71,153 research outputs found

    The Rad4TopBP1 ATR-Activation domain functions in G1/S phase in a chromatin-dependent manner

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    DNA damage checkpoint activation can be subdivided in two steps: initial activation and signal amplification. The events distinguishing these two phases and their genetic determinants remain obscure. TopBP1, a mediator protein containing multiple BRCT domains, binds to and activates the ATR/ATRIP complex through its ATR-Activation Domain (AAD). We show that Schizosaccharomyces pombe Rad4TopBP1 AAD–defective strains are DNA damage sensitive during G1/S-phase, but not during G2. Using lacO-LacI tethering, we developed a DNA damage–independent assay for checkpoint activation that is Rad4TopBP1 AAD–dependent. In this assay, checkpoint activation requires histone H2A phosphorylation, the interaction between TopBP1 and the 9-1-1 complex, and is mediated by the phospho-binding activity of Crb253BP1. Consistent with a model where Rad4TopBP1 AAD–dependent checkpoint activation is ssDNA/RPA–independent and functions to amplify otherwise weak checkpoint signals, we demonstrate that the Rad4TopBP1 AAD is important for Chk1 phosphorylation when resection is limited in G2 by ablation of the resecting nuclease, Exo1. We also show that the Rad4TopBP1 AAD acts additively with a Rad9 AAD in G1/S phase but not G2. We propose that AAD–dependent Rad3ATR checkpoint amplification is particularly important when DNA resection is limiting. In S. pombe, this manifests in G1/S phase and relies on protein– chromatin interactions

    TRIP13PCH-2 promotes Mad2 localization to unattached kinetochores in the spindle checkpoint response.

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    The spindle checkpoint acts during cell division to prevent aneuploidy, a hallmark of cancer. During checkpoint activation, Mad1 recruits Mad2 to kinetochores to generate a signal that delays anaphase onset. Yet, whether additional factors contribute to Mad2's kinetochore localization remains unclear. Here, we report that the conserved AAA+ ATPase TRIP13(PCH-2) localizes to unattached kinetochores and is required for spindle checkpoint activation in Caenorhabditis elegans. pch-2 mutants effectively localized Mad1 to unattached kinetochores, but Mad2 recruitment was significantly reduced. Furthermore, we show that the C. elegans orthologue of the Mad2 inhibitor p31(comet)(CMT-1) interacts with TRIP13(PCH-2) and is required for its localization to unattached kinetochores. These factors also genetically interact, as loss of p31(comet)(CMT-1) partially suppressed the requirement for TRIP13(PCH-2) in Mad2 localization and spindle checkpoint signaling. These data support a model in which the ability of TRIP13(PCH-2) to disassemble a p31(comet)/Mad2 complex, which has been well characterized in the context of checkpoint silencing, is also critical for spindle checkpoint activation

    Structure and function of the Rad9-binding region of the DNA-damage checkpoint adaptor TopBP1

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    TopBP1 is a scaffold protein that coordinates activation of the DNA-damage-checkpoint response by coupling binding of the 9-1-1 checkpoint clamp at sites of ssDNA, to activation of the ATR-ATRIP checkpoint kinase complex. We have now determined the crystal structure of the N-terminal region of human TopBP1, revealing an unexpected triple-BRCT domain structure. The arrangement of the BRCT domains differs significantly from previously described tandem BRCT domain structures, and presents two distinct sites for binding phosphopeptides in the second and third BRCT domains. We show that the site in the second but not third BRCT domain in the N-terminus of TopBP1, provides specific interaction with a phosphorylated motif at pSer387 in Rad9, which can be generated by CK2

    Comment on "A centrosome-independent role for gamma-TuRC proteins in the spindle assembly checkpoint"

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    Müller et al. (Reports, 27 October 2006, p. 654) showed that inhibition of the γ-tubulin ring complex (γ-TuRC) activates the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), which led them to suggest that γ-TuRC proteins play molecular roles in SAC activation. Because γ-TuRC inhibition leads to pleiotropic spindle defects, which are well known to activate kinetochore-derived checkpoint signaling, we believe that this conclusion is premature

    JAK2V617F promotes replication fork stalling with disease-restricted impairment of the intra-S checkpoint response

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    Cancers result from the accumulation of genetic lesions, but the cellular consequences of driver mutations remain unclear, especially during the earliest stages of malignancy. The V617F mutation in the JAK2 non-receptor tyrosine kinase (JAK2V617F) is present as an early somatic event in most patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), and the study of these chronic myeloid malignancies provides an experimentally tractable approach to understanding early tumorigenesis. Introduction of exogenous JAK2V617F impairs replication fork progression and is associated with activation of the intra-S checkpoint, with both effects mediated by phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling. Analysis of clonally derived JAK2V617F-positive erythroblasts from MPN patients also demonstrated impaired replication fork progression accompanied by increased levels of replication protein A (RPA)-containing foci. However, the associated intra-S checkpoint response was impaired in erythroblasts from polycythemia vera (PV) patients, but not in those from essential thrombocythemia (ET) patients. Moreover, inhibition of p53 in PV erythroblasts resulted in more gamma-H2Ax (γ-H2Ax)–marked double-stranded breaks compared with in like-treated ET erythroblasts, suggesting the defective intra-S checkpoint function seen in PV increases DNA damage in the context of attenuated p53 signaling. These results demonstrate oncogene-induced impairment of replication fork progression in primary cells from MPN patients, reveal unexpected disease-restricted differences in activation of the intra-S checkpoint, and have potential implications for the clonal evolution of malignancies

    Checkpoints are blind to replication restart and recombination intermediates that result in gross chromosomal rearrangements

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    Replication fork inactivation can be overcome by homologous recombination, but this can cause gross chromosomal rearrangements that subsequently missegregate at mitosis, driving further chromosome instability. It is unclear when the chromosome rearrangements are generated and whether individual replication problems or the resulting recombination intermediates delay the cell cycle. Here we have investigated checkpoint activation during HR-dependent replication restart using a site-specific replication fork-arrest system. Analysis during a single cell cycle shows that HR-dependent replication intermediates arise in S phase, shortly after replication arrest, and are resolved into acentric and dicentric chromosomes in G2. Despite this, cells progress into mitosis without delay. Neither the DNA damage nor the intra-S phase checkpoints are activated in the first cell cycle, demonstrating that these checkpoints are blind to replication and recombination intermediates as well as to rearranged chromosomes. The dicentrics form anaphase bridges that subsequently break, inducing checkpoint activation in the second cell cycle