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    Cell cycle-dependent expression of Kv3.4 channels modulates proliferation of human uterine artery smooth muscle cells

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    Producci贸n Cient铆ficaAims: Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation is involved in cardiovascular pathologies associated with unwanted arterial wall remodelling. Coordinated changes in the expression of several K+ channels have been found to be important elements in the phenotypic switch of VSMCs towards proliferation. We have previously demonstrated the association of functional expression of Kv3.4 channels with proliferation of human uterine VSMCs. Here, we sought to gain deeper insight on the relationship between Kv3.4 channels and cell cycle progression in this preparation. Methods and results: Expression and function of Kv3.4 channels along the cell cycle was explored in uterine VSMCs synchronized at different checkpoints, combining real-time PCR, western blotting, and electrophysiological techniques. Flow cytometry, Ki67 expression and BrdU incorporation techniques allowed us to explore the effects of Kv3.4 channels blockade on cell cycle distribution. We found cyclic changes in Kv3.4 and MiRP2 mRNA and protein expression along the cell cycle. Functional studies showed that Kv3.4 current amplitude and Kv3.4 channels contribution to cell excitability increased in proliferating cells. Finally, both Kv3.4 blockers and Kv3.4 knockdown with siRNA reduced the proportion of proliferating VSMCs. Conclusion: Our data indicate that Kv3.4 channels exert a permissive role in the cell cycle progression of proliferating uterine VSMCs, as their blockade induces cell cycle arrest after G2/M phase completion. The modulation of resting membrane potential (VM) by Kv3.4 channels in proliferating VSMCs suggests that their role in cell cycle progression could be at least in part mediated by their contribution to the hyperpolarizing signal needed to progress through the G1 phase.Ministerio de Sanidad, Consumo y Bienestar Social - Instituto de Salud Carlos III (grants R006/009 and PI041044)Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovaci贸n y Universidades (grants BFU2004-05551 and BFU2007-61524)Junta de Castilla y Le贸n (grant GR242

    Systems Biology of the Eukaryotic Cell Cycle

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    Cell cycle length, cell size, and proliferation rate in hydra stem cells

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    We have analyzed the cell cycle parameters of interstitial cells in Hydra oligactis. Three subpopulations of cells with short, medium, and long cell cycles were identified. Short-cycle cells are stem cells; medium-cycle cells are precursors to nematocyte differentiation; long-cycle cells are precursors to gamete differentiation. We have also determined the effect of different cell densities on the population doubling time, cell cycle length, and cell size of interstitial cells. Our results indicate that decreasing the interstitial cell density from 0.35 to 0.1 interstitial cells/epithelial cell (1) shortens the population doubling time from 4 to 1.8 days, (2) increases the [3H]thymidine labeling index from 0.5 to 0.75 and shifts the nuclear DNA distribution from G2 to S phase cells, and (3) decreases the length of G2 in stem cells from 6 to 3 hr. The shortened cell cycle is correlated with a significant decrease in the size of interstitial stem cells. Coincident with the shortened cell cycle and increased growth rate there is an increase in stem cell self-renewal and a decrease in stem cell differentiation

    Tracking of Normal and Malignant Progenitor Cell Cycle Transit in a Defined Niche.

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    While implicated in therapeutic resistance, malignant progenitor cell cycle kinetics have been difficult to quantify in real-time. We developed an efficient lentiviral bicistronic fluorescent, ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator reporter (Fucci2BL) to image live single progenitors on a defined niche coupled with cell cycle gene expression analysis. We have identified key differences in cell cycle regulatory gene expression and transit times between normal and chronic myeloid leukemia progenitors that may inform cancer stem cell eradication strategies

    Acanthamoeba induces cell-cycle arrest in host cells

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    Acanthamoeba can cause fatal granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE) and eye keratitis. However, the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of these emerging diseases remain unclear. In this study, the effects of Acanthamoeba on the host cell cycle using human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) and human corneal epithelial cells (HCEC) were determined. Two isolates of Acanthamoeba belonging to the T1 genotype (GAE isolate) and T4 genotype (keratitis isolate) were used, which showed severe cytotoxicity on HBMEC and HCEC, respectively. No tissue specificity was observed in their ability to exhibit binding to the host cells. To determine the effects of Acanthamoeba on the host cell cycle, a cell-cycle-specific gene array was used. This screened for 96 genes specific for host cell-cycle regulation. It was observed that Acanthamoeba inhibited expression of genes encoding cyclins F and G1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 6, which are proteins important for cell-cycle progression. Moreover, upregulation was observed of the expression of genes such as GADD45A and p130 Rb, associated with cell-cycle arrest, indicating cell-cycle inhibition. Next, the effect of Acanthamoeba on retinoblastoma protein (pRb) phosphorylation was determined. pRb is a potent inhibitor of G1-to-S cell-cycle progression; however, its function is inhibited upon phosphorylation, allowing progression into S phase. Western blotting revealed that Acanthamoeba abolished pRb phosphorylation leading to cell-cycle arrest at the G1-to-S transition. Taken together, these studies demonstrated for the first time that Acanthamoeba inhibits the host cell cycle at the transcriptional level, as well as by modulating pRb phosphorylation using host cell-signalling mechanisms. A complete understanding of Acanthamoeba鈥揾ost cell interactions may help in developing novel strategies to treat Acanthamoeba infections

    The cell cycle program of polypeptide labeling in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

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    The cell cycle program of polypeptide labeling in syndhronous cultures of wild-type Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was analyzed by pulse-labeling cells with 35SO4 = or [3H]arginine at different cell cycle stages. Nearly 100 labeled membrane and soluble polypeptides were resolved and studied using one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)- polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The labeling experiments produced the following results. (a) Total 35SO4 = and [3H]arginine incorporation rates varied independently throughout the cell cycle. 35SO4 = incorporation was highest in the mid-light phase, while [3H]arginine incorporation peaked in the dark phase just before cell division. (b) The relative labeling rate for 20 of 100 polypeptides showed significant fluctuations (3-12 fold) during the cell cycle. The remaining polypeptides were labeled at a rate commensurate with total 35SO4 = or [3H]arginine incorporation. The polypeptides that showed significant fluctuations in relative labeling rates served as markers to identify cell cycle stages. (c) The effects of illumination conditions on the apparent cell cycle stage-specific labeling of polypeptides were tested. Shifting light-grown asynchronous cells to the dark had an immediate and pronounced effect on the pattern of polypeptide labeling, but shifting dark-phase syndhronous cells to the light had little effect. The apparent cell cycle variations in the labeling of ribulose 1,5-biphosphate (RUBP)-carboxylase were strongly influenced by illumination effects. (d) Pulse-chase experiments with light-grown asynchronous cells revealed little turnover or inter- conversion of labeled polypeptides within one cell generation, meaning that major polypeptides, whether labeled in a stage-specific manner or not, do not appear transiently in the cell cycle of actively dividing, light-grown cells. The cell cycle program of labeling was used to analyze effects of a temperature-sensitive cycle blocked (cb) mutant. A synchronous culture of ts10001 was shifted to restrictive temperature before its block point to prevent it from dividing. The mutant continued its cell cycle program of polypeptide labeling for over a cell generation, despite its inability to divide
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