8,794 research outputs found

    Autoethnography as an ethically contested terrain: some thinking points for consideration

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    In this article, I select items from various lists of published ethical guidelines for autoethnographers and use them as starting points prior to subjecting each to interrogation. This interrogation takes place via the following six thinking points: The (im)possibility of anonymity and confidentiality, the ownership of stories, informed consent, member checking, do no harm to others, and do no harm to self. Each of these reveals a contested and messy terrain as opposed to the neatness implied in the recommendations of ethical guidelines about how such research should be conducted. Throughout, I seek to demonstrate that autoethnography, like any other qualitative research approach, poses difficult, but not insurmountable ethical challenges. These need to be addressed in a principled and informed manner that necessarily rejects rigid assertions of ‘should do’ in favour of a more fluid notion of ‘it depends’ on time, context, culture and purpose

    The Characterisation of Jesus the Davidic Shepherd in Mark’s Gospel: a narrative analysis through the lens of Metalepsis

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    While commentators widely acknowledge the importance of the role of the shepherd image in portraying the God of Israel, the earthly leadership and Jesus in the Hebrew Bible (HB) and the New Testament (NT), the two appearances of the images in Mark’s Gospel (6:34; 14:27) may appear to be of limited significance in portraying Jesus and his ministry, compared with the use of the Son of Man. While Mark’s use of the shepherd images has been the subject of scholarly debate, there is not yet a thorough analysis fully acknowledging the literary qualities of these images, which are intertextual references to the HB and figures of speech for narrative characterisation. Previous intertextual studies of the shepherd images selectively reduce the original literary backgrounds of the references to static themes without clarifying the selection process. Other examinations explore how the images portray Mark’s Jesus. However, those analyses inadequately consider the connections between the portrayal of Jesus as the Davidic shepherd and the other portraits of Jesus and the relevance between the two shepherd images along the plotline. By adopting a narrative-critical approach using Genette’s conception of narrative metalepsis, this thesis offers insights into the significance of Mark’s use of the shepherd images. It illuminates how the original literary background of the shepherd images functions to characterise Jesus and other characters along the plotline and create rhetorical impacts on Mark’s implied readers, persuading them to acknowledge the shepherding work of Jesus and the nature of being his disciples. Chapter 1 surveys the issues related to Mark’s shepherd image and reviews the secondary literature on the topic. Chapter 2 establishes a narrative-critical method for the thesis. By defining a specific implied reader, the methodology offers a theoretical framework for approaching the two shepherd images in Mark’s narrative as intertextual references and 2 figures of speech. Chapter 3 conducts an exegetical examination of the events surrounding the shepherd images in Ezekiel 34 and in Zech 13:7–9. This examination demonstrates how these events are relevant to the shepherd images and their significance in their original literary contexts. Chapter 4 studies the plot development of Mark 1:1–6:6 and explores how Mark’s narrator portrays Jesus and other characters, preparing the implied readers to receive the shepherd images. Before the concluding chapter summarises the present research, chapters 5 and 6 investigate the stories of Jesus feeding the five thousand (6:30–44) and Jesus’ prediction of Peter’s denial (14:26–31), which contain the two shepherd images in Mark’s narrative. Through the lens of narrative metalepsis, the analysis explains how the images characterise Jesus and other characters in the immediate context. These chapters also demonstrate how the portrayal of Jesus the Davidic shepherd connects to other portraits in the broader context of Mark’s narrative, creating rhetorical impacts on the implied readers. The metaleptic understanding of the shepherd images in Mark’s narrative highlights their profound significance in contrast to previous studies in several ways. First, Jesus is characterised as the Davidic shepherd appointed to fulfil God’s radical restoration with his death. The renewed community will enjoy the abundance of God and live a life of purity under Jesus’ shepherding ministry. Second, the Jewish religious leaders are portrayed as incorrigibly corrupted and deserving of God’s punishment. Lastly, the disciples appear to be both the insiders and outsiders in God’s kingdom. Their desertion of Jesus after he is arrested is to be understood as part of God’s refining and testing of them, demanding a response. Will they decide to follow Jesus the Davidic shepherd who will radically restore the covenantal relationship, or will they become outsiders in the kingdom of God

    Eine Vorgehensweise zur ethischen und sozialen Reflexion in der Produktentwicklung.

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    Bei der Gestaltung neuer Produkte werden durch die herstellende Person Wertvorstellungen und -annahmen in das Produkt übertragen und so die Handlungsmöglichkeiten der Nutzenden determiniert. Geht man davon aus, dass sich Mensch und Technik wechselseitig beeinflussen, bedeutet die Integration einer neuen technologischen Anwendung ins soziotechnische System deshalb immer die Beeinflussung gesellschaftlicher Praktiken und Werte durch den spezifischen Entwurf und damit letztendlich durch die herstellende Person. Produktgestaltung hat also immer eine ethische und soziale Dimension. Diese Arbeit leitet daraus eine Verantwortung der Gestaltenden ab, nicht nur die eigenen, sondern auch die Wertvorstellungen möglicherweise betroffener Personen zu berücksichtigen. Sie konzipiert deshalb eine Vorgehensweise zur Reflexion möglicher ethischer und sozialer Folgen in der Produktgestaltung. Dafür wird auf Ansätze aus den Designwissenschaften und der Zukunfts-forschung zurückgegriffen: Einerseits dem Prototyping und andererseits der Entwicklung soziotechnischer Zukünfte. Die Idee ist, gemeinsam mit direkten und indirekten Stakeholdern ausgehend von einem fiktional bereits existierenden Produkt, einem sogenannten diegetischen Prototyp, Zukunftsvorstellungen zu entwerfen. Diese Zukunftsvorstellungen können dann auf Weltanschauung, Wünschbarkeit und mögliche Konfliktpotentiale untersucht werden. Die Erkenntnisse aus diesem Reflexionsprozess werden in den Gestaltungsprozess integriert und erweitern so den gestalterischen Möglichkeitsraum um die Perspektiven der Stakeholder.By designing new products, values and assumptions of the designer are transferred into the product, thereby determining the potential actions of the users. Assuming that humans and technology mutually influence each other, the integration of a new technological application into the socio-technical system always entails an impact on societal practices and values through the specific design. Product design, therefore, inherently possesses an ethical and social dimension. This work deduces a responsibility for designers to consider not only their own values but also those of potentially affected others. Accordingly, it conceptualizes an approach for reflecting on potential ethical and social consequences in the design process. To achieve this, it draws on concepts from design sciences and future studies, specifically prototyping and the development of socio-technical futures. The idea is to collaboratively imagine possible futures with direct and indirect stakeholders based on a fictionally existing product, a so-called diegetic prototype. These envisioned futures can then be examined in terms of worldview, desirability, and potential conflicts. The insights gained from this reflexion are integrated into the design process, expanding the design space by including the perspectives of the potentially affected others

    Different Attitudes to Esotericism in Peter Ackroyd's and Dan Brown's Novels

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    In this doctoral dissertation, two differing approaches to the fictional utilisation of esoteric motifs are compared in the selected novels by contemporary British writer Peter Ackroyd and American writer Dan Brown. They represent contemporary Anglophone literature and draw their inspiration from a similar pool of esoteric ideas. On the one hand, Peter Ackroyd’s profound obsession with Englishness and the English literary tradition positions him as a visionary literary figure among fiction writers. By employing anti-realist methods, he offers brand new looks through his transcendental interpretations of both existent and non-existent events and characters from English literary history and culture. In contrast, Dan Brown uses conspiratorial accounts of existing religio-cultural (hi)stories and presents them as alternative historical narrations. These variables underlie the authors’ unique ways of representing occult ideas in their literary endeavours. Being the products of the latest centuries, the novels under study can be categorised within the realms of postmodern literature, with realist elements in Dan Brown’s works. Contemporary literature significantly benefits from the diverse array of occult practices, presented in particularly intriguing manner. Therefore, the primary objective of this dissertation is to explore the use of such esoteric conventions in the contemporary literary contexts crafted by these two widely acclaimed authors. Through the analysis of selected novels by Peter Ackroyd and Dan Brown, my research postulates the questions of how and to what extent esoteric motifs affect the historiography in Peter Ackroyd’s novels and the factual aspects of Dan Brown’s fictions. Furthermore, I aim to identify the motivations that drive these authors to take resources in esotericism. I believe that the findings to these inquiries will help in filling the existing gap in the comparative study of Peter Ackroyd’s and Dan Brown’s novels and contribute to the broader exploration of contemporary literary representations of esotericism

    La experiencia como respuesta a las tensiones conceptuales entre narrativa y medios digitales

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    Este artículo aborda una incompatibilidad que, aunque no sea aparente, está implícita en numerosos ámbitos de la producción mediática contemporánea. La narrativa, en su definición clásica, se fundamenta en la linealidad, la causalidad y la determinación. Por otro lado, las bases de datos digitales, que constituyen el sustento de los nuevos medios, trascienden de estructuras jerárquicas o lineales. De este último aspecto se desprenden propiedades como la automatización, la programación y, en general, la interactividad. Lo anterior implica que tanto la narrativa como los medios digitales se originan desde lógicas distintas, lo cual genera un escenario interesante: aunque existan intenciones de interconectarlos, el desarrollo en los campos de la narratología y de los medios digitales parte de posibilidades intrínsecamente opuestas. Por tanto, el objetivo de la investigación que fundamenta este artículo consistió en contribuir a la precisión teórica y conceptual de la relación entre medios digitales y narrativa, explorando sus potencialidades, limitaciones y puntos de convergencia. El estudio se articuló mediante una metodología cualitativa con enfoque teórico, iniciando con la identificación de conceptos clave en la relación entre medios digitales y narrativa. Posteriormente, se entrelazaron las posturas de académicos de ambas áreas y, finalmente, se analizaron los conceptos identificados en una obra de nuevos medios con carácter narrativo, específicamente el videojuego Death Stranding (2019). El principal hallazgo radicó en que los conceptos indispensables para establecer puentes teóricos entre la narrativa y las propiedades de los medios digitales fueron aquellos relacionados con la experiencia involucrada en ambos campos. Los conceptos en cuestión —tales como inmersión, agencia, espacio navegable y encarnamiento, entre otros— provienen de áreas tan diversas como la narratología, la teoría de nuevos medios, la posfenomenología y los estudios de videojuegos, pero encuentran en el concepto de experiencia un posible punto de confluencia

    Influence of Preaching’s Rhetorical Appeal on Evangelical Listeners’ Motivation

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    Preaching is a form of rhetorical narratology aimed at persuading its audience via sermons to experience a renewal of the mind and the transformation of their life. While previous research established the fact that listeners comprehend sermons through their rhetorical appeal, it has been unclear how this has motivated evangelical listeners to act. The purpose of this qualitative narrative study was to explore how the rhetorical appeal of preaching influences evangelical listeners’ motivation at evangelical churches in Savannah, Georgia. A comprehensive approach to exploring a sermon’s rhetorical appeal was utilized by focusing jointly on individual perception and social context. The Narrative Transportation Theory served as the theoretical framework, and 34 participants from six churches were interviewed to reach saturation. The findings showed that the rhetorical appeal embedded in preaching, plus its narrative essence, influences evangelical listener motivation. In addition, listeners subconsciously understand that aspects of rhetoric and narrative work together in sermons to influence their motivation. This study specifically identified three themes, seven categories, 13 conditions, and 32 codes relevant for rhetorical appeal to be effective and to help motivation occur. The three themes of Relatability, Applicability, and Engagement were aligned with Ethos, Logos, and Pathos, and then integrated with Environmental, Cognitive, and Behavioral functions, to create the Sermon Listener Motivation Triangle. This study’s corroboration of preaching’s collaborative nature between the perfectly divine and the imperfectly human is shared in hopes of helping speakers prepare scripturally authentic sermons and communicate in engaging ways that inspire change

    Reading Greek and Hellenistic-Roman Spolia:Objects, Appropriation and Cultural Change

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    Plundering and taking home precious objects from a defeated enemy was a widespread activity in the Greek and Hellenistic-Roman world. In this volume literary critics, historians and archaeologists join forces in investigating this phenomenon in terms of appropriation and cultural change. In-depth interpretations of famous ancient spoliations, like that of the Greeks after Plataea or the Romans after the capture of Jerusalem, reveal a fascinating paradox: while the material record shows an eager incorporation of new objects, the texts display abhorrence of the negative effects they were thought to bring along. As this volume demonstrates, both reactions testify to the crucial innovative impact objects from abroad may have

    FARC musicians' musical identities and political identities through their music: analysis of their narratives, musical practices and songs in the Colombian peace post-agreement

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    The Colombia Revolutionary Army Forces (FARC) was the largest and most important guerrilla movement in the long and persistent Colombian internal armed conflict. In November 2016, after overcoming significant difficulties, the Colombian government and FARC signed and ratified a Final Peace Agreement; nowadays, FARC has become a lawful political party: Los Comunes. For over fifty years, the movement stimulated cultural and musical activities; FARC's musicians created, composed, arranged, recorded, performed and distributed thousands of songs, initially as part of a guerrilla and now as political party members. This research studies the musical identities of FARC musicians and their political identities as constructed through their music, based on social and cultural perspectives from the field of musical identities, the music and social movements theoretical framework and the transformation of conflict approach. This study observes how musical identities are negotiated as a force for transformative political and cultural changes at the personal and collective levels. The FARC musicians' narratives are a primary source for analysing the sociocultural transformation of identities and how they negotiate their musical and political identities. Based on a phenomenological perspective and qualitative methods, this research applied an ethnographic approach and narrative analysis based on the Listening Guide Method (LGM) to undertake a qualitative study of two narratives: life histories and songs-as-narratives. The life histories and the songs-as-narratives can be understood as sociocultural performances with multiple and continuous constructions of selfhood. The analysis of (5) FARC musicians' musical biographies (life histories), obtained through three in-depth semi-structured interviews each, and four (4) songs-as-narratives, based on music video material, allows us to observe the relationship between their music and the social movement and the role of their music in the conflict transformation process. The analysis reveals how the negotiation of musical and political identities interacts mutually and intertwined during conflict transformation experiences involving personal and collective changes. The life histories and song-as-narratives analysis provide evidence about the relationship between Identities in Music (IIM) and their Music in Identities (MII). The IIM and MII are inseparable dimensions of the self. The former is narrated through ex-combatant musicians' experiences as songwriters, singers, instrumentalists, producers, and music teachers committed to their political ideas. The latter emerges in ideological terms, but mainly through personal and collective experiences, emotionally significant, expressing their belonging to the peasantry, indigenous and popular musical cultures. At individual and collective levels, their musical knowledge, interactions and experiences construct new social roles, particularly in transitioning from guerrilla combatants to political party members. The results reveal that music is a sociocultural resource developed by musicians and the entire movement throughout the decades. The ex-combatant musicians' narratives reveal how they employ their musical experiences to explore the possibilities of the moral imagination, changing lyrics, musical production and distribution processes. Exploring new musical genres or affirming their belonging to some of them, they build different social (political) and cultural (musical) realities in their contexts. The transformation of the conflict is a profound identity negotiation process. During the transformation of the conflict, musical and political identities support each other based on ex-combatant musicians' emotional competence or emotional capital, their different uses of "I" and "we", their personal and collective relationships and connections with broader socioeconomic, political and cultural structures

    Age in David Almond’s Oeuvre: A Multi-Method Approach to Studying Age and the Life Course in Children’s Literature

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    In recent decades, age studies has started to emerge as a new approach to study children’s literature. This book builds on that scholarship but also significantly extends it by exploring age in various aspects of children’s literature: the age of the author, the characters, the writing style, the intended readership and the real reader. Moreover, the authors explore what different theories and methods can be used to study age in children’s literature, and what their affordances and limits are. The analyses combine age studies with life writing studies, cognitive narratology, digital humanities, comparative literary studies, reader-response research and media studies. To ensure coherence, the book offers an in-depth exploration of the oeuvre of a single author, David Almond. The aesthetic and thematic richness of Almond’s works has been widely recognised. This book adds to the understanding of his oeuvre by offering a multi-faceted analysis of age. In addition to discussing the film adaptation of his best-known novel Skellig, this book also offers analyses of works that have received less attention, such as Counting Stars, Clay and Bone Music. Readers will also get a fuller understanding of Almond as a crosswriter of literature for children, adolescents and adults
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