627,199 research outputs found

    Cognitive performance is related to central sensitization and health-related quality of life in patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorders and fibromyalgia

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    Background: A growing body of research has demonstrated that impaired central pain modulation or central sensitization (CS) is a crucial mechanism for the development of persistent pain in chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) and fibromyalgia (FM) patients. Furthermore, there is increasing evidence for cognitive dysfunctions among these patients. In addition, chronic WAD and FM patients often report problems with health-related quality of life (QoL). Yet, there is limited research concerning the interrelations between cognitive performance, indices of CS, and health-related QoL in these patients. Objectives: (1) Examining the presence of cognitive impairment, CS, and limitations on health-related QoL in patients with chronic WAD and FM compared to healthy controls. (2) Examining interrelations between performance-based cognitive functioning, CS, and self-reported health-related QoL in these 3 study groups. Study Design: A case-control study was conducted. Setting: The present study took place at the University Hospital Brussels, the University of Brussels, and the University of Antwerp. Methods: Fifty-nine patients (16 chronic WAD patients, 21 FM patients, and 22 pain-free volunteers) filled out the Short Form 36 item Health Survey (SF-36), a self-reported psychosocial questionnaire, to assess health-related QoL. Next, they were subjected to various pain measurements (pressure hyperalgesia, deep-tissue hyperalgesia, temporal summation [TS], and conditioned pain modulation [CPM]). Finally, participants completed a battery of performance-based cognitive tests (Stroop task, psychomotor vigilance task [PVT], and operation span task [OSPAN]). Results: Significant cognitive impairment, bottom-up sensitization, and decreased health-related QoL were demonstrated in patients with chronic WAD and FM compared to healthy controls (P < 0.017). CPM was comparable between the 3 groups. Cognitive performance was significantly related to central pain modulation (deep-tissue hyperalgesia, TS, CPM) as well as to self-reported health-related QoL (P < 0.05). Decreased cognitive performance was related to deficient central pain modulation in healthy controls. Further, significant correlations between decreased cognitive performance and reduced health-related QoL were revealed among all study groups. Additionally, FM patients showed correlations between cognitive impairment and increased health-related QoL. Remarkably, impaired selective attention and working memory were related to less TS, whereas impaired sustained attention was correlated with dysfunctional CPM in FM patients. Limitations: Based on the current cross-sectional study no firm conclusions can be drawn on the causality of the relations. Conclusion: In conclusion, this paper has demonstrated significant cognitive deficits, signs of CS, and reduced health-related QoL in chronic WAD and FM patients compared to healthy individuals. Significant relations between cognitive performance and CS as well as health-related QoL were demonstrated. These results provide preliminary evidence for the clinical importance of objectively measured cognitive deficits in patients with chronic WAD and FM

    Self-reported nutritional status, executive functions, and cognitive flexibility in adults

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    Objectives. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between nutrition status, executive cognitive functions, and cognitive flexibility; and to analyze the role of gender, age, and nutrition status in the prediction of executive cognitive functions and cognitive flexibility in a sample of Iranian adults. Background. This study is based on the hierarchy of needs, health beliefs, developmental, cognitive and psychophysiological conceptualizations of nutrition and their plausible influences on human cognitive functions and cognitive flexibility. Materials and Methods. The randomly selected sample consisted of 200 adult participants (M=99 and F=101) from Eghlid City, the north of Fars province, Iran. A demographic questionnaire, the Nutrition Assessment Inventory (NAI), the Amsterdam Executive Function Inventory (AEFI), and the Cognitive Flexibility Scale (CFS) were used. Results. Findings showed significant positive relationships between healthy nutrition (diet-oriented nutrition and high fat foods subscales of Nutrition Assessment Inventory), the evaluation coping subscale, and the total score of Cognitive Flexibility Inventory. In addition, age and nutritional status had a significant impact with regards to predicting cognitive flexibility and executive cognitive functions. Conclusions. Given the significant positive relationship between nutrition status and cognitive flexibility, and the role of gender and nutrition status on executive cognitive functions and mental flexibility, this study may offer beneficial approaches for nutrition and cognitive health programs by clinicians and health education professionals

    Schooling, cognitive ability, and health

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    A large literature documents a strong correlation between health and educational outcomes. In this paper we investigate the role of cognitive ability in the health–education nexus. Using NLSY data, we show that cognitive ability accounts for roughly one quarter of the association between schooling and health. Both schooling and ability are strongly associated with health at low levels but less related or unrelated at high levels. Estimates treating schooling as endogenous to health suggest that most of the correlation between schooling and health is attributable to unobserved heterogeneity, except possibly at low levels of schooling for individuals with low cognitive ability. An implication is that policies which increase schooling will only increase health to the extent that they increase the education of poorly-educated individuals; subsidies to college education, for example, are unlikely to increase population health.education, health, intelligence, correlated random coefficient models
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