4,715 research outputs found

    Diversity in Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from paediatric cancer patients in Egypt

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    Acinetobacter baumannii is an important nosocomial pathogen, commonly causing infections in immunocompromised patients. It is increasingly reported as a multidrug-resistant organism, which is alarming because of its capability to resist all available classes of antibiotics including carbapenems. The aim of this study was to examine the genetic and epidemiological diversity of A. baumannii isolates from paediatric cancer patients in Egypt, by sequencing the intrinsic blaOXA -51-like gene, genotyping by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multi-locus sequence typing in addition to identifying the carbapenem-resistance mechanism. Results showed a large diversity within the isolates, with eight different blaOXA -51-like genes, seven novel sequence types and only 28% similarity by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. All three acquired class-D carbapenemases (OXA-23, OXA-40 and OXA-58) were also identified among these strains correlating with resistance to carbapenems. In addition, we report the first identification of ISAba2 upstream of blaOXA -51-like contributing to high-level carbapenem resistance. This indicates the presence of several clones of A. baumannii in the hospitals and illustrates the large genetic and epidemiological diversity found in Egyptian strains

    Interspecies DNA acquisition by a naturally competent Acinetobacter baumannii strain

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    The human pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii possesses high genetic plasticity and frequently acquires antimicrobial resistance genes. Here we investigated the role of natural transformation in these processes. Genomic DNA from different sources, including from carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strains, was mixed with A. baumannii A118 cells. Selected transformants were analysed by whole-genome sequencing. In addition, bioinformatics analyses and in silico gene flow prediction were also performed to support the experimental results. Transformant strains included some that became resistant to carbapenems or changed their antimicrobial susceptibility profile. Foreign DNA acquisition was confirmed by whole-genome analysis. The acquired DNA most frequently identified corresponded to mobile genetic elements, antimicrobial resistance genes and operons involved in metabolism. Bioinformatics analyses and in silico gene flow prediction showed continued exchange of genetic material between A. baumannii and K. pneumoniae when they share the same habitat. Natural transformation plays an important role in the plasticity of A. baumannii and concomitantly in the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains.Fil: Traglia, German Matias. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas; Argentina. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica; Argentina. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Medicina. Hospital de Clínicas General San Martín; ArgentinaFil: Place, Kori. California State University; Estados UnidosFil: Dotto, Cristian Marcelo. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Oficina de Coordinación Administrativa Houssay. Instituto de Investigaciones en Microbiología y Parasitología Médica. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Medicina. Instituto de Investigaciones en Microbiología y Parasitología Médica; ArgentinaFil: Fernandez, Jennifer. California State University; Estados UnidosFil: Montaña, Sabrina Daiana. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Oficina de Coordinación Administrativa Houssay. Instituto de Investigaciones en Microbiología y Parasitología Médica. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Medicina. Instituto de Investigaciones en Microbiología y Parasitología Médica; ArgentinaFil: Bahiense, Camila dos Santos. California State University; Estados UnidosFil: Soler Bistue, Alfonso J. C.. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico Conicet - La Plata. Instituto de Investigaciones Biotecnológicas. Universidad Nacional de San Martín. Instituto de Investigaciones Biotecnológicas; ArgentinaFil: Iriarte, Andres. Universidad de la Republica. Facultad de Medicina; UruguayFil: Perez, Federico. Louis Stokes Cleveland Department Of Veterans Affairs; Estados UnidosFil: Tolmasky, Marcelo E.. California State University; Estados UnidosFil: Bonomo, Robert A.. Louis Stokes Cleveland Department Of Veterans Affairs; Estados UnidosFil: Melano, Roberto Gustavo. Public Health Ontario Laboratories; CanadáFil: Ramirez, Maria Soledad. California State University; Estados Unido

    Primer relevamiento de marcadores de resistencia a antibióticos en Enterobacteriaceae en Cochabamba, Bolivia

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    Se llevó a cabo un relevamiento molecular de la resistencia a antibióticos de importancia clínica en aislamientos recuperados en Cochabamba, Bolivia. Se estudiaron los genes codificantes de β-lactamasas de espectro extendido y de resistencia a quinolonas de localización plasmídica (PMQR) en un total de 101 aislamientos de enterobacterias resistentes a oximinocefalosporinas recuperados en distintos centros de salud, durante 4 meses (2012-2013). En todos ellos se detectó la presencia de cefotaximasas, las CTX-M grupo 1 fueron las más prevalentes (88,1%). La presencia de blaOXA-1 se detectó en el 76,4% de estos aislamientos. Se observó una elevada proporción de aislamientos resistentes a quinolonas. El gen aac(6′)-Ib-cr fue el determinante PMQR más frecuentemente identificado (83%). Además, 6 aislamientos resultaron ser portadores de qnrB. Por otro lado, cabe remarcar que 7 Escherichia coli presentaron qepA1 (6) y oqxAB (1); se documenta así por primera vez la presencia de oqxAB en Bolivia. Este estudio constituye el primer relevamiento de marcadores de resistencia en aislamientos clínicos de enterobacterias en Cochabamba, Bolivia; de este modo se contribuye al conocimiento regional de la situación epidemiológica, la cual presenta un escenario similar al observado en el resto de Latinoamérica.A molecular survey was conducted in Cochabamba, Bolivia, to characterize the mechanism involved in the resistance to clinically relevant antibiotics. Extended Spectrum β-lactamase encoding genes and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) markers were investigated in a total of 101 oxyimino-cephalosporin-resistant enterobacteria recovered from different health centers during four months (2012?2013). CTX-M enzymes were detected in all isolates, being the CTX-M-1 group the most prevalent (88.1%). The presence of blaOXA-1 was detected in 76.4% of these isolates. A high quinolone resistance rate was observed among the included isolates. The aac(6′)-Ib-cr gene was the most frequent PMQR identified (83.0%). Furthermore, 6 isolates harbored the qnrB gene. Interestingly, qepA1 (6) and oqxAB (1), were detected in 7 Escherichia coli, being the latter the first to be reported in Bolivia. This study constitutes the first molecular survey on resistance markers in clinical enterobacterial isolates in Cochabamba, Bolivia, contributing to the regional knowledge of the epidemiological situation. The molecular epidemiology observed herein resembles the scene reported in South America.Fil: Saba Villarroel, Paola M.. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica; ArgentinaFil: Gutkind, Gabriel Osvaldo. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica; Argentina. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas; ArgentinaFil: Di Conza, José Alejandro. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica; Argentina. Universidad Nacional del Litoral. Facultad de Bioquímica y Ciencias Biológicas; Argentina. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas; ArgentinaFil: Radice, Marcela Alejandra. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica; Argentina. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas; Argentin

    Characterization of newly isolated lytic bacteriophages active against Acinetobacter baumannii

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    Based on genotyping and host range, two newly isolated lytic bacteriophages, myovirus vB_AbaM_Acibel004 and podovirus vB_AbaP_Acibel007, active against Acinetobacter baumannii clinical strains, were selected from a new phage library for further characterization. The complete genomes of the two phages were analyzed. Both phages are characterized by broad host range and essential features of potential therapeutic phages, such as short latent period (27 and 21 min, respectively), high burst size (125 and 145, respectively), stability of activity in liquid culture and low frequency of occurrence of phage-resistant mutant bacterial cells. Genomic analysis showed that while Acibel004 represents a novel bacteriophage with resemblance to some unclassified Pseudomonas aeruginosa phages, Acibel007 belongs to the well-characterized genus of the Phikmvlikevirus. The newly isolated phages can serve as potential candidates for phage cocktails to control A. baumannii infections

    Seasonal variations in antibiotic resistance gene transport in the Almendares River, Havana, Cuba

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    Numerous studies have quantified antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) in rivers and streams around the world, and significant relationships have been shown that relate different pollutant outputs and increased local ARG levels. However, most studies have not considered ambient flow conditions, which can vary dramatically especially in tropical countries. Here, ARG were quantified in water column and sediment samples during the dry- and wet-seasons to assess how seasonal and other factors influence ARG transport down the Almendares River (Havana, Cuba). Eight locations were sampled and stream flow estimated during both seasons; qPCR was used to quantify four tetracycline, two erythromycin, and three beta-lactam resistance genes. ARG concentrations were higher in wet-season versus dry-season samples, which combined with higher flows, indicated much greater ARG transport downstream during the wet-season. However, water column ARG levels were more spatially variable in the dry-season than the wet-season, with the proximity of waste outfalls strongly influencing local ARG levels. Results confirm that dry-season sampling provides a useful picture of the impact of individual waste inputs on local stream ARG levels, whereas the majority of ARGs in this tropical river were transported downstream during the wet-season, possibly due to re-entrainment of ARG from sediments

    Microarray-based Detection of Antibiotic Resisteance Genes in Salmonella

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    In the presented study, 143 Salmonella isolates belonging to 26 different serovars were screened for the presence of antibiotic resistance genes by microarray analysis. The microarray contained a total of 223 oligonucleotides representing genes encoding for resistance to the following antibiotic classes: aminoglycoside, ß-lactam, chloramphenicol, MLS, sulfonamide, tetracycline, trimethoprim, and vancomycin. To a large extent, the microarray data were consistent to the general findings concerning antibiotic resistance in Salmonella. Most of the analyzed isolates, harbored three or more resistance genes with the highest numbers found in isolates belonging to the Salmonella serovars Typhimurium, Paratyphi B var. Java, Bredeney, Saint Paul and Heidelberg and the only Give isolate investigate

    A Population-Based Surveillance Study of Shared Genotypes of Escherichia coli Isolates from Retail Meat and Suspected Cases of Urinary Tract Infections.

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    There is increasing evidence that retail food may serve as a source of Escherichia coli that causes community-acquired urinary tract infections, but the impact of this source in a community is not known. We conducted a prospective, population-based study in one community to examine the frequency of recovery of uropathogenic E. coli genotypes from retail meat samples. We analyzed E. coli isolates from consecutively collected urine samples of patients suspected to have urinary tract infections (UTIs) at a university-affiliated health service and retail meat samples from the same geographic region. We genotyped all E. coli isolates by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and tested them for antimicrobial susceptibility. From 2016 to 2017, we cultured 233 E. coli isolates from 230 (21%) of 1,087 urine samples and 177 E. coli isolates from 120 (28%) of 427 retail meat samples. Urine samples contained 61 sequence types (STs), and meat samples had 95 STs; 12 STs (ST10, ST38, ST69, ST80, ST88, ST101, ST117, ST131, ST569, ST906, ST1844, and ST2562) were common to both. Thirty-five (81%) of 43 meat isolates among the 12 STs were from poultry. Among 94 isolates in the 12 STs, 26 (60%) of 43 retail meat isolates and 15 (29%) of 51 human isolates were pan-susceptible (P < 0.005). We found that 21% of E. coli isolates from suspected cases of UTIs belonged to STs found in poultry. Poultry may serve as a possible reservoir of uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC). Additional studies are needed to demonstrate transmission pathways of these UPEC genotypes and their food sources.IMPORTANCE Community-acquired urinary tract infection caused by Escherichia coli is one of the most common infectious diseases in the United States, affecting approximately seven million women and costing approximately 11.6 billion dollars annually. In addition, antibiotic resistance among E. coli bacteria causing urinary tract infection continues to increase, which greatly complicates treatment. Identifying sources of uropathogenic E. coli and implementing prevention measures are essential. However, the reservoirs of uropathogenic E. coli have not been well defined. This study demonstrated that poultry sold in retail stores may serve as one possible source of uropathogenic E. coli This finding adds to a growing body of evidence that suggests that urinary tract infection may be a food-borne disease. More research in this area can lead to the development of preventive strategies to control this common and costly infectious disease

    Bacteremia caused by an Acinetobacter junii strain harboring class 1 integron and diverse DNA mobile elements

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    INTRODUCTION: Infections caused by Acinetobacter junii are rarely reported. However, some outbreaks of septicemia in neonates and pediatric oncology patients, as well as meningitis, peritonitis, and ocular infection have been described. Since it is highly infrequent to find the molecular characterization of A. junii strains in literature, in this study we described the molecular characterization of A. junii isolates recovered from blood samples of a renal transplant patient. METHODOLOGY: The case was defined as a catheter-related bacteremia caused by A. junii. The patient responded favorably after catheter removal and treatment with ciprofloxacin. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The complete molecular characterization of the isolate showed that it harbored a class 1 integron and diverse DNA mobile elements. This explains its genomic plasticity for acquiring antimicrobial resistance determinants and for adapting to a nosocomial niche.Fil: Traglia, German Matias. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Oficina de Coordinación Administrativa Houssay. Instituto de Investigaciones en Microbiología y Parasitología Médica. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Medicina. Instituto de Investigaciones en Microbiología y Parasitología Médica; ArgentinaFil: Almuzara, Marisa. Provincia de Buenos Aires. Ministerio de Salud. Hospital Interzonal de Agudos ; Argentina. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas; ArgentinaFil: Vilacoba, Elisabet. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Oficina de Coordinación Administrativa Houssay. Instituto de Investigaciones en Microbiología y Parasitología Médica. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Medicina. Instituto de Investigaciones en Microbiología y Parasitología Médica; ArgentinaFil: Tuduri, Alicia. Provincia de Buenos Aires. Ministerio de Salud. Hospital Interzonal de Agudos ; ArgentinaFil: Neumann, Gabriela. Provincia de Buenos Aires. Ministerio de Salud. Hospital Interzonal de Agudos ; ArgentinaFil: Pallone, Elida Carmen. Provincia de Buenos Aires. Ministerio de Salud. Hospital Interzonal de Agudos ; ArgentinaFil: Centron, Daniela. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Oficina de Coordinación Administrativa Houssay. Instituto de Investigaciones en Microbiología y Parasitología Médica. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Medicina. Instituto de Investigaciones en Microbiología y Parasitología Médica; ArgentinaFil: Ramirez, Maria Soledad. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Oficina de Coordinación Administrativa Houssay. Instituto de Investigaciones en Microbiología y Parasitología Médica. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Medicina. Instituto de Investigaciones en Microbiología y Parasitología Médica; Argentin

    Prediction of Antibiotic Influence by Presence of Some β-lactamase Gene in AcinetobacterInfected Patients Hospitalized in Tehran, Iran

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    Acinetobacter baumannii which is gram-negative rod and infecting hospitalized patient often develops multiple drug resistance patterns and causes serious problem in treatment. The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between this serious problem in treatment and Presence of some β-lactamase genes in the A. baumannii. 100 isolates of Acinetobacter collected from hospitalized patients in Tehran. First their resistance to different antibiotics were determined using disk agar diffusion test then the MICs of all resistant isolates determined by Etest .In the second stage we screened all resistance isolates for β-lactamase gene existence by double-disk synergy test and finally prevalence of β-lactamase encoding genes such as IMP-1,SIM-1,OXA-23,OXA-24 and OXA-58 were determined by PCR. According those tests the most efficient treatment was achieved by Colistin, Gentamicin, and Imipenem. Disk synergy test with 0.1M EDTA determined 23 % of isolates as metalo β-lactamase producers. Prevalence of β- lactamase encoding genes was: 4%, 0%, 38%, 32%, and 1% respectively. According to this study efficient treatment will be influenced by OXA β-lactamase more than the other genes which have been studied. This is the first report of SIM type among MBL-producing A. baumannii in Iran
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