18,768 research outputs found

    Balancing the urban stomach: public health, food selling and consumption in London, c. 1558-1640

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    Until recently, public health histories have been predominantly shaped by medical and scientific perspectives, to the neglect of their wider social, economic and political contexts. These medically-minded studies have tended to present broad, sweeping narratives of health policy's explicit successes or failures, often focusing on extraordinary periods of epidemic disease viewed from a national context. This approach is problematic, particularly in studies of public health practice prior to 1800. Before the rise of modern scientific medicine, public health policies were more often influenced by shared social, cultural, economic and religious values which favoured maintaining hierarchy, stability and concern for 'the common good'. These values have frequently been overlooked by modern researchers. This has yielded pessimistic assessments of contemporary sanitation, implying that local authorities did not care about or prioritise the health of populations. Overly medicalised perspectives have further restricted historians' investigation and use of source material, their interpretation of multifaceted and sometimes contested cultural practices such as fasting, and their examination of habitual - and not just extraordinary - health actions. These perspectives have encouraged a focus on reactive - rather than preventative - measures. This thesis contributes to a growing body of research that expands our restrictive understandings of pre-modern public health. It focuses on how public health practices were regulated, monitored and expanded in later Tudor and early Stuart London, with a particular focus on consumption and food-selling. Acknowledging the fundamental public health value of maintaining urban foodways, it investigates how contemporaries sought to manage consumption, food production waste, and vending practices in the early modern City's wards and parishes. It delineates the practical and political distinctions between food and medicine, broadly investigates the activities, reputations of and correlations between London's guild and itinerant food vendors and licensed and irregular medical practitioners, traces the directions in which different kinds of public health policy filtered up or down, and explores how policies were enacted at a national and local level. Finally, it compares and contrasts habitual and extraordinary public health regulations, with a particular focus on how perceptions of and actual food shortages, paired with the omnipresent threat of disease, impacted broader aspects of civic life

    Paradoxes in the Management of Timebanks in the UK’s Voluntary Sector: Discursive Bricolage and its Limits

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    This paper contributes to our understanding of volunteer management by charting some important challenges associated with the governance of one of the UK‚Äôs largest timebanking networks. While timebanking is often treated as a form of volunteering, many timebank advocates are keen to distinguish it sharply from traditional volunteering. We suggest that this tension generates a fundamental ‚Äėperformance paradox‚Äô in the management of timebanks in the voluntary sector. We draw on political discourse theory to characterise and evaluate associated challenges, suggesting that, when viewed against a host of context-specific organisational and policy pressures, the progressive potential of timebanking cannot be realised as a distinct community economy without adequate support. Instead of taking up a position alongside more traditional forms of volunteering, timebanking is more likely to be subsumed by them

    Metodología de intervención para trabajar ODS. Educación a través de las artes

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    La Agenda 2030 presenta 17 Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible (ODS), con sus metas e indicadores universales que los pa√≠ses miembros de la ONU emplean para enmarcar sus pol√≠ticas. Entre las metas del ODS 4 ‚Äúeducaci√≥n de calidad‚ÄĚ encontramos: ‚Äúasegurar que todos los alumnos adquieran los conocimientos te√≥ricos y pr√°cticos necesarios para promover el desarrollo sostenible, entre otras cosas mediante la educaci√≥n para el desarrollo sostenible y los estilos de vida sostenibles, los derechos humanos, la igualdad de g√©nero, la promoci√≥n de una cultura de paz y no violencia, la ciudadan√≠a mundial y la valoraci√≥n de la diversidad cultural y la contribuci√≥n de la cultura al desarrollo sostenible‚ÄĚ. La educaci√≥n, se considera el motor de la Agenda 2030 porque, adem√°s de representar el centro del ODS 4, desempe√Īa tambi√©n un papel notable en la implementaci√≥n de los dem√°s, mejorando su alcance y efectividad. As√≠ pues, entre las disciplinas que sustentan este trabajo se escogi√≥ la Educaci√≥n para el Desarrollo Sostenible y la Ciudadan√≠a Global como marco de acci√≥n y punto de partida en la formaci√≥n de los ciudadanos de un futuro viable, equitativo y habitable. Se continu√≥ investigando las oportunidades del desarrollo de la Competencia Intercultural en las relaciones humanas, aquello que diferencia a unas personas de otras puede aportar al conjunto de la sociedad y c√≥mo la educaci√≥n permitir√≠a su aprovechamiento. Con todo ello, se plante√≥ el marco did√°ctico de interacci√≥n en el cual se implement√≥ la interculturalidad en el ejercicio educativo. Se estudi√≥ as√≠ el poder de las artes como medio de motivaci√≥n e inspiraci√≥n a la hora de transmitir de la manera m√°s eficaz posible los valores considerados m√°s arriba. El objetivo del presente estudio se centra en demostrar el potencial de las artes para fomentar las competencias comunicativas, sociales, interculturales, emocionales, de ciudadan√≠a y sostenibilidad. Para ello, se ha realizado una investigaci√≥n aplicada que deriva en una propuesta concreta de intervenci√≥n con un programa educativo destinado a la ense√Īanza de lenguas, tanto primera como extranjera, en distintos niveles de la educaci√≥n formal en Mali y en Espa√Īa, aplicando un m√©todo hol√≠stico basado en el paradigma interpretativo. A trav√©s de la pintura, la literatura y el cine, se plantean una serie de actividades ideadas para crear un entorno educativo integrador, favorecer el empoderamiento del alumnado y promover el pensamiento cr√≠tico, la empat√≠a, la resiliencia, la comunicaci√≥n, la cooperaci√≥n y la educaci√≥n intercultural, como competencias esenciales para la consecuci√≥n de los 17 ODS, la construcci√≥n de un mundo transcultural sostenible y el desarrollo de una ciudadan√≠a global preparada para los retos del siglo XXI. En la metodolog√≠a de este proceso educativo innovador, multidisciplinar, flexible y adaptable, se ha empleado un an√°lisis del proceso de investigaci√≥n para monitorizarlo adecuadamente (DAFO). Cada una de las propuestas presenta una recogida de datos cualitativos (observaci√≥n, r√ļbricas) y cuantitativos (encuestas, entrevistas) y se ofrece un an√°lisis de contraste de los resultados finales. Con todo, se espera facilitar la exigente tarea que supone hacer consciente a la sociedad de base (desde la misma infancia; desde los niveles m√°s bajos de la misma y en todos los niveles de la educaci√≥n formal) de en qu√© consisten los ODS y su relevancia para hacer de todas las personas corresponsables directas en su consecuci√≥n para garantizar un futuro sostenible para toda la ciudadan√≠a global.The 2030 Agenda presents 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), with their universal targets and indicators that UN member countries use to frame their policies. Among the targets of SDG 4 ‚Äúquality education,‚ÄĚ we find the one that seeks: ‚Äúto ensure that all students acquire the theoretical and practical knowledge necessary to promote sustainable development, among other things through education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, the promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, world citizenship and the appreciation of cultural diversity and the contribution of culture to sustainable development‚ÄĚ. Education is considered the engine of the 2030 Agenda because, in addition to representing the centre of SDG 4, it also plays a notable role in the implementation of the others, improving their scope and effectiveness. Among the disciplines that support this research, Education for Sustainable Development and Global Citizenship sets the framework for action and represents a starting point in the formation of citizens for a viable, equitable and habitable future. Global citizenship implies human relations and those and intrinsically shaped by culture. Intercultural Education and, more specifically, the development of Intercultural Competence needed to be considered. What differentiates some people from others can contribute to society as a whole and education is the means to explore and understand. For the design of a didactic framework of interaction, the power of the arts was studied as a means of motivation and inspiration when transmitting the values considered above in the most effective way possible. The objective of this study focuses on proving the potential of the arts to promote communicative, social, intercultural, emotional, citizenship and sustainability skills. For this, the theoretical research derived in a concrete intervention proposal with an educational program in language teaching, both first and foreign languages, at different levels of formal education in Mali and Spain, applying a holistic method based on the interpretive paradigm. Through painting, literature and cinema, a series of activities were designed to create an inclusive educational environment, favour the empowerment of students and promote critical thinking, empathy, resilience, communication, cooperation and intercultural education, as essential skills for the achievement of the 17 SDGs, the construction of a sustainable transcultural world and the development of global citizenship prepared for the challenges of the 21st century. In the methodology of this innovative, multidisciplinary, flexible and adaptable educational process, an analysis of the research process has been used to adequately monitor it (SWOT). Each of the proposals presents a collection of qualitative data (observation, rubrics) and quantitative data (surveys, interviews) and contrast analysis of the final results is offered. All in all, it is expected to facilitate the demanding task of making basic society aware (from childhood itself, from its lowest levels and at all levels of formal education) of what the SDGs consist of and their relevance to make all people directly co-responsible in its achievement to guarantee a sustainable future for all global citizens

    The Influence of Quality on eWOM: A Digital Transformation in Hotel Management

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    612324There is no doubt that the use of Internet for purchasing products and services has constituted a crucial change in how people go about buying them. In the era of digital transformation, the possibility of accessing information provided by other users about their personal experiences has taken on more weight in the selection and buying processes. On these lines, traditional word-of-mouth (WOM) has given way to electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM), which constitutes a major social change. This behavior is particularly relevant in the services area, where potential users cannot in advance assess what is on offer. There is an abundant literature analyzing the effects of eWOM on different variables of interest in this sector. However, little is known about the factors that determine eWOM. Thus, the main objective of the present paper is to analyze the impact of two variables (objective quality and perceived quality) on eWOM. Both of them are crucial for potential customers in the process of finding hotel accommodations and they can motivate people to make such comments. The results demonstrate that these variables truly have a significant impact on whether or not users make comments on line. Moreover, it proved possible to observe certain differences according to the profile of the tourist involved and the destination where the hotel is located. In the current changing environment, this information is of great use for hotel managers in order to design strategies according to the type of guest they wish to attract.S

    Viability of patent insurance in Spain

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    M-24609-2013Since 1975 the FUNDACI√ďN MAPFRE has involved itself in activities serving the general interests of society in different areas of business and culture along with activities aimed at improving the economic and social conditions of the least advantaged members and sectors of society. Within this framework, the FUNDACI√ďN MAPFRE‚Äôs Institute of Insurance Science promotes and undertakes educational and research activities in the fields of insurance and risk management. In the area of education, its activities include specialized, post-graduate academic training carried out in association with the Pontifical University of Salamanca and courses and seminars for professionals held in Spain and Latin America. These activities have been expanded into other geographic regions thanks to cooperation with a series of institutions in Spain and other countries and an Internet training programme. The Institute offers grants for research in risk and insurance science and operates a specialized insurance and risk management Documentation Centre as support for its activities. The Institute routinely sponsors and draws up reports and publishes books dealing with insurance and risk management to improve our understanding of these fields. Some are intended as reference materials for those starting out in the study or practice of insurance affairs, while others are intended as information sources for undertaking research into specialized issues in greater depth. One of these activities is the publication of this volume, the outcome of research carried out by Drs. P√©rez Carrillo and Cuypers in 2011 and 2012, under the guidance of Jos√© Antonio Avent√≠n Arroyo

    What do students learn in virtual exchange? A qualitative content analysis of learning outcomes across multiple exchanges

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    .Virtual exchange refers to the engagement of groups of learners in online intercultural interaction and collaboration with partners from other cultural contexts or geographical locations as an integrated part of course work and under the guidance of educators and/or expert facilitators. This study presents a qualitative content analysis of reported learning outcomes by students of English in a Spanish university following their participation in one of thirteen online intercultural exchanges. Based on the analysis of 345 learner portfolios, several key themes were identified which provide insight into the type of learning which virtual exchange can contribute to second language classrooms. These included how virtual exchange contributed to overcoming students’ stereotypes, gaining confidence as communicators in their second language (L2) and reconceptualizing English as a tool for communication rather than as an abstract academic activity. A comparison of two models of virtual exchange within the dataset also revealed how task design can influence the outcomes of this activityS

    Los géneros discursivos prototípicos de la Licenciatura en Administración de Empresas : conformación de un corpus textual con fines pedagógicos

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    Especializaci√≥n en Did√°ctica de la Lenguas ExtranjerasEn el contexto de ense√Īanza de lectura comprensiva en lengua extranjera en el nivel superior, la selecci√≥n textual para conformar un corpus pedag√≥gico representa un aspecto fundamental, dado que este constituye la base de los materiales did√°cticos con los que se organiza la ense√Īanza (Hurtado Albir, 2011). En este sentido, dicho corpus deber√≠a incluir g√©neros protot√≠picos de las comunidades disciplinares (Bhatia, 1993; Cassany, 2008; Hyland, 2002) sobre tem√°ticas de inter√©s para los estudiantes atendiendo tambi√©n a la opini√≥n de los especialistas del √°rea disciplinar. El presente trabajo aborda la problem√°tica del dise√Īo de materiales de comprensi√≥n lectora en ingl√©s en el √°mbito universitario. En cuanto al prop√≥sito principal, este estudio procura contribuir al mejoramiento de las pr√°cticas pedag√≥gicas en dicho contexto, a trav√©s de la descripci√≥n de los g√©neros y tem√°ticas afines a la disciplina para la conformaci√≥n del corpus pedag√≥gico del nuevo manual para Lengua Inglesa II de la Licenciatura en Administraci√≥n de Empresas, UCC. La problem√°tica planteada es abordada desde un enfoque te√≥rico que articula el concepto de lectura comprensiva en el nivel superior y los aportes de la teor√≠a del g√©nero, seg√ļn la Escuela de Ingl√©s con Fines Espec√≠ficos, y de la ling√ľ√≠stica textual de base germ√°nica. La presente investigaci√≥n de alcance descriptivo y con un enfoque predominantemente cualitativo se desarroll√≥ entre el segundo semestre de 2018 y el primer semestre de 2019. El proceso metodol√≥gico se organiz√≥ en torno a tres instrumentos clave para la recolecci√≥n de datos, a saber, la ficha bibliogr√°fica, el cuestionario a estudiantes y el cuestionario a docentes. A su vez, la informaci√≥n recolectada a partir de estas herramientas permiti√≥ realizar la selecci√≥n textual y el consiguiente an√°lisis multinivel de los textos del corpus. Los resultados obtenidos han permitido sugerir no solo una propuesta de corpus ejemplar con fines pedag√≥gicos para el contexto educativo mencionado, sino tambi√©n algunos posibles lineamientos que podr√≠an considerarse para conducir una futura ampliaci√≥n del corpus ejemplar.Fil: Cardini, Mar√≠a Natalia. Universidad Nacional de C√≥rdoba. Facultad de Lenguas; Argentina

    Stock Identification Methods Working Group (SIMWG). 2021

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    The Stock Identification Methods Working Group (SIMWG) reviews new methods for the definition and investigation of stock structure and provides recommendations to other ICES expert groups on how to interpret patterns of population structure. In 2021, SIMWG continued providing annual updates on recent applications of stock identification methods to species assessed by ICES and on advances in stock identification methods. Based on the wide expertise of SIMWG members, the group provides reviews of recent literature on genetics, growth marks in calcified structures, life history parameters, morphometrics/ meristics, tagging, otolith shape, otolith chemistry, parasites and interdisciplinary approaches. The key activity of SIMWG is to address requests by ICES working groups for technical advice on issues of stock identity. In 2021, SIMWG reviewed the report of a project on herring stock structure upon request by the ICES Herring Assessment Working Group (HAWG). SIMWG contributes to the general understanding of the biological features of the north Atlantic ecosystem through its work to describe fish population structure. Additionally, SIMWG annual reviews on advances in stock identification methods keep ICES members abreast of best practices in this field of study. SIMWG expert reviews on questions of stock structure for particular ICES species are directly relevant to the appropriate definition of stock and contribute to the accuracy of stock assessment and effectiveness of management actions. We see an important role for SIMWG in the future as ICES is coping with the shifting distributions of fishery resources and questions regarding the appropriate definition of fish stocks. Understanding stock structure is a fundamental requirement before any assessment or modelling on a stock can be contemplated and SIMWG will continue to work with ICES expert groups to address pressing stock identification issues
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