137,555 research outputs found

    Coupling mechanisms between the contralateral legs of a walking insect (Carausius morosus)

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    Cruse H, Knauth A. Coupling mechanisms between the contralateral legs of a walking insect (Carausius morosus). The journal of experimental biology. 1989;144(1):199-213.Interactions between contralateral legs of stick insects during walking were examined in the absence of mechanical coupling between the legs by studying animals walking on a horizontal plane covered with a thin film of silicone oil. Investigations of undisturbed walks showed that contralateral coupling is weaker han ipsilateral coupling. Two types of influence were found, (i) For each pair of front, middle and rear legs, when one leg started a retraction movement, the probability for the contralateral leg to start a protraction was increased, (ii) For front- and hind-leg pairs, it was found that the probability of starting a protraction in one leg was also increased, the farther the other leg was moved backwards during retraction. Whether such influences exist between middle legs could not be determined. Both ‘excitatory’ mechanisms very much resemble those influences which have been found to exist between ipsilateral legs. However, in contrast to ipsilateral legs, the interaction between two contralateral legs was found to act in both directions

    Vaulting quantification during level walking of transfemoral amputees

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    Background: Vaulting is a gait compensatory mechanism used by transfemoral amputees to assist toe clearance during the prosthetic swing phase. It is defined by a plantar flexion of the contralateral ankle during the single-limb support phase. The aim of the study is to propose a method to quantify vaulting of transfemoral amputees. Methods: 17 transfemoral amputees and 28 asymptomatic subjects participated in the data collection. Kinematics and kinetics of thewhole bodywere recordedwhile subjectswerewalking on a level surface. Biomechanical gait analysis was focused on a reduced set of parameters linked to the contralateral ankle, the contralateral knee and the trajectory of the center of pressure. The patients were classified in two groups: with orwithout vaulting using video recordings. Differences between both groups and the control group were analyzed. Findings: A higher generated ankle powerwas found during the single support phase of the contralateral limb of transfemoralamputees presenting vaulting. These subjects presented also a higher dissipated knee flexion power before the peak in ankle flexion power. The trajectory of the center of pressurewas also modified by the vaulting. Interpretation: Vaulting for transfemoral amputees is characterized by a propulsive plantar flexion at the contralateral ankle. Quantifying the ankle flexion power during the contralateral single support phase will help in understanding vaulting.This study was supported by the French National Research Agency, under reference ANR-2010-TECS-020. The authors are deeply grateful to F. Lavaste, N. Martinet, J. Paysant, and N. Rapin for their contribution to the study

    Reduced contribution of the ipsilateral primary motor cortex to force modulation with short-term motor learning in humans: An NIRS study

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    How is muscle force modulated during hand exercise? Oxygenation in the contralateral primary motor cortex (M1) has been observed to vary considerably across trials of repetitive handgrip exercise. No linear relationship was observed between the average value of oxygenation determined by a block design study and the force of the handgrip. We found reduced oxygenation in the ipsilateral M1 and unchanged oxygenation in the contralateral M1 during repetitive static handgrip exercises (40% and 60% maximal voluntary contraction; 10 s exercise/75 s rest; 5 sets), which might be due to short-term motor learning. These results support the hypothesis that the ipsilateral M1 might functionally compensate for the contralateral M1 in force modulation during unilateral exercises

    Intermittent applied mechanical loading induces subchondral bone thickening that may be intensified locally by contiguous articular cartilage lesions

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    Objectives: Changes in subchondral bone (SCB) and cross-talk with articular cartilage (AC) have been linked to osteoarthritis (OA). Using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) this study: (1) examines changes in SCB architecture in a non-invasive loading mouse model in which focal AC lesions are induced selectively in the lateral femur, and (2) determines any modifications in the contralateral knee, linked to changes in gait, which might complicate use of this limb as an internal control. Methods: Right knee joints of CBA mice were loaded: once with 2weeks of habitual use (n=7), for 2weeks (n=8) or for 5weeks (n=5). Both left (contralateral) and right (loaded) knees were micro-CT scanned and the SCB and trabecular bone analysed. Gait analysis was also performed. Results: These analyses showed a significant increase in SCB thickness in the lateral compartments in joints loaded for 5weeks, which was most marked in the lateral femur; the contralateral non-loaded knee also showed transient SCB thickening (loaded once and repetitively). Epiphyseal trabecular bone BV/TV and trabecular thickness were also increased in the lateral compartments after 5 weeks of loading, and in all joint compartments in the contralateral knee. Gait analysis showed that applied loading only affected gait in the contralateral himd-limb in all groups of mice from the second week after the first loading episode. Conclusions: These data indicate a spatial link between SCB thickening and AC lesions following mechanical trauma, and the clear limitations associated with the use of contralateral joints as controls in such OA models, and perhaps in OA diagnosis

    Contralateral prophylactic mastectomies. Correlations between primary tumor and histological findings of controlateral breast

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    Backgound: In Italy in 2015 48,000 new cases of breast carcinomas were diagnosed. Women who are diagnosed with breast cancer have a significant risk of developing contralateral breast cancer during the rest of their lives and this risk is closely associated to the family history, to the onset of breast cancer at a young age and is expressed at about 0.5 to 1% of metachronous tumors per year. The purpose of this work was to evaluate which and how many neoplastic lesions were seen in the contralateral breast that underwent prophylactic mastectomy and to understand what factors predict the appearance of such lesions. Methods: 168 bilateral mastectomies were analyzed in patients with an average age of 47 years, carried out from July 2008 to April 2016, at the Breast Unit of the Sant’Andrea Hospital. We considered women of any age suffering from unilateral breast cancer without either clinical or radiological evidence of a malignant lesion in the contralateral breast and negative for mutations of the BRCA1-BRCA2 genes test. Of the 168 bilateral mastectomies 35 patients were excluded from the study because they underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy, another 35 patients because they were suffering from a bilateral neoplasia and 7 cases because they had mutated BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes. Therefore the remaining 91 patients were included in the study. Results: Both the histological features of the primary tumor and any lesions found in the contralateral prophylactic breast were analyzed. Histological examination of the main breast showed 59 cases of Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC), 17 cases of Invasive Lobular Carcinoma (ILC), 9 cases of In Situ Ductal Carcinoma (ISDC), 3 microinvasive ductal, 1 invasive tubular carcinoma, 1 in situ lobular and 1 widespread in situ. In the contralateral breast, the definitive histological examination revealed that 47 patients had an occult lesion in the prophylactic contralateral breast; in particular 2 cases of LIN 1, 7 cases of LIN2, 6 cases of lobular carcinoma in situ, 26 between DIN1A/DIN1A-B/DIN1B, 4 cases of carcinoma in situ and 2 cases of Invasive Ductal Carcinoma. The correlation obtained from the observation of the main tumor has shown that in a total of 59 invasive ductal carcinoma 32 have a controlateral occult lesions and in a total of 17 cases of invasive lobular carcinoma 9 have an occult lesion in the prophylactic breast. Of these lesions, the multicentric relationship is that 50% of invasive ductal and invasive lobular carcinoma of the main breast have a contralateral lesion. Conclusion: In conclusion we would like to remind, as demonstrated by our follow-up data and as the literature reiterates, that this surgery does not improve patient survival. Certainly patients with unilateral breast cancer have many surgical therapies to be able to deal with not only having a bilateral mastectomy. The end point of this work is try to understand the risk factors of having a contralateral breast lesion to reduce the probability of a metachronous cance

    Mapping the cortical representation of the lumbar paravertebral muscles

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    Objective: The aim of this study was to map the cortical representation of the lumbar spine paravertebral (LP) muscles in healthy subjects. Methods: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was employed to map the cortical representations of the LP muscles at two sites. Stimuli were applied to points on a grid representing scalp positions. The amplitude of motor evoked potentials (n = 6) was averaged for each position. Results: The optimal site for evoking responses in the contralateral LP muscles was situated 1 cm anterior and 4 cm lateral to the vertex. Ipsilateral responses were evoked from sites lateral to the optimal site for evoking contralateral responses. Contralateral responses were also obtained from areas anterior to the optimal site. Conclusions: Maps of these muscles can be produced. The results suggest discrete contra- and ipsilateral cortical projections. Anterior sites at which excitation can be evoked may indicate projections arising in the SMA are involved. Significance: This study provides normative data regarding the cortical representation of the paravertebral muscles and provides a technique for evaluating cortical motor plasticity in patients presenting with spinal pathologies

    Whole breast and regional nodal irradiation in prone versus supine position in left sided breast cancer

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    Background: Prone whole breast irradiation (WBI) leads to reduced heart and lung doses in breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant radiotherapy. In this feasibility trial, we investigated the prone position for whole breast + lymph node irradiation (WB + LNI). Methods: A new support device was developed for optimal target coverage, on which patients are positioned in a position resembling a phase from the crawl swimming technique (prone crawl position). Five left sided breast cancer patients were included and simulated in supine and prone position. For each patient, a treatment plan was made in prone and supine position for WB + LNI to the whole axilla and the unoperated part of the axilla. Patients served as their own controls for comparing dosimetry of target volumes and organs at risk (OAR) in prone versus in supine position. Results: Target volume coverage differed only slightly between prone and supine position. Doses were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) in prone position for ipsilateral lung (Dmean, D2, V5, V10, V20, V30), contralateral lung (Dmean, D2), contralateral breast (Dmean, D2 and for total axillary WB + LNI also V5), thyroid (Dmean, D2, V5, V10, V20, V30), oesophagus (Dmean and for partial axillary WB + LNI also D2 and V5), skin (D2 and for partial axillary WB + LNI V105 and V107). There were no significant differences for heart and humeral head doses. Conclusions: Prone crawl position in WB + LNI allows for good breast and nodal target coverage with better sparing of ipsilateral lung, thyroid, contralateral breast, contralateral lung and oesophagus when compared to supine position. There is no difference in heart and humeral head doses

    A novel stepwise micro-TESE approach in non obstructive azoospermia

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    Background: The purpose of the study was to investigate whether micro-TESE can improve sperm retrieval rate (SRR) compared to conventional single TESE biopsy on the same testicle or to contralateral multiple TESE, by employing a novel stepwise micro-TESE approach in a population of poor prognosis patients with non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA). Methods: Sixty-four poor prognosis NOA men undergoing surgical testicular sperm retrieval for ICSI, from March 2007 to April 2013, were included in this study. Patients inclusion criteria were a) previous unsuccessful TESE, b) unfavorable histology (SCOS, MA, sclerahyalinosis), c) Klinefelter syndrome. We employed a stepwise micro-TESE consisting three-steps: 1) single conventional TESE biopsy; 2) micro-TESE on the same testis; 3) contralateral multiple TESE. Results: SRR was 28.1 % (18/64). Sperm was obtained in both the initial single conventional TESE and in the following micro-TESE. The positive or negative sperm retrieval was further confirmed by a contralateral multiple TESE, when performed. No significant pre-operative predictors of sperm retrieval, including patients’ age, previous negative TESE or serological markers (LH, FSH, inhibin B), were observed at univariate or multivariate analysis. Micro-TESE (step 2) did not improve sperm retrieval as compared to single TESE biopsy on the same testicle (step 1) or multiple contralateral TESE (step 3). Conclusions: Stepwise micro-TESE could represent an optimal approach for sperm retrieval in NOA men. In our view, it should be offered to NOA patients in order to gradually increase surgical invasiveness, when necessary. Stepwise micro-TESE might also reduce the costs, time and efforts involved in surgery

    Toll-like receptor signaling adapter proteins govern spread of neuropathic pain and recovery following nerve injury in male mice.

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    BackgroundSpinal Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and signaling intermediaries have been implicated in persistent pain states. We examined the roles of two major TLR signaling pathways and selected TLRs in a mononeuropathic allodynia.MethodsL5 spinal nerve ligation (SNL) was performed in wild type (WT, C57BL/6) male and female mice and in male Tlr2-/-Tlr3-/-, Tlr4-/-, Tlr5-/-, Myd88-/-, Triflps2, Myd88/Triflps2, Tnf-/-, and Ifnar1-/- mice. We also examined L5 ligation in Tlr4-/- female mice. We examined tactile allodynia using von Frey hairs. Iba-1 (microglia) and GFAP (astrocytes) were assessed in spinal cords by immunostaining. Tactile thresholds were analyzed by 1- and 2-way ANOVA and the Bonferroni post hoc test was used.ResultsIn WT male and female mice, SNL lesions resulted in a persistent and robust ipsilateral, tactile allodynia. In males with TLR2, 3, 4, or 5 deficiencies, tactile allodynia was significantly, but incompletely, reversed (approximately 50%) as compared to WT. This effect was not seen in female Tlr4-/- mice. Increases in ipsilateral lumbar Iba-1 and GFAP were seen in mutant and WT mice. Mice deficient in MyD88, or MyD88 and TRIF, showed an approximately 50% reduction in withdrawal thresholds and reduced ipsilateral Iba-1. In contrast, TRIF and interferon receptor null mice developed a profound ipsilateral and contralateral tactile allodynia. In lumbar sections of the spinal cords, we observed a greater increase in Iba-1 immunoreactivity in the TRIF-signaling deficient mice as compared to WT, but no significant increase in GFAP. Removing MyD88 abrogated the contralateral allodynia in the TRIF signaling-deficient mice. Conversely, IFNβ, released downstream to TRIF signaling, administered intrathecally, temporarily reversed the tactile allodynia.ConclusionsThese observations suggest a critical role for the MyD88 pathway in initiating neuropathic pain, but a distinct role for the TRIF pathway and interferon in regulating neuropathic pain phenotypes in male mice
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