356 research outputs found

    Surfactant-Mediated Epitaxial Growth of Single-Layer Graphene in an Unconventional Orientation on SiC

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    We report the use of a surfactant molecule during the epitaxy of graphene on SiC(0001) that leads to the growth in an unconventional orientation, namely R0R0^\circ rotation with respect to the SiC lattice. It yields a very high-quality single-layer graphene with a uniform orientation with respect to the substrate, on the wafer scale. We find an increased quality and homogeneity compared to the approach based on the use of a pre-oriented template to induce the unconventional orientation. Using spot profile analysis low energy electron diffraction, angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy, and the normal incidence x-ray standing wave technique, we assess the crystalline quality and coverage of the graphene layer. Combined with the presence of a covalently-bound graphene layer in the conventional orientation underneath, our surfactant-mediated growth offers an ideal platform to prepare epitaxial twisted bilayer graphene via intercalation.Comment: 7 pages, 3 figure

    Controlling Catalyst Bulk Reservoir Effects for Monolayer Hexagonal Boron Nitride CVD.

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    Highly controlled Fe-catalyzed growth of monolayer hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) films is demonstrated by the dissolution of nitrogen into the catalyst bulk via NH3 exposure prior to the actual growth step. This "pre-filling" of the catalyst bulk reservoir allows us to control and limit the uptake of B and N species during borazine exposure and thereby to control the incubation time and h-BN growth kinetics while also limiting the contribution of uncontrolled precipitation-driven h-BN growth during cooling. Using in situ X-ray diffraction and in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy combined with systematic growth calibrations, we develop an understanding and framework for engineering the catalyst bulk reservoir to optimize the growth process, which is also relevant to other 2D materials and their heterostructures.S.C. and R.W. acknowledge funding from EPSRC (Doctoral training award). R.S.W. acknowledges a Research Fellowship from St. John’s College, Cambridge and a EU Marie Skłodowska-Curie Individual Fellowship (Global) under grant ARTIST (no. 656870) from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme. B.C.B. acknowledges funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement No 656214 - 2DInterFOX. B.C.B and J.C.M. acknowledge support from the Austrian Science Fund (FWF): P25721-N20 and the Austrian Research Promotion Agency (FFG): 848152 - GraphenMoFET. A.C.-V. acknowledges the Conacyt Cambridge Scholarship and Roberto Rocca Fellowship. S.H. acknowledges funding from ERC grant InsituNANO (no. 279342). We acknowledge the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) for provision of synchrotron radiation facilities at the BM20/ROBL beamline. We acknowledge the Helmholtz-Zentrum-Berlin Electron storage ring BESSY II for provision of synchrotron radiation at the ISISS beamline. We thank the ESRF and BESSY staff for continued support of our experiments and valuable discussion.This is the final version of the article. It first appeared from the American Chemical Society via http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.5b0458

    Nucleation control for large, single crystalline domains of monolayer hexagonal boron nitride via Si-doped Fe catalysts.

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    The scalable chemical vapor deposition of monolayer hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) single crystals, with lateral dimensions of ∼0.3 mm, and of continuous h-BN monolayer films with large domain sizes (>25 μm) is demonstrated via an admixture of Si to Fe catalyst films. A simple thin-film Fe/SiO2/Si catalyst system is used to show that controlled Si diffusion into the Fe catalyst allows exclusive nucleation of monolayer h-BN with very low nucleation densities upon exposure to undiluted borazine. Our systematic in situ and ex situ characterization of this catalyst system establishes a basis for further rational catalyst design for compound 2D materials.S.C. acknowledges funding from EPSRC (Doctoral training award). R.S.W. acknowledges a Research Fellowship from St. John ’ s College. B.C.B acknowledges a Research Fellowship at Hughes Hall. A.C.-V. acknowledges the Conacyt Cambridge Scholarship and Roberto Rocca Fellowship. S.H. acknowledges funding from ERC grant InsituNANO (No. 279342). B.B., S.J.S., K.M., and A.J.P. would like to acknowledge the National Measurement O ffi ce (NMO) for funding through the Innovation, Research and Development (IRD) programme (Project No. 115948). We acknowledge the European Synchrotron Radiation Fac ility (ESRF) for provision of synchrotron radiation, and we thank the sta ff for assistance in using beamline BM20/ROBL. We would also like to acknowl- edge Prof. Bonnie J. Tyler for discussions related to the manuscript.This is the final published article. It first appeared at http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/nl5046632

    One-dimensional Si chains embedded in Pt(111)and protected by a hexagonal boron-nitride monolayer

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    Using scanning tunneling microscopy, we show that Si deposition on Pt(111) at 300K leads to a network of one-dimensional Si chains. On the bare Pt(111) surface, the chains, embedded into the Pt surface, are orientated along the -direction. They disappear within a few hours in ultrahigh vacuum due to the presence of residual gas. Exposing the chains to different gases deliberately reveals that CO is largely responsible for the disappearance of the chains. The chains can be stabilized by a monolayer of hexagonal boron nitride, which is deposited prior to the Si deposition. The resulting Si chains are rotated by 30{\deg} with respect to the chains on the bare Pt(111) surface and survive even an exposure to air for 10 minutes.Comment: 8 pages, 4 Figure

    In Situ Observations during Chemical Vapor Deposition of Hexagonal Boron Nitride on Polycrystalline Copper.

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    Using a combination of complementary in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, we study the fundamental mechanisms underlying the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) on polycrystalline Cu. The nucleation and growth of h-BN layers is found to occur isothermally, i.e., at constant elevated temperature, on the Cu surface during exposure to borazine. A Cu lattice expansion during borazine exposure and B precipitation from Cu upon cooling highlight that B is incorporated into the Cu bulk, i.e., that growth is not just surface-mediated. On this basis we suggest that B is taken up in the Cu catalyst while N is not (by relative amounts), indicating element-specific feeding mechanisms including the bulk of the catalyst. We further show that oxygen intercalation readily occurs under as-grown h-BN during ambient air exposure, as is common in further processing, and that this negatively affects the stability of h-BN on the catalyst. For extended air exposure Cu oxidation is observed, and upon re-heating in vacuum an oxygen-mediated disintegration of the h-BN film via volatile boron oxides occurs. Importantly, this disintegration is catalyst mediated, i.e., occurs at the catalyst/h-BN interface and depends on the level of oxygen fed to this interface. In turn, however, deliberate feeding of oxygen during h-BN deposition can positively affect control over film morphology. We discuss the implications of these observations in the context of corrosion protection and relate them to challenges in process integration and heterostructure CVD.P.R.K. acknowledges funding from the Cambridge Commonwealth Trust and the Lindemann Trust Fellowship. R.S.W. acknowledges a research fellowship from St. John’s College, Cambridge. S.H. acknowledges funding from ERC grant InsituNANO (no. 279342), EPSRC under grant GRAPHTED (project reference EP/K016636/1), Grant EP/H047565/1 and EU FP7 Work Programme under grant GRAFOL (project reference 285275). The European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) is acknowledged for provision of synchrotron radiation and assistance in using beamline BM20/ROBL. We acknowledge Helmholtz-Zentrum-Berlin Electron storage ring BESSY II for synchrotron radiation at the ISISS beamline and continuous support of our experiments.This is the final version. It was first published by ACS at http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/cm502603

    Wafer-scale, epitaxial growth of single layer hexagonal boron nitride on Pt(111)

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    Single-layer hexagonal boron nitride is produced on 2 inch Pt(111)/sapphire wafers. The growth with borazine vapor deposition at process temperatures between 1000 and 1300 K is in situ investigated by photoelectron yield measurements. The growth kinetics is slower at higher temperatures and follows a tanh2 law which better fits for higher temperatures. The crystal-quality of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN)/Pt(111) is inferred from scanning low energy electron diffraction (x-y LEED). The data indicate a strong dependence of the epitaxy on the growth temperature. The dominant structure is an aligned coincidence lattice with 10 h-BN on 9 Pt(1 × 1) unit cells and follows the substrate twinning at the millimeter scale

    Tribological properties of boron nitride synthesized by ion beam deposition

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    The adhesion and friction behavior of boron nitride films on 440 C bearing stainless steel substrates was examined. The thin films containing the boron nitride were synthesized using an ion beam extracted from a borazine plasma. Sliding friction experiments were conducted with BN in sliding contact with itself and various transition metals. It is indicated that the surfaces of atomically cleaned BN coating film contain a small amount of oxides and carbides, in addition to boron nitride. The coefficients of friction for the BN in contact with metals are related to the relative chemical activity of the metals. The more active the metal, the higher is the coefficient of friction. The adsorption of oxygen on clean metal and BN increases the shear strength of the metal - BN contact and increases the friction. The friction for BN-BN contact is a function of the shear strength of the elastic contacts. Clean BN surfaces exhibit relatively strong interfacial adhesion and high friction. The presence of adsorbates such as adventitious carbon contaminants on the BN surfaces reduces the shear strength of the contact area. In contrast, chemically adsorbed oxygen enhances the shear strength of the BN-BN contact and increases the friction

    A Peeling Approach for Integrated Manufacturing of Large Monolayer h-BN Crystals.

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    Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is the only known material aside from graphite with a structure composed of simple, stable, noncorrugated atomically thin layers. While historically used as a lubricant in powder form, h-BN layers have become particularly attractive as an ultimately thin insulator, barrier, or encapsulant. Practically all emerging electronic and photonic device concepts currently rely on h-BN exfoliated from small bulk crystallites, which limits device dimensions and process scalability. We here focus on a systematic understanding of Pt-catalyzed h-BN crystal formation, in order to address this integration challenge for monolayer h-BN via an integrated chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process that enables h-BN crystal domain sizes exceeding 0.5 mm and a merged, continuous layer in a growth time of less than 45 min. The process makes use of commercial, reusable Pt foils and allows a delamination process for easy and clean h-BN layer transfer. We demonstrate sequential pick-up for the assembly of graphene/h-BN heterostructures with atomic layer precision, while minimizing interfacial contamination. The approach can be readily combined with other layered materials and enables the integration of CVD h-BN into high-quality, reliable 2D material device layer stacks
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