28,535 research outputs found

    Новые исследования курганного могильника у с. Купьеваха

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    Boyko Y. New Researches of Burial Mounds Near Kupyevakha Village In the publication the materials of the last researches of the Scythian burial mounds near Kupyevakha village Kharkov region are introduced into the scientific circulation (burial mounds # 21–25). The obtained data confirm earlier made conclusions about gradual transformation of burial constructions during the Scythian period: from lengthened-rectangular burial diggings of the earlier period to almost square with inner burial timber constructions in the later times. By the beginning of the IV century BC the prevailing orientation of the deceased heads changes from the West to the South. In the equipment composition the moulded earthenware proportion reduces at the expense the Antic ceramics usage. The complex constructions with religious-priestly functions are marked (burial mound # 21). The absolute absence of horse equipment fragments and beast-style decorated things is noticed inside the burials

    Comparative study of christian and pagan burial constructions

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    This paper draws a chronological timeline comparing burial customs and construction traditions in the cradle of Christian religion, and pagan traditions on the Eastern coast of the Baltic Sea, precisely Lithuania, since the early ages of Christianity (1c. A.D.) until nowadays. This paper searches for reasons that could have effected cultural transformations, a shifting relation between inhumation and incineration in European culture. In the Ancient Roman culture, people used to cremate their dead before Christianity set in. Baltic pagans at the time were burying their dead in stone circles, and started incineration only during the Middle Ages. Then Christianity was a powerful institution indoctrinating European daily culture. Meanwhile, in the territory of Lithuania pagan culture was erased only in the 15th century, i.e. about 600 years ago, leaving evident vestiges on traditions and customs of nowadays. These revelations of pagan culture are usually mistaken as Christian or Catholic. The paper focuses on architectural and urban aspects of burial architecture, taking into account social and historical conditions. Article in English. Pagoniškųjų ir krikščioniškųjų laidojimo konstrukcijų lyginamoji studija Santrauka. Straipsnyje sugretinami pagoniškieji ir krikščioniškieji laidojimo ritualai ir architektūrinės konstrukcijos. Remiantis istoriniais duomenimis, akivaizdu, kad krikščionybės išplitimas padarė įtaką pagoniškųjų kraštų laidojimo ritualams ir architektūrinei išraiškai. Akivaizdu ir tai, kad pagonybė taip pat paliko pėdsakus krikščioniškoje kultūroje. Organiškas šių skirtingų kultūrų elementų santykis yra ilgo kultūrų gretinimo pavyzdys. Lietuvos teritorijoje pagoniškosios kultūros liekanų itin gausu. Straipsnyje chronologiškai apžvelgiama, kaip kito laidojimo ritualai Lietuvos teritorijoje ir koks jų santykis su laidojimo tradicijomis krikščioniškosios kultūros lopšyje, apimančiame seniausius krikščioniškuosius kraštus. Ieškoma priežasčių, kodėl vienos ar kitos laidojimo konstrukcijos kito, koks jų ryšys su miesto teritorija ir kontekstu apskritai. Raktiniai žodžiai: kapinės; laidojimas; pagoniškieji; krikščioniškieji; kremavimas; kapinių architektūr

    Geospatial modeling approach to monument construction using Michigan from A.D. 1000–1600 as a case study

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    Building monuments was one way that past societies reconfigured their landscapes in response to shifting social and ecological factors. Understanding the connections between those factors and monument construction is critical, especially when multiple types of monuments were constructed across the same landscape. Geospatial technologies enable past cultural activities and environmental variables to be examined together at large scales. Many geospatial modeling approaches, however, are not designed for presence-only (occurrence) data, which can be limiting given that many archaeological site records are presence only. We use maximum entropy modeling (MaxEnt), which works with presence-only data, to predict the distribution of monuments across large landscapes, and we analyze MaxEnt output to quantify the contributions of spatioenvironmental variables to predicted distributions. We apply our approach to co-occurring Late Precontact (ca. A.D. 1000–1600) monuments in Michigan: (i) mounds and (ii) earthwork enclosures. Many of these features have been destroyed by modern development, and therefore, we conducted archival research to develop our monument occurrence database. We modeled each monument type separately using the same input variables. Analyzing variable contribution to MaxEnt output, we show that mound and enclosure landscape suitability was driven by contrasting variables. Proximity to inland lakes was key to mound placement, and proximity to rivers was key to sacred enclosures. This juxtaposition suggests that mounds met local needs for resource procurement success, whereas enclosures filled broader regional needs for intergroup exchange and shared ritual. Our study shows how MaxEnt can be used to develop sophisticated models of past cultural processes, including monument building, with imperfect, limited, presence-only data

    Sacred, secular, or sacrilegious? prehistoric sites, pagans and the Sacred Sites project in Britain

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    This paper explores issues and tensions developing within today's Britain around prehistoric 'sacred sites' and their appropriation by a wide range of interested or concerned groups. In examining and theorising competing constructions of 'sacredness' and its inscription today, we will draw on examples from well-known and less well-know British prehistoric places, to illustrate how claims and appropriations emerge from spiritual and political processes, and to question how places are themselves agents in the demarcation of their own sacredness. We focus on contemporary pagans as ‘new-indigenes’ and their engagements with the past and performances of spirituality on the stage of the heritage of Britain, as examined in our ‘Sacred Sites, Contested Rites/Rights Project’ (www.sacredsites.or.uk), now in its fifth year. From the deposition of votive offerings at West Kennet long barrow and long-running disputes over access to Stonehenge as a ‘sacred site’, to the display of ritual paraphernalia derived from archaeological contexts (a Thor’s hammer pendant, for instance), pagans perform their worldviews and engage with heritage in diverse ways. Pagan re-enchantment of the past not only re-places heritage, myth, artefacts, ‘cultures’ in/out of time, highlighting (im)permanence as a linking theme in our analysis, but also disrupts the fixed and unchanging ‘past’ imposed onto heritage by much heritage discourse – challenging the permanent to yield, bend and accommodate.</p

    Adapted slopes

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    This article focuses on three research questions: 1) Were terraced landscapes built in the analytical or creative phase of the first human intervention in a place? 2) Does the geometry of the slopes adapted as a terraced landscape apply in a conscious planning process? 3) What are the patterns and relationships between buildings, settlements, and terraced landscapes? The first issue was examined at the archaeological site Lepenski Vir, where a settlement and trapezoidal huts were built on terraces. The terraces were designed more in the creative phase than in the analytical phase because some of the terraces already had a shape that corresponded to and followed the shape of the huts. The answer to the second question is based on an understanding of the importance of horizontal and vertical measurements, their symbolism, and the origins of agriculture. The applied geometry of the slope is one of the indicators that the terraces were built on the basis of conscious planning and rational order, which is an instrument of basic economics and land delimitation issues. The types of relationships between buildings, settlements, and terraces are numerous, and sometimes they can represent a pattern that occurs in a particular region. Because the aim of civil and other initiatives is to protect terraced landscapes from the prejudice of marginality and ignorance, extended studies may be expected in this vast field of case studies

    A Two-Phase or Tiered Caddo Mound at The Camp Joy Site (41UR144), Lake 0\u27 the Pines

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    As the United States expanded in the late eighteenth century and through most of the nineteenth century, much interest and question was raised over the increasing numbers of earthen mounds and earthen constructions encountered by the settlers moving westward across the southeastern woodlands. Mounds? Mound builders? Enough questions were raised about their origins that in 1881, the Division of Mound Exploration of the Bureau of Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution, was established to address and resolve these issues. The work of the Division of Mound Exploration can be considered the first modern archeology done in the United States. Their mound research covered the Dakotas to Texas and all points east. The final research report by Division Head, Cyrus Thomas, was published as the Twelfth Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology. In this report, Thomas mentions in the Gulf District that: some two or three mounds of peculiar form have been discovered in Mississippi and the Arkansas district that have not been observed elsewhere in the mound area. These may be described as earthen platforms surmounted by a conical mound or a conical mound surrounded by a terrace. Sometimes the conical mound is small in proportion to the platform and is not central...A double mound of this type, or mound with two apices, has been observed in western Mississippi. The primary purpose of this report is to make known the occurrence of a two-phase Caddoan earthen mound in Upshur County. Furthermore, this report seeks to add this site to the inventory of known archeological resources of the Cypress Creek basin. Available data relevant to the Cypress Basin and the immediate area of the site has also been summarized and reported here to suggest chronological associations for the two-phase mound

    A 3D Reconstruction Algorithm for the Location of Foundations in Demolished Buildings

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    The location of foundations in a demolished building can be accomplished by undertaking a Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) survey and then to use the GPR data to generate 3D isosurfaces of what was beneath the soil surface using image reconstruction. The SIMCA ('SIMulated Correlation Algorithm') algorithm is a technique based on a comparison between the trace that would be returned by an ideal point reflector in the soil conditions at the site and the actual trace. During an initialization phase, SIMCA carries out radar simulation using the design parameters of the radar and the soil properties. The trace which would be returned by a target under these conditions is then used to form a kernel. Then SIMCA takes the raw data as the radar is scanned over the ground and removes clutter using a clutter removal technique. The system correlates the kernel with the data by carrying out volume correlation and produces 3D images of the surface of subterranean objects detected. The 3D isosurfaces are generated using MATLAB software. The validation of the algorithm has been accomplished by comparing the 3D isosurfaces produced by the SIMCA algorithm, Scheers algorithm and REFLEXW commercial software. Then the depth and the position in the x and y directions as obtained using MATLAB software for each of the cases are compared with the corresponding values approximately obtained from original Architect's drawings of the buildings

    Lewis Coastal Chapel-Sites Survey: Topographic Survey 2005

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    This report describes the results of topographic surveys undertaken for the second year of the Lewis Coastal Chapel-sites Survey (LCCS) on four chapel-sites on the Isle of Lewis in 2005. Desktop study undertaken in the first year (2004) of the LCCS identified thirty-seven recorded and five potential chapel-sites in Lewis and its outlying islands, and this was followed up with walkover survey of sixteen sites and plane table survey of three sites. However, further, more detailed topographic survey was recommended for eight sites, and this prompted the work in 2005. In February detailed topographic survey of three sites was undertaken: Teampall Pheadair, Suainebost (Site no 4), Teampall Mhealastadh, Uig (Site no 20) and Tigh na Cailleachan Dubha, Uig (Site no 21). In May - June 2005 topographic survey of the chapel-site of St Mary’s on Eilean an Tighe, Shiant Islands (formerly known as Eilean na Cille) on the Shiant Islands (Site no 32) was also undertaken with joint funding from the Shiants Island Project (SHIP)

    Погребения детей в могильнике Нейзац

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    В данной статье публикуются результаты раскопок погребальных сооружений, предназначенных специально для погребения детей. Они дают возможность охарактеризовать «детскую субкультуру» населения крымских предгорий позднеримского времени.The cemetery of Neizatz is situated in the centre of the Crimean foothills at the distance of about 25 kms to the south-east from Simferopol, 1-1,5 kms to the southeast from the village of Balanovo, Belogorsk district of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea. It occupies the lower part of the slope of Tashlu-Bair Mountain which bounds the valley of Zuja river in the east. Systematic excavations of the monument have been carried out since 1996. 299 burial constructions were excavated, among them vaults, shaft-and-chamber and underground graves. The results of the excavations of some burial constructions have already been published; however, there are no children’s burials among them. Meanwhile, children had been buried in all types of burial constructions during the whole period of using the cemetery. Children’s burials were revealed in separate graves as well, and together with adults. The results of excavations of burial constructions specially designed for burying children are published in this article. They enable us to characterize “children’s subculture’ of the population of the Crimean foothills dating to Late Roman period