks. As aircrews have more tasks to attend to due to reduced crew sizes and the increased complexity of aircraft and the air transportation system, CTM will become a more critical factor in aviation safety. It is clear that many aviation accidents and incidents can be satisfactorily explained in terms of CTM errors, and it is likely that more accidents induced by poor CTM practice will occur in the future unless the issue is properly addressed. The first step in understanding and facilitating CTM behavior was the development of a preliminary, normative theory of CTM which identifies several important CTM functions. From this theory, some requirements for pilot-vehicle interfaces were developed which are believed to facilitate CTM. A prototype PVI was developed which improves CTM performance and currently, a research program is under way that is aimed at developing a better understanding of CTM and facilitating CTM performance through better equipment and procedures

    Emergent symmetries in the canonical tensor model

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    The canonical tensor model (CTM) is a tensor model proposing a classically and quantum mechanically consistent model of gravity, formulated as a first-class constraint system with structural similarities to the ADM formalism of general relativity. A recent study on the formal continuum limit of the classical CTM has shown that it produces a general relativistic system. This formal continuum limit assumes the emergence of a continuous space, but ultimately continuous spaces should be obtained as preferred configurations of the quantum CTM. In this paper we study the symmetry properties of a wave function which exactly solves the quantum constraints of the CTM for general NN. We have found that it has strong peaks at configurations invariant under some Lie-groups, as predicted by a mechanism described in our previous paper. A surprising result was the preference of configurations invariant not only under Lie-groups with positive signatures, but also with spacetime-like signatures, i.e., SO(1,n)SO(1,n). Such symmetries could characterize the global structures of spacetimes, and our results are encouraging towards showing spacetime emergence in the CTM. To verify the asymptotic convergence of the wave function we have also analyzed the asymptotic behaviour, which for the most part seems to be well under control.Comment: 40 pages, 9 figures; Typos corrected. Minor changes. A reference adde

    Universal Asymptotic Eigenvalue Distribution of Density Matrices and the Corner Transfer Matrices in the Thermodynamic Limit

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    We study the asymptotic behavior of the eigenvalue distribution of the Baxter's corner transfer matrix (CTM) and the density matrix (DM) in the White's density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG), for one-dimensional quantum and two-dimensional classical statistical systems. We utilize the relationship DM=CTM4{\rm DM}={\rm CTM}^4 which holds for non-critical systems in the thermodynamic limit. Using the known diagonal form of CTM, we derive exact asymptotic form of the DM eigenvalue distribution for the integrable S=1/2S=1/2 XXZ chain (and its related integrable models) in the massive regime. The result is then recast into a ``universal'' form without model-specific quantities, which leads to ωmexp[const.(logm)2]\omega_{m}\sim \exp[-{\rm const.}(\log m)^2] for mm-th DM eigenvalue at larg mm. We perform numerical renormalization group calculations (using the corner-transfer-matrix RG and the product-wavefunction RG) for non-integrable models, verifying the ``universal asymptotic form'' for them. Our results strongly suggest the universality of the asymptotic eigenvalue distribution of DM and CTM for a wide class of systems.Comment: 4 pages, RevTeX, 4 ps figure

    Flexible profile approach to the conjugate heat transfer problem

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    The flexible profile approach proposed earlier to create CTM (compact or reduced order thermal models) is extended to cover the area of conjugate heat transfer. The flexible profile approach is a methodology that allows building a highly boundary conditions independent CTM, with any desired degree of accuracy, that may adequately replace detailed 3D models for the whole spectrum of applications in which the modeled object may be used. The extension to conjugate problems radically solves the problem of interfacing two different domains. Each domain, fluid or solid, can be "compacted" independently creating two CTM that can be joined together to produce reliable results for any arbitrary set of external boundary conditions.Comment: Submitted on behalf of TIMA Editions (http://irevues.inist.fr/tima-editions

    Metamodel for Tracing Concerns across the Life Cycle

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    Several aspect-oriented approaches have been proposed to specify aspects at different phases in the software life cycle. Aspects can appear within a phase, be refined or mapped to other aspects in later phases, or even disappear.\ud Tracing aspects is necessary to support understandability and maintainability of software systems. Although several approaches have been introduced to address traceability of aspects, two important limitations can be observed. First, tracing is not yet tackled for the entire life cycle. Second, the traceability model that is applied usually refers to elements of specific aspect languages, thereby limiting the reusability of the adopted traceability model.We propose the concern traceability metamodel (CTM) that enables traceability of concerns throughout the life cycle, and which is independent from the aspect languages that are used. CTM can be enhanced to provide additional properties for tracing, and be instantiated to define\ud customized traceability models with respect to the required aspect languages. We have implemented CTM in the tool M-Trace, that uses XML-based representations of the models and XQuery queries to represent tracing information. CTM and M-Trace are illustrated for a Concurrent Versioning System to trace aspects from the requirements level to architecture design level and the implementation

    Three-dimensional model study of the Arctic ozone loss in 2002/2003 and comparison with 1999/2000 and 2003/2004

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    We have used the SLIMCAT 3-D off-line chemical transport model (CTM) to quantify the Arctic chemical ozone loss in the year 2002/2003 and compare it with similar calculations for the winters 1999/2000 and 2003/2004. Recent changes to the CTM have improved the model's ability to reproduce polar chemical and dynamical processes. The updated CTM uses σ-θ as a vertical coordinate which allows it to extend down to the surface. The CTM has a detailed stratospheric chemistry scheme and now includes a simple NAT-based denitrification scheme in the stratosphere. In the model runs presented here the model was forced by ECMWF ERA40 and operational analyses. The model used 24 levels extending from the surface to ~55km and a horizontal resolution of either 7.5° x 7.5° or 2.8° x 2.8°. Two different radiation schemes, MIDRAD and the CCM scheme, were used to diagnose the vertical motion in the stratosphere. Based on tracer observations from balloons and aircraft, the more sophisticated CCM scheme gives a better representation of the vertical transport in this model which includes the troposphere. The higher resolution model generally produces larger chemical O3 depletion, which agrees better with observations. The CTM results show that very early chemical ozone loss occurred in December 2002 due to extremely low temperatures and early chlorine activation in the lower stratosphere. Thus, chemical loss in this winter started earlier than in the other two winters studied here. In 2002/2003 the local polar ozone loss in the lower stratosphere was ~40% before the stratospheric final warming. Larger ozone loss occurred in the cold year 1999/2000 which had a persistently cold and stable vortex during most of the winter. For this winter the current model, at a resolution of 2.8° x 2.8°, can reproduce the observed loss of over 70% locally. In the warm and more disturbed winter 2003/2004 the chemical O3 loss was generally much smaller, except above 620K where large losses occurred due to a period of very low minimum temperatures at these altitudes

    The effectiveness of the creativity trigger module in achieving higher levels of creative thinking among prospective teachers

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    The unoptimised level of creative thinking is seen as an issue among Semester 8 prospective teachers in Malaysian Teacher-Education Institutes (IPG). This could impede their teaching of creative thinking as one of the four components of 21st century skills in schools. In relation to this, this study sets out to investigate prior creativity levels of IPG prospective teachers and develop the Creativity Trigger Module (CTM) as a training module for enhancing their creativity. The Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT) was used to compare the prior creativity levels of four respondent groups and test the effectiveness of the CTM on five dimensions of figural creativity, namely fluency, originality, elaboration, resistance to premature closure, abstractness of titles, and their overall creativity. A two-stage cluster sampling technique identified two IPGs with 68 respondents in the state of Johor namely, IPG-Kampus Tun Hussein Onn, Batu Pahat (IPGKTHO) as the control group site (34 respondents), and IPG- Kampus Temenggong Ibrahim, Johor Bahru (IPGKTI) as the treatment group site (34 respondents). Mathematics (MT) and Design and Technology (RBT) are the only two specialist subject combinations that provided enough sample size at both test sites. A quasi-experimental research design was used and this involved intact classes. Data analysis was carried out as follows: ANOVA, ANCOVA, and Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test analysis for TTCT scores while data analysis based on the NVivo software was used for the focus group interviews. Findings on prior creativity levels showed average or low creativity levels among all 4 test groups with IPGKTHO and RBT options having significantly higher posttest marks as compared to IPGKTI and MT option respectively. The CTM was found to improve significantly respondents’ posttest marks for the treatment group in all the five dimensions of figural creativity and, their overall creativity. Feedback from respondents revealed positive support for the CTM. In conclusion, the prior creativity of IPG prospective teachers was at an unoptimised level before treatment but the CTM has been successfully developed as an effective resource for enhancing the creative thinking levels among IPG prospective teachers

    Estimating numerical errors due to operator splitting in global atmospheric chemistry models: Transport and chemistry

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    We present upper bounds for the numerical errors introduced when using operator splitting methods to integrate transport and non-linear chemistry processes in global chemical transport models (CTM). We show that (a) operator splitting strategies that evaluate the stiff non-linear chemistry operator at the end of the time step are more accurate, and (b) the results of numerical simulations that use different operator splitting strategies differ by at most 10 percent, in a prototype one-dimensional non-linear chemistry-transport model. We find similar upper bounds in operator splitting numerical errors in global CTM simulations
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