21,598 research outputs found

    Influence of Cytokines and Autologous Lymphokine-Activated Killer Cells on Leukemic Bone Marrow Cells and Colonies in AML

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    We have already shown that cytokine cocktails (IL-1 beta, IL-3, IL-6, SCF, GM-CSF) and/or lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells can reduce the amounts of clonal, CD34-positive mononuclear bone marrow cells (BM-MNC) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In addition, the influence of those cocktails and/or LAK cells on the clonogenic potential of AML BM-MNC was investigated. BM colonies cultured in agar during different stages of the disease were immunophenotyped in situ: 17 patients at diagnosis, 14 patients in complete remission, 8 patients at relapse, 8 healthy donors. A significant reduction in leukemic cells and colonies positive for CD34 after in vitro culture of BM-MNC with cytokine cocktails was achieved with all samples obtained at diagnosis (n = 8, p < 0.01), in 6 of 8 cases in complete remission but only in 2 of 6 cases at relapse. Cytokine cocktails stimulated granulopoiesis as well as B and T lymphopoiesis. Colonies with leukemic phenotype could never be detected in healthy BM. A significant reduction in leukemic colonies was achieved by coculture of BM-MNC (uncultured or cytokine precultured) with autologous LAK cells in all 4 cases at diagnosis and in 1 case at relapse. An additive effect of in vitro cytokine preincubation of BM samples on the leukemia-reducing effect of LAK cells could be demonstrated in all samples studied (p <0.001; diagnosis: n = 10, relapse: n = 3, complete remission: n = 7). Patients had a better prognosis if CD34-positive colonies in AML could be reduced by cytokine incubation (p = 0.03) or coculture with autologous LAK cells in vitro (p = 0.04). Our data show that cytokines as well as LAK cells alone and in combination can reduce, however not eliminate clonogenic AML cells. Such mechanisms might be responsible for maintaining stable remissions in AML. Copyright (C) 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

    TP53-inducible Glycolysis and Apoptosis Regulator (TIGAR) Metabolically Reprograms Carcinoma and Stromal Cells in Breast Cancer.

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    A subgroup of breast cancers has several metabolic compartments. The mechanisms by which metabolic compartmentalization develop in tumors are poorly characterized. TP53 inducible glycolysis and apoptosis regulator (TIGAR) is a bisphosphatase that reduces glycolysis and is highly expressed in carcinoma cells in the majority of human breast cancers. Hence we set out to determine the effects of TIGAR expression on breast carcinoma and fibroblast glycolytic phenotype and tumor growth. The overexpression of this bisphosphatase in carcinoma cells induces expression of enzymes and transporters involved in the catabolism of lactate and glutamine. Carcinoma cells overexpressing TIGAR have higher oxygen consumption rates and ATP levels when exposed to glutamine, lactate, or the combination of glutamine and lactate. Coculture of TIGAR overexpressing carcinoma cells and fibroblasts compared with control cocultures induce more pronounced glycolytic differences between carcinoma and fibroblast cells. Carcinoma cells overexpressing TIGAR have reduced glucose uptake and lactate production. Conversely, fibroblasts in coculture with TIGAR overexpressing carcinoma cells induce HIF (hypoxia-inducible factor) activation with increased glucose uptake, increased 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase-3 (PFKFB3), and lactate dehydrogenase-A expression. We also studied the effect of this enzyme on tumor growth. TIGAR overexpression in carcinoma cells increases tumor growth in vivo with increased proliferation rates. However, a catalytically inactive variant of TIGAR did not induce tumor growth. Therefore, TIGAR expression in breast carcinoma cells promotes metabolic compartmentalization and tumor growth with a mitochondrial metabolic phenotype with lactate and glutamine catabolism. Targeting TIGAR warrants consideration as a potential therapy for breast cancer

    Co-culture of Adult Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Nucleus Pulposus Cells in Bilaminar Pellets for Intervertebral Disc Regeneration

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    Background: Our goal is to optimize stem cell-based tissue engineering strategies in the context of the intervertebral disc environment. We explored the benefits of co-culturing nucleus pulposus cells (NPC) and adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) using a novel spherical bilaminar pellet culture system where one cell type is enclosed in a sphere of the other cell type. Our 3D system provides a structure that exploits embryonic processes such as tissue induction and condensation. We observed a unique phenomenon: the budding of co-culture pellets and the formation of satellite pellets that separate from the main pellet. Methods: MSC and NPC co-culture pellets were formed with three different structural organizations. The first had random organization. The other two had bilaminar organization with either MSC inside and NPC outside or NPC inside and MSC outside. Results: By 14 days, all co-culture pellets exhibited budding and spontaneously generated satellite pellets. The satellite pellets were composed of both cell types and, surprisingly, all had the same bilaminar organization with MSC on the inside and NPC on the outside. This organization was independent of the structure of the main pellet that the satellites stemmed from. Conclusion: The main pellets generated satellite pellets that spontaneously organized into a bilaminar structure. This implies that structural organization occurs naturally in this cell culture system and may be inherently favorable for cell-based tissue engineering strategies. The occurrence of budding and the organization of satellite pellets may have important implications for the use of co-culture pellets in cell-based therapies for disc regeneration. Clinical Relevance: From a therapeutic point of view, the generation of satellite pellets may be a beneficial feature that would serve to spread donor cells throughout the host matrix and restore normal matrix composition in a sustainable way, ultimately renewing tissue function. © 2009 The Spine Arthroplasy Society

    Uterine spiral artery remodeling involves endothelial apoptosis induced by extravillous trophoblasts through Fas/FasL interactions.

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    Objective— Invasion of uterine spiral arteries by extravillous trophoblasts in the first trimester of pregnancy results in loss of endothelial and musculoelastic layers. This remodeling is crucial for an adequate blood supply to the fetus with a failure to remodel implicated in the etiology of the hypertensive disorder preeclampsia. The mechanism by which trophoblasts induce this key process is unknown. This study gives the first insights into the potential mechanisms involved. Methods and Results— Spiral arteries were dissected from nonplacental bed biopsies obtained at Caesarean section, and a novel model was used to mimic in vivo events. Arteries were cultured with trophoblasts in the lumen, and apoptotic changes in the endothelial layer were detected after 20 hours, leading to loss of endothelium by 96 hours. In vitro, coculture experiments showed that trophoblasts stimulated apoptosis of primary decidual endothelial cells and an endothelial cell line. This was blocked by caspase inhibition and NOK2, a FasL blocking antibody. NOK2 also abrogated trophoblast-induced endothelial apoptosis in the vessel model. Conclusions— Extravillous trophoblast induction of endothelial apoptosis is a possible mechanism by which the endothelium is removed, and vascular remodeling may occur in uterine spiral arteries. Fas/FasL interactions have an important role in trophoblast-induced endothelial apoptosis

    IP-10/CXCL10 induction in human pancreatic cancer stroma influences lymphocytes recruitment and correlates with poor survival

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    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is characterized by an abundant desmoplastic reaction driven by pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) that contributes to tumor progression. Here we sought to characterize the interactions between pancreatic cancer cells (PCCs) and PSCs that affect the inflammatory and immune response in pancreatic tumors. Conditioned media from mono- and cocultures of PSCs and PCCs were assayed for expression of cytokines and growth factors. IP-10/CXCL10 was the most highly induced chemokine in coculture of PSCs and PCCs. Its expression was induced in the PSCs by PCCs. IP-10 was elevated in human PDAC specimens, and positively correlated with high stroma content. Furthermore, gene expression of IP-10 and its receptor CXCR3 were significantly associated with the intratumoral presence of regulatory T cells (Tregs). In an independent cohort of 48 patients with resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, high IP-10 expression levels correlated with decreased median overall survival. Finally, IP-10 stimulated the ex vivo recruitment of CXCR3+ effector T cells as well as CXCR3+ Tregs derived from patients with PDAC. Our findings suggest that, in pancreatic cancer, CXCR3+ Tregs can be recruited by IP-10 expressed by PSCs in the tumor stroma, leading to immunosuppressive and tumor-promoting effects

    Transdifferentiation of blood-derived human adult endothelial progenitor cells into functionally active cardiomyocytes

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    Background - Further to promoting angiogenesis, cell therapy may be an approach for cardiac regeneration. Recent studies suggest that progenitor cells can transdifferentiate into other lineages. However, the transdifferentiation potential of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) is unknown