49,674 research outputs found

    Continuous positive airway pressure in cluster headache: A randomized, placebo-controlled, triple-blind, crossover study

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    Background - Oxygen inhalation aborts cluster headache attacks, and case reports show the effect of continuous positive airway pressure. The aim of this study was to investigate the prophylactic effect of continuous positive airway pressure in chronic cluster headache. Methods - This was a randomized placebo-controlled triple-blind crossover study using active and sham continuous positive airway pressure treatment for chronic cluster headache. Patients entered a one month’s baseline period before randomly being assigned to two months’ active continuous positive airway pressure treatment followed by a four weeks’ washout period and two months’ sham continuous positive airway pressure or vice versa. Primary outcome measure was number of cluster headache attacks/week. Results - Of the 30 included participants (12 males, median age 49.5 years, min-max 20–66 years), 25 completed both treatment/sham cycles (two discontinued, three lost to follow-up). The median number of cluster headache attacks per week was reduced from 8.25 (0.75–89.75) attacks to 6.25 (0–56.00) attacks for active continuous positive airway pressure and to 7.50 (0.50–43.75) attacks for sham continuous positive airway pressure, but there was no difference in active versus sham (p = 0.904). One patient had a serious adverse event during active treatment, none occurred during sham treatment. Conclusions - Continuous positive airway pressure treatment did not reduce the number of cluster headache attacks compared to sham treatment in chronic cluster headache patients

    Simultaneous sleep study and nasoendoscopic investigation in a patient with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome refractory to continuous positive airway pressure: a case report

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Introduction</p> <p>The standard treatment for obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome is nasal continuous positive airway pressure. In most cases the obstruction is located at the oropharyngeal level, and nasal continuous positive airway pressure is usually effective. In cases of non-response to nasal continuous positive airway pressure other treatments like mandibular advancement devices or upper airway surgery (especially bi-maxillary advancement) may also be considered.</p> <p>Case presentation</p> <p>We report the case of a 38-year-old Caucasian man with severe obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome, initially refractory to nasal continuous positive airway pressure (and subsequently also to a mandibular advancement devices), in which the visualization of the upper airway with sleep endoscopy and the concomitant titration of positive pressure were useful in the investigation and resolution of sleep disordered breathing. In fact, there was a marked reduction in the size of his nasopharynx, and a paresis of his left aryepiglotic fold with hypertrophy of the right aryepiglotic fold. The application of bi-level positive airway pressure and an oral interface successfully managed his obstructive sleep apnoea.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>This is a rare case of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome refractory to treatment with nocturnal ventilatory support. Visualization of the endoscopic changes, during sleep and under positive pressure, was of great value to understanding the mechanisms of refractoriness. It also oriented the therapeutic option. Refractoriness to obstructive sleep apnoea therapy with continuous positive airway pressure is rare, and each case should be approached individually.</p

    Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Ischemic Stroke patients

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    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea in patients with ischemic stroke and to evaluate the effectiveness of nasal continuous positive airway pressure treatment. METHODS: Overnight polysomnography was performed by a computerized system in 19 subjects with ischemic stroke. Patients with an apnea-hypopnea index > 5 were considered to have obstructive sleep apnea. The appropriate level of continuous positive airway pressure for each patient was determined during an all-night continuous positive airway pressure determination study. Attended continuous positive airway pressure titration was performed with a continuous positive airway pressure auto-titrating device. RESULTS: Obstructive sleep apnea prevalence among patients with ischemic stroke was 73.7%. The minimum SaO2 was significantly lower, and the percent of total sleep time in the wake stage and stage 1 sleep was significantly longer in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. In two patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea, we observed a decrease in the apnea-hypopnea index, an increase in mean wake time, mean SaO2, and minimum SaO2, and alterations in sleep structures with continuous positive airway pressure treatment. CONCLUSION: As the diagnosis and treatment of obstructive sleep apnea is of particular importance in secondary stroke prevention, we suggest that the clinical assessment of obstructive sleep apnea be part of the evaluation of stroke patients in rehabilitation units, and early treatment should be started

    Comparison of the effects of continuous positive airway pressure, oral appliance and exercise training in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

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    OBJECTIVE: There are several treatments for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, such as weight loss, use of an oral appliance and continuous positive airway pressure, that can be used to reduce the signs and symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of a physical training program compared with other treatments. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of physical exercise on subjective and objective sleep parameters, quality of life and mood in obstructive sleep apnea patients and to compare these effects with the effects of continuous positive airway pressure and oral appliance treatments. METHODS: Male patients with moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea and body mass indices less than 30 kg/m2 were randomly assigned to three groups: continuous positive airway pressure (n = 9), oral appliance (n = 9) and physical exercise (n = 7). Polysomnographic recordings, blood samples and daytime sleepiness measurements were obtained prior to and after two months of physical exercise or treatment with continuous positive airway pressure or an oral appliance. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01289392 RESULTS: After treatment with continuous positive airway pressure or an oral appliance, the patients presented with a significant reduction in the apnea-hypopnea index. We did not observe changes in the sleep parameters studied in the physical exercise group. However, this group presented reductions in the following parameters: T leukocytes, very-low-density lipoprotein and triglycerides. Two months of exercise training also had a positive impact on subjective daytime sleepiness. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that isolated physical exercise training was able to modify only subjective daytime sleepiness and some blood measures. Continuous positive airway pressure and oral appliances modified the apnea-hypopnea index.AFIPCEPECEMSACNPqFAPESPUniversidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP) Departamento de PsicobiologiaUNIFESP, Depto. de Psicobiologia2009/01031-1 e 98/14303-3SciEL

    Predictors of continuous positive airway pressure adherence

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    Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the leading treatment for obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), a prevalent disorder of breathing in sleep strongly associated with obesity. OSA has serious adverse health, social and community effects arising from disturbed breathing, loud snoring, poor quality sleep and cardiovascular sequelae. When used appropriately, CPAP treatment is highly effective in normalising breathing and sleep, improving symptoms and lowering adverse event risk. However, patients do not necessarily accept, tolerate or comply with treatment, with many factors influencing CPAP uptake and longer term use. Although knowledge to address challenges affecting CPAP adherence and CPAP mask and machine technologies continue to improve incrementally, optimising CPAP treatment adherence is an ongoing challenge in sleep medicine

    Effects of 8 weeks of CPAP on lipid-based oxidative markers in obstructive sleep apnea: a randomized trial

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    Dyslipidaemia and increased oxidative stress have been reported in severe obstructive sleep apnea, and both may be related to the development of cardiovascular disease. We have previously shown in a randomized crossover study in patients with moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea that therapeutic continuous positive airway pressure treatment for 8 weeks improved postprandial triglycerides and total cholesterol when compared with sham continuous positive airway pressure. From this study we have now compared the effect of 8 weeks of therapeutic continuous positive airway pressure and sham continuous positive airway pressure on oxidative lipid damage and plasma lipophilic antioxidant levels. Unesterified cholesterol, esterified unsaturated fatty acids (cholesteryl linoleate: C18:2; and cholesteryl arachidonate: C20:4; the major unsaturated and oxidizable lipids in low-density lipoproteins), their corresponding oxidized products [cholesteryl ester-derived lipid hydroperoxides and hydroxides (CE-O(O)H)] and antioxidant vitamin E were assessed at 20:30 hours before sleep, and at 06:00 and 08:30 hours after sleep. Amongst the 29 patients completing the study, three had incomplete or missing [CE-O(O)H] data. The mean apnea -hypopnoea index, age and body mass index were 38 per hour, 49 years and 32 kg m(-2) , respectively. No differences in lipid-based oxidative markers or lipophilic antioxidant levels were observed between the continuous positive airway pressure and sham continuous positive airway pressure arms at any of the three time-points [unesterified cholesterol 0.01 mm, P > 0.05; cholesteryl linoleate: C18:2 0.05 mm, P > 0.05; cholesteryl arachidonate: C20:4 0.02 mm, P = 0.05; CE-O(O)H 2.5 nm, P > 0.05; and lipid-soluble antioxidant vitamin E 0.03 μm, P > 0.05]. In this study, accumulating CE-O(O)H, a marker of lipid oxidation, does not appear to play a role in oxidative stress in obstructive sleep apnea.National Health and Medical Research Council project grant 30193

    The Use of Nasal Dilator Strips as a Placebo for Trials Evaluating Continuous Positive Airway Pressure

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    Objectives: The aim of the current study was to compare the objective and subjective effects of continuous positive airway pressure to the use of nasal dilator strips in patients with acromegaly and moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea. Methods: We studied 12 patients with acromegaly and moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea (male/females = 8/4, age = 52±\pm8 ys, body mass index = 33.5±\pm4.6 Kg/m2^2, apnea–hypopnea index = 38±\pm14 events/h) who had been included in a randomized, crossover study to receive three months of treatment with continuous positive airway pressure and nasal dilator strips. All patients were evaluated at study entry and at the end of each treatment by polysomnography, and Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and treatment satisfaction questionnaires. Results: The apnea–hypopnea index values decreased significantly with continuous positive airway pressure treatment but did not change with the use of nasal dilator strips. All of the subjective symptoms improved with both treatments, but these improvements were significantly greater with continuous positive airway pressure than with the nasal dilator strips. Conclusion: The use of nasal dilator strips had a much smaller effect on the severity of obstructive sleep apnea in patients with acromegaly and moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea in comparison to the use of continuous positive airway pressure. Moreover, the improvement in several subjective parameters without any significant objective improvement in obstructive sleep apnea resulting from the use of nasal dilator strips is compatible with a placebo effect

    Obstructive Sleep Apnoea: a dental perspective

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    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is regarded as a potentially life threatening breathing disorder characterised by periodic cessation of air intake during sleep. Treatment modalities include conservative measures such as weight loss, change in sleep position and avoidance of alcohol: these may suffice in reducing airway obstruction. Pharmacotherapy has also been used with various grades of success. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) helps maintain airway patency during sleep by a continuous stream of air under light pressure. Tracheostomy, by its very nature, completely bypasses any pharyngeal obstruction but is associated with a high degree of morbidity. Other surgical procedures such as uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP), orthognathic surgery, hyoid-myotomy suspension and tongue reduction have also been used. Mandibular advancement splints (MAS) are increasingly being recognised as a suitable management option for those subjects with mild to moderate OSA. A study was undertaken to ascertain the effectiveness of using mandibular advancement splints in the treatment of OSA. Mandibular protrusion using a MAS is frequently, but not invariably, associated with improvement in velo- and oro-pharyngeal airway dimensions in awake subjects.peer-reviewe

    Effect of continuous positive airway pressure therapy on a large hemangioma complicated with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: a case report

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Introduction</p> <p>Hemangiomas involving the upper airway can be an uncommon cause of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.</p> <p>Case presentation</p> <p>A 26-year-old Caucasian man with a known history of a large hemangioma of his head and neck presented with sleep-disordered breathing to the sleep unit of our hospital. Severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome was revealed on polysomnography. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure was implemented effectively, reducing daytime hypersomnolence and significantly improving sleep parameters. After three years of adherent use, the patient remains in a good condition and the hemangioma is stable.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>Application of continuous positive airway pressure can be an effective treatment for patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome complicated with vascular tumors. Periodic follow-up of these patients is necessary, as little is known about the long-term effects of continuous positive airway pressure therapy.</p

    Reversibility of airflow obstruction by hypoglossus nerve stimulation in anesthetized rabbits

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    Rationale: Anesthesia-induced uncoupling of upper airway dilating and inspiratory pump muscles activation may cause inspiratory flow limitation, thereby mimicking obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea. Objectives: Determine whether inspiratory flow limitation occurs in spontaneously breathing anesthetized rabbits and whether this can be reversed by direct hypoglossal nerve stimulation and by the application of continuous positive airway pressure. Methods: Ten New Zealand White rabbits were anesthetized, instrumented, and studied supine while breathing spontaneously at ambient pressure or during the application of positive or negative airway pressure. Under each of these conditions, the effect of unilateral or bilateral hypoglossal nerve stimulation was investigated. Measurements: Inspiratory flow and tidal volume were measured together with esophageal pressure and the electromyographic activity of diaphragm, alae nasi, and genioglossus muscles. Main results: Anesthesia caused a marked increase in inspiratory resistance, snoring, and in eight rabbits, inspiratory flow limitation. Hypoglossus nerve stimulation was as effective as continuous positive airway pressure in reversing inspiratory flow limitation and snoring. Its effectiveness increased progressively as airway opening pressure was lowered, reached a maximum at -5 cm H2O, but declined markedly at lower pressures. With negative airway opening pressure, airway collapse eventually occurred during inspiration that could be prevented by hypoglossus nerve stimulation. The recruitment characteristics of hypoglossus nerve fibers was steep, and significant upper airway dilating effects already obtained with stimulus intensities 36 to 60% of maximum. Conclusion: This study supports hypoglossus nerve stimulation as a treatment option for obstructive sleep apnea
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